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ZL1DreamEngineYouthfuldreamsbecomearealityTorqueWrenchTechBeintheknowTheSleevingSolutionAnswerstomanyquestionsPROSISPRONEWENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWARECUSTOMTRIPLEDEUCEFORDFLATHEAD.ENGINEBUILDANDPHOTOBYMIKEMAVRIGIAN.ANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONOCTOBER-DECEMBER2014 2OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional4FROMTHEEDITOR6INDUSTRYNEWSWelcometonewAERAmemberscalendarofeventsnewsandviews12ZL1DREAMENGINEByHaroldBettes20TORQUEWRENCHTECHByMikeMavrigian42THEJAGUARAJ-V8ByDaveHagen50MULTIPLELAYERSTEELANDCOMPOSITEHEADGASKETOPTIONSFORLARGERBORECATERPILLARAPPLICATIONSBySteveScott56ECOLOGICALASPECTSOFENGINEBEARINGSByDr.DmitriKopeliovich62MACHINETOOLCHIPSBITSByEdKiebler70MANIFOLDSWITHNITROUSORPOWERADDERSByKeithWilsonwithMikeCaruso74THESLEEVINGSOLUTIONByDavidClinton78PROSISPROBySteveFox80SOCIALMEDIAETIQUETTEByMargaretPage84TECHBULLETINS92ONTHESAMEPAGEEnginebuildingbookreviewsbyAERATechnicalSpecialistMikeCaruso93MARKETPLACECONTENTSEngineProfessionalmagazineISSN1945-7634ispublishedquarterlybyAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERA.Copyright2014AERA.Subscriptionrates70peryearoutsidetheUnitedStates90singlecopy20.Publicationeditorialandbusinessoffice500CoventryLaneSte180CrystalLakeIL60014.Editorial815-526-7600Advertising815-526-7600Circulation815-526-7600.Sendchangeofaddresstotheabove.TheopinionsbeliefsandviewpointsexpressedbythevariousauthorsinthismagazinearethoseoftheindividualauthorsandnotoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationwhichdisclaimsallresponsibilityforthem.VOLUME7NUMBER4PUBLISHERAERA-EngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014815-526-7600815-526-7601faxChairmanoftheBoardSteveSchoebenBloomingtonMNFirstViceChairmanRexCrumptonTulsaOKSecondViceChairmanSteveEdmondsonLouisvilleKYTreasurerRonMcMorrisMapleRidgeBCCANADAPresidentJimRickoffCrystalLakeILEDITORJimRickoffjimaera.orgASSOCIATEEDITORDaveHagendaveaera.orgTECHNICALEDITORSMikeCarusomikeaera.orgSteveFoxsteveaera.orgGaryLewisenginesmsn.comMikeMavrigianmikebirchwoodautomotive.comCONTROLLERMelissaRizzimelissaaera.orgGRAPHICDESIGNMariaBeyerstedtmariamcreative.usADVERTISINGSALESJimRickoffjimaera.orgHalFowlerhalfowlersales.comCIRCULATIONAmandaPotteramandaaera.orgMEMBERSHIPSERVICESKarenTenderingkarenaera.orgINTERNATIONALLIAISONYolandaCarranzayolandaaera.orgCHIEFTECHNOLOGYARCHITECTRichardRooksrichardaera.org1220425674 4OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFHiTeamWhilemostofourreadersarebuildingrebuildingandinstallingenginesorsellingormanufacturingpartsmachinetoolsortoolingwearebuildingrebuildingandmanufacturingnewandcreativeservicestohelpservethisindustry.Severalmonthsagoourboardofdirectorsgaveusdirectiontototallyrebuildourenginespecificationsoftware.SowiththehelpofsomesoftwaredeveloperswedidjustthatandnowhaveafantasticnewprogramnamedPROSISPRO.PROSISPROutilizesthelatestinteractivewebtechnologytohelpyoufindenginespecsfastefficientlyaccuratelyandeasily.ThisnewwebapplicationencompassesallthefeaturesofouroriginalPRO-SISPRO-SISSAandPRO-SISWebprograms.PROSISPROallowsyouthefullfunctionalityofadesktopversionwithafastermoreefficientweb-basedframework.NoneedtodedicateacomputertostorethisinformationPROSISPROallowsyoutoaccessourdatabaseviayourcomputertabletiPadorsmartphone.Nomoreobsoleteoperatingsystemstodealwith.PROSISPROallowsyoutotalcustomizationwhileoperatingofftheweb.AERAprovidesautomaticdailyupdatestokeepyourinformationcompletelycurrentandaccessible247.NotfamiliarwithourenginespecificationsoftwareWellPROSISPROoffersover7000differentOEenginespecificationsfrom150manufacturerscoveringautoheavy-dutyagriculturalindustrialmarineandimportengines.Itcontainsover37000castingnumbers3000AERATechnicalBulletinsstoresyourowncustomenginespecsallowsyoutocustomizeallheaderswithyourlogoandcompanycontactinformationwriteestimatesandworkordersaswellasinvoiceandtrackcustomers.Inadditiontheprogramincludesaneasy-to-useEngineCompressionCalculator.Allofthesefeaturesareavailableforasmallannualuserfeethatmanywouldexpecttopayonamonthlybasis.PleasecheckoutAERATechSpecialistSteveFoxsintroductiontoPROSISPROonpage78ofthisissueandlearnhowtogetstartedwiththisexcitingnewproduct.CreatingvalueformembersiswhatweareallaboutandwehaveanotherexcitingAERAmemberbenefitthatwewouldliketotellyouabout.AERAhasteamedupwithAETCAdvancedEngineeringTechnologyConferencewhichwillbeheldDecember9-102014inIndianapolisIndianaprecedingthePRITradeShow.AERAisaGoldLevelSponsorforthiseventandallAERAmemberswillreceivea50discountfromAETCa50rebatefromAERAonceyouveattendedandFREEadmissiontothePRITradeShow.Thatsa100savingsplusFREEadmissiontoPRIToregisterforthiscovetedtechnicalprogrampleaseemailkarenaera.orgtoreceiveyourspecialAERAdiscountcodeandregistrationinstructions.Membershiptrulydoeshavebenefits.FormoreinformationonwhatanAERAmembershipcandoforyoupleasevisitusatwww.aera.org.AsalwaysgoodprofitablesellingIJimRickoffAERAPresident815-526-7343jimaera.orgAERAMemberBenefits CumminsISB5.924valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1185CylinderHeadComplete.............................1395CrankshaftSteelforged................................895GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................79CumminsISC8.324valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1980CylinderHeadComplete.............................2385CrankshaftSteelforged...............................995GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................95ProudmemberofandsupplierofKMSGBuyingGroupCummins8.3L6C6CT6CTACummins5.9L6B6BT6BTA6BTAACummins3.9L4B4BT4BTACompleteHead995eachBareHead680eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead355eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead350eachORDERLINE1-866-210-9251ACCESSINDUSTRIESCO.ORDERLINE1-866-210-9251E-MAILnewcasting1998gmail.comCUTANDSAVETOFILECylinderBlocksCrankshaftsCamshaftsGM6.5truckvan.......................................1185eaCummins3.94BTOEM....................................950eaCummins5.96BT.............................................995eaCummins8.36CT...........................................1795eaCaterpillar3306DI..........................................2780eaCummins4BT....................................................575eaCummins6CT8.3..............................................780eaCummins6BT5.9..............................................695eaCaterpillar3306.................................................998eaCummins3.9.....................................................158eaCummins5.9.....................................................138eaCummins8.3.....................................................188eaCYLINDERHEADGM6.5TruckVan..................198eaChevy350Vortec......................228eaChrysler318360........................228eaChrysler3.9................................180eaCaterpillar3306PC8N1187......730eaCaterpillar3306DI8N6796.......730eaCaterpillar3406DINEW..........1580eaCaterpillar3406PCNEW.........1580eaCYLINDERHEADCaterpillar3304PCDI...............580eaJeep4.0331..........................375eaFord4.0EarlyLate...................138eaLONGBLOCKCummins5.9OEM..................5980eaCummins3.94BTOEM...........3980eaCummins8.36CTOEM...........6980eaCONNECTINGRODCummins5.93.96BT4BT...........68eaCummins8.36CT.......................86eaGM6.5NEW.................................55eaOILCOOLERCummins3.9................................98eaCummins5.9..............................108eaCummins8.3..............................138eaGASKETKITCummins3.9UpperKitOEM......88setCummins3.9LowerKitOEM.....88setCummins5.9UpperKitOEM......98setCummins5.9LowerKitOEM.....95setCummins8.3UpperKitOEM....128setCummins8.3LowerKitOEM...108setCALLFORCOMPLETEPRICELIST.NEW AERAwelcomesnewmembersACTIVEManleyMotorMachineCenterALQualityEngineMachineShopLitchfieldILREMMachineShopFranklinKYFranksDieselAutomotiveBillingsMTRPMEngineMachineLtdMedinaOHGarciasMachineShopInc.SanSebastianPRCarquestSpartanburgSCJoesMachineShopLLCBoydTXJohnsonsMachineNorfolkVAServiciosdeTorneriaJLBS.A.CiudaddePanamaPANAMATorneriaOtonielSAPanamaPANAMARectificadoraMotoresManaPanamaProv.DePanamaPANAMAASSOCIATEBlumenthalCompaniesOklahomaCityOKTriStateEngineDavenportIAInmemoryofKeithSulprizioKeithAnthonySulprizioownerofUnitedEngineMachineCompanypassedawayonAug.152014.Keithlivedeverydayofhislifetothefullestandcultivatedinnumerableskillsandtalentsalongthewayhewasadrivenathleteandoutdoorsmanacyclistagolferaskierarunnerahunterandacowboyhewasasuccessfulbusinessmanandgiftedinventorandcraftsmanhewasapilotamusicianawoodworkeratraveleraself-taughtstudentofhistoryandlanguageandmostimportantlyafriendtomanyandamandevotedtohisfamily.Hissparkambitionanduniqueviewoftheworldmadehimtrulyexceptionalandensurethathewillneverbeforgotten.KeithissurvivedbyhiswifeJiangHuifourchildrenandfourgrandchildren.ContributionsmaybemadeinhishonortotheJustinCowboyCrisisFund.Instructionsonhowtodonatecanbefoundatwww.justincowboycrisisfund.comdonateKeithAnthonySulprizio.IACLDistributionInc.acquiresassetsofACLBearingCompanyACLDistributionInc.announcestheacquisitionoftheassetsofACLBearingCompanyofTasmaniaAustralia.ACLDistributionofGrandRapidsMichiganisamanufactureranddistributorofenginebearingsfortheautomotiveaftermarket.TheBearingCompanyasupplierofACLDistributionwasamanufacturerofbearingsandotherautomotivecomponentsfortheoriginalequipmentandreplacementmarketsthroughouttheworlduntilenteringreceivershipin2009.TheBearingCompanyistheprimarysourcefortheUScompanysRaceSeriesbrandperformancebearingACLplanstoopenaplantandmanageproductioninTasmaniabytheendoftheyear.Thenewcompanywillfocusexclusivelyonmanufacturingperformancebearingsaswellastraditionalbearingsforcarandlighttruck.TherewillbenoOEMproduction.InannouncingthetransactionTimVehlewaldPresidentandCEOofACLDistributionremarkedTheacquisitionisaseriouseventforACLDistribution.WenowhavecontrolofourdestinyinthattheoutputofthreefactoriesinTasmaniaisatourcommand.WeoverseeproductionandthatallowsustoproduceRaceSeriesbearingsasrequired.ThatwasnotalwaysthesituationsinceourraceseriesorderstookabackseattoOEMneeds.Thatcircumstancefrequentlyresultedindeliverydelaysforusandsubsequentlyforourcustomers.AndwhenyoufactorintherequiredshippingtimefromAustraliatotheUStheproblemcompounded.Frequentlywehadtoair-freightcontainersfromTasmaniatoGrandRapidstomeetdeadlines.Thatsallchangedforusandourcustomers.IMellingDura-Bond2014NationalSalesMeetingaSuccessMellingDura-Bondhostedtheir2014NationalSalesMeetingattheMellingworldheadquartersinJacksonMichiganinJuly.Itwasaresoundingsuccesswithproductlinepresentationsfactorytoursfuturemarketingprogramsandnewproductannouncements.ThemeetingwasattendedbyallofthefactorydirectsalespeopleaswellasallofthefactoryrepresentativesfromtheUSAandCanada.ISterlingBearingOpensEngineProWarehouseinSouthFloridaSterlingBearingInc.anEnginePropartsandshopsuppliesdistributorwithlocationsinKansasCityMinneapolisandNewEnglandhasopenedanewbranchwarehouseinDaniaBeachFLtosupplyenginepartsandshopsuppliestowholesalersandenginebuildersthroughoutSouthFlorida.SterlingBearingwasfoundedin1936inKansasCityMO.UnderPresidentTomWinklerwhojoinedSterlingin1967SterlingfocusesonwholesaledistributionofbrandedenginepartsfrommajorworldmanufacturersandSterlingsownBlockmasterbrandofenginekits.TheSterlingEnginewarehouseinSouthFloridaisthe35thEngineProbricks-and-mortarlocationandwillstockanddistributetheentirelineofEngineProproducts.Formoreinformationgotowww.kcenginepro.com.IIindustrynewscalendarOCTOBER3AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyRoushYatesandMAHLEatNASCARTechnicalInstituteMooresvilleCharlotteNCwww.aera.orgconference-eventsOCTOBER16-17ROTTLEROPENHOUSEKentWAwww.rottlermfg.comopenhouseNOVEMBER1-4BIGRREMATECUSARIOHotelandCasinoLasVegasNVwww.rematec.comusaNOVEMBER4-6AAPEXSHOWAERABooth4480SandsExpoCenterLasVegasNVwww.aapexshow.comNOVEMBER4-7SEMASHOWLasVegasConventionCenterLasVegasNVwww.semashow.comDECEMBER9-1025THANNUALAETCCONFERENCEIndianapolisConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.aetconline.comDECEMBER11-13PRISHOWAERABooth5516IndianapolisConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.performanceracing.com6OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com7 8OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalHotRoddersofTomorrowCompletesSixthSeasonofInspiringYoungAutomotiveEnthusiastsHelpingtoshapethenextgenerationofcarenthusiastsHotRoddersofTomorrowisanonprofitorganizationthathostsEngineChallengesacrossthecountrywherehighschoolteamscompeteagainsteachotherincompleteenginerebuilds.WithitssixthregularseasonundertheirbeltsHotRoddersofTomorrowhasimpactedmorethan3114studentsencouragingtheirautomotivepassionandskill.In201410eventsacrossthecountryfeatured110teamsincludingthreeall-femaleteamsmadeupof770students.TheseteamscompeteduringtheregularseasoninanefforttoreachtheHotRoddersofTomorrowChampionship.InaninauguraldualchampionshipformatqualifyingteamswillfaceoffatoneofthetwotopindustrytradeshowsSEMAorPRI.ThetoptwoteamsfromSEMAwilltakeonthetoptwoteamsfromPRIinthefinaletocrownthe2014EngineChallengeChampion.ZaneClarkSEMAdirectorofeducationbelievesthatthedualchampionshipformatwillbringoutthebestinEngineChallengecompetition.TheHotRoddersofTomorrowEngineChallengeisagreatprogramfueledbytheyoungmenandwomanthatcompeteinitstatedClark.Thedualchampionshipwillbegreatforthecompetition.ThisistheirmomenttheirSuperBowl.ThenewformatofhavingtheSEMAShowchampionscompeteagainatthePRIShowagainsttheirchampswillbeveryexcitingandshowcasethetremendousskillsoftheseyoungbuilderswhileofferingarewardingendtotheirhardworkanddedication.Inordertoqualifyforthedualchampionshipteamsmustperformacompleteenginerebuildinlessthan35minutesincludingpenalties.Morethan29teamshavequalifiedforchampionshipcompetition.Top-qualifyingTeamDeralewasfromForsythCentralHighSchoolinCummingGeorgia.Theycompletedtheirrebuildin19minutesand10secondsattheGeorgiaEventinAtlanta.Justbehindthemat1927TeamFel-ProfromPeachCountyHighSchoolmadetheirqualifyingrunattheCTAExpoinHendersonvilleTennessee.BothoftheseteamshavechosentocompeteatthePRIShowDecember11-13inIndianapolis.TeamProformEastRidgeHighSchoolTeamMorosoThomasCountyCentralHighSchoolandTeamAutometerEasternOklahomaCountyTechCenterroundoutthetopfiveofqualifyingteams.EachoftheseteamswillcompeteattheSEMAShowNovember4-7inLasVegas.OneofthethreefemaleteamsTeamRoyalPurplecompletedtheirrebuildin27minutesand10secondsandalsowillcompeteinthechampionshipattheSEMAShow.Formoreinformationvisitwww.hotroddersoftomorrow.com.IIindustrynewsTECHN1.866.611.1820DRIVENRACINGOIL.COMScanthisQRCodetolearnmoreaboutCarbDefenderandthegrow-ingproblemofEthanolcorrosion.THEPROBLEMEthanolCorrosionInCarburetedVehicles---THESOLUTIONDrivenCarbDefenderFuelAdditive-CarbDefenderisproudlymadeintheUSAandsoldinconvenient6-packcartons70041.EthanolKillsCarbsEthanolCorrosionAttacksCarburetorsEthanolCorrosionIsAMajorProblem.PROTECTYOURENGINEWITHCARBDEFENDEREthanolCorrECTPROosionIsAMajorPrEthanolCorrWENINGEOURoblem.osionIsAMajorPrEFERBDACTHINoblem.RDENEoblemofEthanolcorringpraboutCarbDefenderScanthisQRCodetolearosion.oblemofEthanolcorr-owandthegraboutCarbDefenderenmorScanthisQRCodetolear IindustrynewsAERAcongratulatesthosewhohavecompletedtheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramAsofOctober12014368peoplehaveenrolledintheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramforCylinderHeadandEngineMachinistcertificates.Foracompletelistofgraduatesgotowww.aera.orgaera-universitycertificates.TonjaVernazzapicturedwhileinherthirdandfinalyearoftheDeAnzaCollegeAutomotiveTechnologyMainDayProgramparticipatedintheAERAOnlineTrainingProgrampriortograduatinginJulywithanAssociateDegreeinEngineRepairandMachining.Shewasoneoffivefemalestudentsoutofapproximately75students.InadditionTonjahadalreadypassedseveralASEexamsincludingA4A5A6A7A8andC1.SheisalsoaCaliforniastatelicensedsmoginspector.TheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramwasperfectformebecauseitfollowswhatwearelearningintheclassroomandtheshopTonjasaid.Itwasagreatreinforcement.AlsosinceASEdiscontinuedtheEngineMachinistCertificationSeriesMSeriesthisistheperfectsolutionfordemonstratingtopotentialemployersthatyouhavesuccessfullystudiedandpracticedthefundamentalsofenginerepair.IndividualslikeTonjaleadthewayformanyotherdedicatedenginemachinistsinterestedinprovingwhattheyknow.IfyouwouldliketoaddtoyourresumeofengineexperiencecallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenTenderingore-mailkarenaera.org.Shecanansweryourquestionsandwhenreadyregisteryoutobegintheprogram.Formoreinformationgotowww.aera.orgaera-university.IDontLetYourEnginesFLAT-LINEByUsingAnythingButGenuineMellingOilPumps.MellingwarnsallenginerebuilderstoavoidRiskyOilPumpsfoundinsomeenginekits.TheoilpumpistheHeartoftheengine.DontgambleonaHeartAttack.Withmorethan60yearsofprovenqualityanddurabilityMellingurgesyouandyourcustomerstodemandaNEWHeartGenuineMellingOilPumps2620SaradanDriveJacksonMichigan49204800-635-5464TEL517-787-5304FAXVisitusonlineatwww.melling.comALERT10OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramSeepage91formoreinformationaboutAERAsCylinderHeadandMachinistCertificateProgram.TogetstartedcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenore-mailkarenaera.org.www.aera.orgaera-university EXHIBITDAYSTUESDAYNOVEMBER4FRIDAYNOVEMBER72014EDUCATIONDAYSMONDAYNOVEMBER3FRIDAYNOVEMBER72014LASVEGASCONVENTIONCENTERLASVEGASNVTALKISCHEAP.Registeringforthe2014SEMAShowisinexpensive.REGISTERNOWSEMAshow.comEPRTalkallyouwantTheresnosubstituteforaction.Newproductsnewideasnewwaystoprotthisisnoemptypromise.Nohollowguarantee.ThisistheSEMAShowandthisiswheretheactionis.www.engineprofessional.com11 12OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalAZL1appearsfromtheyouthfuldreamsofa63-year-oldmanBYHAROLDBETTESMaybethisisthewayithappenedandmaybeitisntbutitisastoryworthtelling.Theauthorpresentsthefollowingscenariosoyoucanappreciateabitofhistoryaboutayoungmanandhisyearningforaspecialengine.Thetestdataisreal.Thenameofthedreamerisnotgiveninorderforhimtosimplyenjoyhisdream.Perhapsyoumightevenknowofaguyliketheonedescribed.TheStoryofaDreamEngineBeginsImaginethatyouarean18-year-oldkidstandingatthepartscounterofaChevroletdealershipbuyingpartsforyour1956two-doorhardtop.Youhavemadefairlygoodfriendswiththepartsmanfromyourregulartripstobuypartsforyourcar.YouhaverecentlyregisteredforthedraftasrequiredbylawandthewarinacountryinSoutheastAsiacalledVietnamisacommondiscussionpointwithlotsofguysyourage.Youjustgraduatedhighschoolandwanttogoontocollege.Theyearis1969.ThepartsguyatJackCoyleChevroletinSanBernadinoCaliforniaasksyouifyouhadheardofthenewall-aluminumenginebigblockratmotorbeingbuiltandinstalledinatotalof69CamarosunderCOPOCentralOfficeProductionOrder9560.TheengineconfigurationiscalledtheRPORegularProductionOptionZL1.TheoverallconceptwassupposedlythebrainchildofadragracerfromNewMexiconamedDickHarrellthatwasworkingforFredGibbsChevroletoutofIllinois.ThepartsguyinvitesyouintotheshowroomduringhiscoffeebreaksohecanshowyouthisnewoptionalengineandCamaropackage.YourresponseisonlyWOW.TheshinyCortezSilverCamarowaspricedatanoutlandish7269plusdestinationchargeswhichiswayoutsideyourfinancesbuttheengineiswhatreallydrawsyourattention.Youdecidedthenandthereifthedayevercomesaroundwhereyoucanaffordoneyouwillbuyitandcareforitjustlikeyouhavealwayscaredfortheold56.ThepartsguyexplainsthenewengineindetailandtellsyouthattheyarebuiltattheTonawandaAssemblyPlantinTonawandaNewYorkandeachonetakesoversixteenorseventeenhourstoassemblebyselectedtechniciansinasupercleanroomenvironment.Theenginesareratedat430horsepoweratonly5200RPM.Thepartsguysaidwithawinkandanodthathehadheardfrominsidersthattheywerereallyover500horsepowerandhadaspecialhighperformancecamthatwouldallowover7000RPM.ItmadesensebecausetheZL1DREAMENGINESomeEngineBuildPartsandSpecificationsBoreandStroke4.280x3.76BlockGMPN1237580CrankshaftGMforgingnumber7115HarmonicDamperATIBalanceTolerance-0.5gramConnectingRodsGMpartsjustliketheoriginalZL1unitswith716boronboltsPistonsspecialorderfromJERings116x116x316TotalSealCompressionRatio11.51measuredCylinderheadsGMPN12363408EdelbrockcastingsValveHeadDiameterIntake2.190Exhaust1.880RockerArmsStampedSteelunitsjustliketheoriginalsCamshaftgroundtooriginalZL1specs.560intlift.600exliftbyCraneCamsValveSpringsIskenderianRetainersandKeepersCompCamsGuidePlatesCompCamsPushrodsSmithBros.TimingChainandSprocketsRomacRollmasterIntakeManifoldGMPN3947083InstalledwithfactoryvalleyoilsplashtrayCarburetorHolleyfourbarrel4781CdoublepumperDistributorMSDbillet85551-aspecificimprovementoverthefactoryoriginalIgnitionSystemMSDdynotestedwith7ALwillberunincarwithMSD6Aeitherofwhichisanimprovementovertheoriginaltransistorizedfactoryamplifierof1969.OilPumpMellingM77OilPanFactoryoriginalwithfactorywindagetrayduplicationbuiltintopanFastenersGMandARPasrequiredBearingsKing-rodandmainbearingsCamBearingsCoatedDura-BondcambearingsGasketsFelPro www.engineprofessional.com13allaluminumenginewas427cubicinchesandhadaHolleyfourbarrelcarburetorandaspecialtransistorizedignitionsystem.ThepartsguyclearlysaidtheZL1enginescouldbeboughtindependentlyofanyvehicleandyourmindandheartissettohaveonesomedayeventhoughtheenginewaspricedatalofty4200.Fastforwardthroughalotoflifesotherexperiencesthatoccurredoverthefollowing45yearsandthekidnotonlysurvivedthedraftandVietnamwheretoomanyofhisagedidnot.HewenttocollegeontheVAeducationalassistanceprogramGIBillfromhismilitaryserviceandendedupbuildingaverysuccessfulbusinessbuthehadnotyetfulfilledhisdreamsofowningaZL1engine.Hehasspentmostofhisadultlifetimeprovidingforhisfamilyandemployeesandfoundverylittletimeforhisgearheadthoughts.The56wassoldandreplacedwithmanymorepracticalcarsovertheyears.Theguyisnow63yearsoldandstilldreamsofowningaZL1enginesohefinallystartedtheprocesstowardsolutionbycontactingMarkJonesofVortecProEnginesandMachineinColoradoSpringsColorado.VortecProspecializesinmusclecarenginepackagessotheZL1buildorderwasanaturalselection.GMPerformancePartsInsidethecratewasthebeginningoffulfillmentoflongyearsofadreamengine.Theblockwasboredasmallamountandhonedforafinalboresizeof4.280.Massivesteelbilletmaincapsarenicelyfinishedliketherestofthepartsusedinthisbuild.CoatedDurabondcambearingswerethefirstpiecesinstalledintheblock.MarkJonesbeginstoinstalltheKingmainbearingsineachpositiontocheckforclearance.Theblockmainboreswerestraightandround.INSETCheckingformainbearingclearancewithdialboregage. 14OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalZL1DREAMENGINEBYHAROLDBETTESstartedofferingtheZL1enginepartsagainanddoesitsparttofilltheneedsofgearheadsthathavebowtieemblemsintheirthoughtprocessesandofcourseintheirdreams.TheZL1Break-inandTestSessionsontheDynoThecompletedenginewasplacedonthedynamometerthatisanin-houseinstallationatVortecProforcambreak-inandforenginetestsessions.Thesolidlifterflattappetcamshaftwasbrokeninusinglowseatforcespringsandrunfor30minutesatabove2500RPMwhileunderaslightdynamometerloadof30to50lbs-ftoftorque.Afterthecamshaftandlifterbreak-incyclesthevalvespringswerereplacedwiththeproperspringsforhighRPMrunning.Afterthestrongerspringswereinstalledandthevalvelashwasresettheenginewasrunforabout45minutesatvariousloadsandthrottlesettingsbeforeanytestrunsweredonetocheckforpoweroutput.Adetailedinspectionofthevalvetrainwascontinuoustoverifynoproblemswerelurkingthere.Duringthesebreak-incyclestheignitiontimingwassteadyat30degreesBTDC.Theenginewasshutoffandwhenatanappropriatetemperaturetheheadsandmanifoldfastenerswerecheckedfortorquesettings.Afterbreak-inrunningtotalignitiontimingwassetatbetween35and39degreesBTDC.Initialdynotestrunswereestablishedbetween3500RPMand6000RPMfortimingandjettingbaselines.Bestpowertimingendedupat39degreesBTDC.Thedatashownattheleftwastakenatawatertemperatureof147FandanaverageAFratioof12.51.Accelerationratewas600RPMsec.Thetestswererunwithheadersandusingmufflersaswell.Bestpowertimingwasat39BTDC.Theenginewasnottestedpast6700RPMbutasisobviousonthegraphapeakpowernumberwasnotattainedandtheenginewasstillgoingstrong.ComparisonstoOriginalDynoDataAlthoughoriginalfactorydynosheetsareveryraretocomeacrossafter45yearstheyactuallystilldoexistifoneknowstherightplacetolook.CertainlymanyoftheoriginalengineersthatworkedontheZL1projectarenolongeravailabletotalkto.Sufficientforthisarticleandcomparisonisthefollowingpublisheddatacircafor1968-1969timeframes.ChevroletratedtheZL1engine427cubicinchestobe430Hpat5200RPMsingleHolley850fourbarrelcarburetor.ChevroletEngineeringenginessuppliedtoChaparralRaceCarsinthosedayswereratedat525Hpand540Hpat6000RPMandTheredlineiscorrectedbrakehorsepowerandthebluelineiscorrectedbraketorque.Thisgraphssaresultofanaccelerationtestrunfrom4800RPMto6700RPMat600RPMseconadyno.Thepowerhasnotpeakedonthisengine.ItwillprobablyneverberuntoahigherRPMthanisshownhereafteritisinstalledinitsnewhome.ZL1TestDataRPMSTPTrqSTPPwr4800528.4483.04900524.2489.15000520.3495.35100517.5502.55200514.9509.85300514.1518.85400513.0527.55500511.3535.45600509.6543.45700508.1551.55800505.4558.15900501.7563.56000497.6568.46100493.2572.86200489.0577.26300485.8582.76400481.2586.46500475.0587.96600471.8592.96700465.9594.3TheZL1engineisfinallyonthedynoafter45yearswaitingforthedreamtocometrue.Theheadersareconnectedto3inand3outMagnaflowmufflers. BIMETALACLDistributionInc.GrandRapidsMIaclus.com800-847-5521ACLBearingCompanyofAustraliaisnowanAmericancompany.800-847-5521MIapidsandRrG.ncistributionICLDAom.cacluswww.engineprofessional.com15 16OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalQualityControlledExpansionPlugsSince1921BrassStainlessSteel800-433-64141335WFULLERTONAVEADDISONIL60101630953-1000FAX630953-0174EMAILINFOUSTOOLANDMFG.COMU.S.TOOLANDMFG.CO.ZL1DREAMENGINEBYHAROLDBETTESthoseenginesranwith4Webercarburetorswithacompressionratioof11.01.Asthelargerborealuminumblocks4.44becameavailableforCanAmracingthoseenginesusingthesame4Webercarburetorarrangementwereratedat560Hpat6800RPM.Howeverthatengineconfigurationfor430ciwasusingashortstrokecrankshaftof3.47.AlsothereisalotofconjectureonexactlywhatexhaustsystemthatChevyEngineeringusedonsomeofthosereportedenginetestsbuttheysurelywerentthestandardcastironmanifolds.AccordingtotheGeneralMotorsAutomotiveEngineTestCodeinplaceatthetimeofthebuildingoftheinitialZL1enginestheenginedynotestdataobservedwascorrectedtoconditionsofabarometricpressureof29.92Hgmercuryinletairtemperatureof60degFanddryair.Lateronby1971-1975orsotheEngineTestCodeCommitteechangedthosevaluesto29.00Hg85degFdryair.Thatisjusttoshowthereaderitmakesadifferenceforyoutoknowwherethenumberscomefrom.Unfortunatelylotsoffolksjustdonttaketheextraefforttodothehomeworkandlearnthedifferences.Itmakesagreatdealofdifferencewhenyoumixtheemotionofusinghorsepowerandlegendaryinthesamesentence.AlsoworthwhiletonotewasthatdatafromthoseearlydynotestsshowthefrictionhorsepowerpowerrequiredinternallytoswingaroundthepartsoftheZL1strokeof3.76takingabout190horsepowertorotatetheinternalstuffat6750RPM.Thereareguysoutthereandevensomeoftheminthedynobusinessthattotallydisregardtheelementoffrictionhorsepower.Howeverthefactoryengineersdoandalwayshaveaddressedthefrictionalelementifyoulookatthedatatheyhavecollected.TheprocedureformeasuringfrictiontorqueisalsocoveredintheGMAutomotiveEngineTestCodebutsomefolksignorefactsandcreaterevisionisthistory.AnotherpointtoconsideraboutdynotestingisthatthefactorydynamometertestsweredoneinsteadystateandnotPistonsarespecialorderfromJE.NoticethepressurereliefchannelsalsocalledJenkinsgrooves.PoeticallyfittingasBillJenkinsoriginatedtheirusebackintheday.Firstandsecondringsare116andoilringis316fromTotalSeal. www.engineprofessional.com17THEONLYHEATTABMADEINU.S.A.DONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITATIONSSILVERSEALCENTERMATERIALISCERTIFIEDMADEINTHEU.S.UNDERU.S.STANDARDS.p800-521-2936f800-521-0580silver-seal.comSilverSealProducts19224AllenRd.TrentonMI48183silversealKEEPAMERICAWORKINGPREMIUMHIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPLOW-TEMPDIESELMARINEU.S.PATENT5482000250-255F121-124C250-255F121-124C225-230F107-110C187-192F86-89CFRONTBACKPERSONALIZEDHEATTABSAVAILABLEHEATTABADHESIVEEXCLUSIVEFORMULAMADEINTHEU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHEATTABSPARTHT1MELTINGPOINT250-255F121-124CWecertifythatthematerialsuppliedpursuantorderissuedbyyouandnumberedaslistedaboveconformstoapplicablespecificationsorrequirements.ForCompleteProtectionsilversealBatch100612GeoffreyA.HavensSr.PresidentCertificationofCenterMeltMaterialAMUSTforEngineBuilders-LargeorSmallCourtCasesWonwith100ResultsDONOTRiskYourHardWorkUsingOffShoreImitationsMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGTHEU.S.MADEINEREALENIDONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITHEHEONLENTP.S.UUNDERU.S.THEU.S.TIFIEDERIALIETERMPIEFRMFFHREIMIABMADEINU.TTIONSABMADEINU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPPREMIUM121-124C250-255F121-124C250-255FMARINEDIESELLOW-TEMPHIGH-TEMP121-124C250-255F107-110C225-230F86-89C187-192FFRONTEeeuetratthk.ishatengineotenstarTINGO1-124CaabevidenachaofoftheheatvismpleteWhenanentltorachesthgihece250-255F1INthereabouiFeas.ementrAttachOnEachHeadBothSidesofBlock.lnsotirissuedbcplescabntolipoapmsedpunterialsuptambWeceranouyrdsulipftich100612.0HIGHMEL1TEMPARP80tBMI4818ENTORD.CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKUsingOffShoreImitationsorkWurHardDONOTRiskonwith100ResultsWCourtCasesLargeorSmallAMUSTforEngineBuilders-CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKonwith100ResultsCertificationofCenterMeltMaterial19224AllenSilverSealProductssilver800-521-2936fpsilveVER-EAL.O70TentredisyA.HafreGeo734.479225LSI.WWOCALP734.479.47AXAXF800.521.2936FREEPHONOL8.FALLENTRENTON192vensSr.MI48183entonRd.19224Allen-seal.comsilver800-521-0580800-521-2936favUsingOffShoreImitationsMI48183800-521-0580inaccelerationmodealsocalledtransienttestingasmanyoftodaysdynamometerscando.SohowcanonerelatethatbitofinformationRoughlyspeakingthedifferencebetweenaccelerationtestingandsteadystateisthatinsteadystatethenumberswillbehighervaluesthanthosetakenunderanaccelerationtest.AbouthowmuchdifferenceisthereWellitdependsagreatdealonthestrokeoftheenginesoonecanusethefollowingestimateforcomparisons.At300RPMsecafactorwouldbeapproximately9lb-ftoftorqueperdatapointandat600RPMsecapproximately18lb-ftperdatapoint.HopefullyyouwillrecallthattherelationshipbetweenhorsepowerandtorqueisstatedmathematicallyasHPTxRPM5252.IntheZL1builddynotestdatalistedonecanadd18lb-ftoftorqueateachdatapointaddedinordertoequalanapproximationofsteadystatetestingbecausethetestingwasdoneat600RPMsec.ConsiderthatthisappliestoastrokeShortblockassembled.YoucanseetheflattappetZL1caminstalled.Theblueanodizedaluminumplugsscrewintotheblockandsealwitho-rings.Freshlycutheadswith2.19intakevalveperchedinchamber.Valvejobisdone.Aftercleaningwillbeassembledforfinal.Compressionratiowasmeasuredtobe11.51.Verymoderateintakeportbowlworkwasdone. 18OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalZL1DREAMENGINEBYHAROLDBETTESof3.76sodontgooffandtrytoapplythattojustanydynotestdataoryouwillbemistaken.Usingtheapproximationlistedpreviouslythefollowingarithmeticwouldapplyinordertocompareresultswithfactorysteadystatedynotesting.At5200RPM18514.9532.9andHp532.9x52005252527.6HpAt6000RPM18497.6515.6andHp515.6x60005252589.0HpAt6700RPM18465.9483.9andHp483.9x67005252617.3HpItwouldhavebeenveryinterestingtoseewhatwouldhavebeenthereadingsat7200RPMwhichiswherethecamshaftissupposedlygoodfor.Howeverthisparticularguyjustwantedtofulfillhisdreamandonlyheknowswherethatleads.Maybeaplacenearyou.ThespecialdreamenginewillnotbegoingintoaCamarobutwillinsteadbeinstalledinaveryniceChevellewithanautomatictransmission.Sweetdreamsandwelcomehome.IHaroldBettesisauthorofEngineAirflowandco-authorofDynoTestingandTuning.Hehasbeenamechanicalengineerforover40yearsandhasbeeninvolvedinmotorsportsinonefashionoranotherformorethanhalfacentury.Haroldisarecipientofmanyawardsforhiscontributionsinfurtheringmechanicalengineeringinthemotorsportsindustryandaftermarket.Heisanactiveconsultantontestfacilitiesequipmentandracingengineconfigurationsanddesigns.HeisalsowritinganovelaboutexperiencesinSoutheastAsiaMexicoandTexas.Allpreppedandreadyforthetopsideinstallation. 800-841-5405www.jamisonequipment.comNHedahlshasinCMachines-HedahlsHasItlerCNewRottNestedinthefvHedahlshasinCMachines-HedahlsHasIteoftheirmachineshopbusiness.uturestedinthefCMachines-HedahlsHasIteoftheirmachineshopbusiness.yandSucGarylinderhonecwandHP-7AdiamondokyandSucotaSouthDakMillbankylinderhonewandHP-7AdiamondotaBobHolzerwithhisRottlerSG9MseatandguidemacBobHolzerwithhisRottlerSG9Mseat.hineandguidemacylinderhonecotaSouthDakMillbankylinderhoneotaandguidemac.hineandguidemacpmuCnihcmaeSosodniWnochcuottoedivediuGA-GSreloRsihhtiwutefsehleseiDegraLroenneirfesudnamessgniepoaob-nohnetI.neercslotn.tenretniehtreooppushcetAlNagelwithhisRottlerF79Avy-dutydesignandcutting-edgeesheaturTheF79Aperfor.earsoftwhasboringjobssucheadsandbloccamshaftlineboringegniruyldndahfeawhicAlNagelwithhisRottlerF79A-vy-dutydesignandcutting-edgemsmultipleTheF79Aperforsurfacingsleevinghasboringmainandksheadsandbloc.camshaftlineboringeareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenthedahls.comeareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenthedahls.comeareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipment--54AXELookto54ww.jamisonequipment.com.jamisonequipment.comwww.engineprofessional.com19 20OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTheuseofatorquewrenchallowsustoapplyaspecificamountofrotationalforcetorqueappliedtoaboltornut.Torquewrenchesareavailablethatprovideadjustmentsinformatsincludingounce-inchfoot-poundsft-lborinch-poundsin.lborNewton-metersN.m.Torquewrenchesareavailableinvariousdesignsincludingflex-barstylesometimescalledascaletypedialindicatorstyleandthecommonmicrometerstyleoftenreferredtoasaclickstyleaswellasdigitalstyles.Withregardtotheclicktypemicrometerstylereleasemodelsarealsoavailablethatwillreleaseuponreachingthepresettorquepreventingover-tighteningbutmaynotprovideanaudibleclick.Thereleaseclicktypewrenchisadjustedbymeansofamicrometerscaleonthehandle.Ifthetorquewrenchreleasesmomentarilyandorclicksthisisreferredtoasasignaltype.Theindicatortypereferstothevisualdisplayunitssuchastheflexbarordialindicatorstyle.Newerdigitaltorquewrenchesmayprovideanaudiblebeepsignalwhenthesettinghasbeenreachedandsomemayfeaturebothabeepandavibrationwhentheadjustedlevelhasbeenreached.Thegripvibrationfeatureishelpfulinanoisyshopenvironment.Admittedlythiscanbesomewhatconfusingsincetherearesomanydifferenttypesavailable.MetricscaletorquewrenchesareavailableinNewtonmetersN.mmeterkilogramsmKgandcentimeterkilogramscmKgwithN.mbeingthemorecommonscale.ManytorquewrenchesprovidedualscalesforreadingineitherEnglishormetricformatsforexampleadualscalemayofferbothft-lbandN.m.Torquewrenchesareprecisioninstrumentsandshouldbehandledassuch.Careandstorageofatorquewrenchiscriticalintermsofmaintainingcalibration.Anyadjustabletorquewrenchthecommonlyusedmicrometer-handledclicktypeforexampleshouldbesetatitslowesttorquereadingwhennotinuse.Thisissomethingthatmanytechnicianscommonlyforget.Ifleftstoredatahigh-torquesettingthecalibrationmaybeaffectedoveralongterm.Whenyouredonewiththewrenchreadjustittotheminimumsettingbeforestoringitinthetoolbox.Avoidabusingatorquewrench.Neveruseanytorquewrenchasaprybarorasadisassemblyassemblytool.Atorquewrenchshouldonlybeusedtoachievefinalclampingloadandnotasageneral-dutywrench.Performallofyourwrenchingdutieswithcommonwrenchesandonlyusethetorquewrenchasthefinal-adjustertoreachaspecifictorquelevel.Whenusinganadjustabletorquewrenchbecarefulnottoover-tightenbyapplyingtorquepastthereleaseorsignalpoint.Witharatchetingclicktypetheclickmaynotbeheardatlowtorquesettingsespeciallyinanoisyshop.Itsbesttobecomefamiliarwiththefeelofthereleaseratherthanrelyingonlyonthesoundofaclick.Whenusinganindicatingtypetorquewrenchsuchasaflexbarordialindicatortypetrytoreadtheindicatorwhileviewingitat90-degreestoitssurface.Readingtheindicatoratanoff-anglewillprovideerrorsduetoimproperlineofsight.Mosttorquewrenchesoperateaccuratelyonlywhenheldbythecenteroftheirhandlegrips.DontusecheaterbarstoextendyourgripfurtherawayfromtheMoststudsshouldbeinstalledfingertight.Specifiedclampingforcetorqueisappliedtothenutnotthestud.TorqueWrenchTechBYMIKEMAVRIGIAN www.engineprofessional.com21wrenchheadanddontgrabthehandleclosertothewrenchhead.Onlygripthewrenchbyitsdesignatedgriparea.TORQUEVALUESANDFASTENERCLAMPINGThetorqueappliedtoaboltorstudcreatesclampingforcebystretch-loadingwhichcanbelooselycomparedtothestretchofarubberband.Oncetheundersideoftheboltheadornutmakescontactwiththeparentsurfacetheadditionalrotationoftheboltheadornutcausestheboltshankorstudtobegintostretch.Theobjectiveistoreachtheidealpointwherethisstretchprovidestheneededclampingforcetoproperlysecurethecomponentbeinginstalled.Whentightenedproperlytospecificationthefastenerhasstretchedwithinitsdesignedelasticrange.Whenthefastenerisloosenedtheelasticityallowstheshanktoreturntoitsnormaluninstalledlength.Ifstretchedtoitsyieldpointitcanpermanentlyweaken.Iftheboltorstudretainsnoelasticabilityitcantdoitsjobintermsofprovidingclampingforce.Ifseverelyover-tightenedaboltcanshear.Boltorstuddiametersarebasedontheloadrequiredforcomponentclampingperformance.Thatswhyboltsmaybeusedinonelocationand38boltsinanother.Asmaller-diameterboltrequireslesstorquevaluetoachieveidealclampingloadandalarger-diameterboltrequiresmoretorquevaluetoachieveidealclampingload.Althoughnotaperfectanalogyyoucansomewhatviewthreadedfastenersasfuses.Thediameterisbasedontherequirementforthespecificjobjustastheampratingofafuseisbasedontherequirementforaparticularcircuit.Takingadvantageofathreadedfastenersclampingloadpotentialisntamatterofguesswork.Especiallyforcriticalfastenerssuchasanyinvolvedinthebrakesystemsteeringsystemsuspensionenginetransmissiondifferentialandwheelsallthreadedfastenersmustbetightenedtotheirspecific-applicationtorquevalue.Ifyoudontpayattentiontotorquevaluesitslikebuyingasetofpistonsandstickingthemintocylinderboreswithoutmeasuringoilclearance.Inadditiontoadjustingthesettingandormonitoringthepresetlevelviaaclicklisteningforabeeporwatchingadialconsidertheseadditionalvariables.1.FirstofallisthetorquewrenchaccurateIfitsacheaponeorifitsbeenlyingaroundtheshopforyearsitmaybeoutofcalibration.2.Secondlyisthefastenerbeingtightenedlubricatedproperly3.ThirdistheclampingforcebeingcreatedsuitableforthediameterandtypeofmetalAbout90ofthetorqueappliedduringtighteningisusedtoovercomefriction.Frictionoccursbetweenmatingthreadsandbetweentheundersideoftheboltheadornutandtheparentmaterialoftheobjectbeinginstalled.ExcessWhenfastenerthreadsaretobelubricatedpaycloseattentiontotorquespecificationssincevalueswillvarydependingonthetypeoflubebeingused.Ifspecificationscallforuseofengineoilyoumaytightenthefattenertooexcessivelyisyouchoosetouseamolylube.Bythesametokenifspecscallfortheuseofmolyandyouuseoilyoumayundertighten.TheuseofamolylubesuchasARPsassemblylubricantisrecommendedsincethisreducesfrictionallowingamoreaccuratetorquevalue.Howeveronlyusemolylubeifyouknowtherequiredtorquevaluewiththattypeoflube.Applylubricanttotheboltthreads.Rememberifusingmolytorquespecsformolymustbefollowed.Specificationsforoilversusmolywilldiffer.Alsobesuretoapplylubricanttotheundersideoftheboltheadtoreducefrictionalissuesastheboltheadmatestotheparentsurfaceorwasher. frictioncanoccurifgallingorthreadseizingtakesplace.Thisisespeciallycommonwiththreadedfastenersmadeofalloyssuchasaluminumstainlesssteelandtitanium.Ifanygallingoccurswhat-so-everthiswillmakeyourtorquereadingsinaccuratesincethegallingeffectwilladdsignificantfrictionatthethreadmatingarea.Theendresultisaseverelyunder-tightenedfastener.Severalfactorscanaffectfastenertensionincludingtypeofmaterialmaterialhardnesslubricationorlackthereoffastenerhardnesssurfacefinishplatingthreadfitandtighteningspeed.1.Makesurethethreadsbothmaleandfemaleareclean.2.Makesurethethreadsareingoodconditionandfreeofdeformationorburrs.3.Whennecessaryapplytherequiredlubricanttothethreadsbeforeassemblythismayinvolveengineoilmolybdenum22OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANcontinuedValveSeatStoneHoldersInStockReadytoShipForFlex-DriveHexDriveSplineDrivePickupa70thAnniversaryCatalogatPRIBooth57431-800-533-8010www.goodson.comtwitter.comGoodsonToolsfacebook.comGoodsonToolsAndSuppliesSX-1762SX-HOLDERKW-437031-0300-56031-0300-30031-0300-85031-0300-80031-0300-64Alwayssupporttheheadofthetorquewrenchwithyourotherhandtohelpstabilizethesocketangleatthefastenerhead. RaceSeriesbearingsprovideexceptionalmatingwithperformancecrankjournalssteelandotherwise.Ovaltracksmarinedragstripsoroadstreet.RaceSeriesbearingsmakeagoodshowingwherevermotorsportscompetitiontakesplace.OurbearingshavehadtheirshareofwinningwaysatIHRABonnevilleNASCARFormulaDriftLaCarerraPanamericanaARCAjusttonameafewracevenues.Wedesignandmanufactureperformancemainsandrodsfornumerousimportanddomesticengineswithfoursixoreightcylinders.RaceSeriesAhigherdegreeofjournalisticintegrity.JournalisticCompatibility.aclraceseries.com800-847-5521www.engineprofessional.com23 24OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANdisulphideananti-seizecompoundorananaerobicthreadlockingcompounddependingonthesituation.4.Keepyourtorquewrenchescleanandcalibrated.Dependingontheiramountofuseconsidersendingyourtorquewrenchesoutforrecalibrationonceperyear.Alsostoreyourtorquewrenchesinasafeplace.Donttossthemaroundtheshop.Theyredelicateinstruments.5.WhentighteningwhetherusingacommonhandwrenchoratorquewrenchslowdownTheactionoftighteningquicklycanincreasefrictionandheatatthethreadareawhichcanleadtothreadgalling.Speedytighteningcanalsoleadtoinaccuratetighteningasthetorquewrenchmustovercometheincreasedfriction.6.Whenyoureachthetorquelimityourdesiredtorquevalueapproachthisslowlyandwatchtheneedleorfeelfortheclickorvibrationdependingonthestyleoftorquewrench.Ifyoutightentoofastyoumaypullthewrenchpastthepre-setIFYOURENOTSELLINGENGINEPROPRODUCTSYOUREMISSINGOUTONPROFITSFeaturedProductStockGasketSetswww.goenginepro.comENGINEPROBRANDENGINEPRODUCTSDiscovertheprofit-buildingpowerofEngineProbrandengineIFYEENINETELLINTTNngpowerongnYEandyourcustomergetsmorepricedsoyoumakeaprofitproductsmeetorexceedcompetitorsfeatures.AndtheyrevailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProparts.AcertifiedtoensurethehighestqualityO.E.standardsandareISO90012000AllgasketcomponentsareproducedtottSturedProduceaF.forthemoneyandyourcustomergetsmorepricedsoyoumakeaprofitcertifiedtoensurethehighestqualityO.E.standardsandareISO90012000AllgasketcomponentsareproducedtoetsetSaskockGmengineproessicompetitorseatformance.andlongestperENIPRetsalsoAetSaskormanceGferPformance.RANDENINailablevetsalsoARDUTAvoidusingextra-longextensionswherepossibleasanypotentialtorsionaltwistintheextensionmaypossiblyinfluencetheappliedtorque. www.engineprofessional.com25limitunknowinglyaddingafewmorefoot-poundsoftorque.Theuseofatorquewrenchorothertorquevalueorfastenerstretchmonitoringdeviceisabsolutelynecessaryforanythingenginerelatednotonlycylinderheadsandconnectingrodsbutintakemanifoldscarburetorswaterpumpsoilpumpsrearsealhousingsoilpanstimingcoversvalvecoversexhaustmanifoldsorheaderspowersteeringpumpbracketsetc..Ifyouownatorquewrenchtakethetimetolookupthetorquevalueforthecarburetorfastenersandadheretothespecs.Tighteninganythingontheenginebyfeelismoreoftenthannottherootcauseforannoyingfluidorvacuumleaks.Theskilledenginebuilderassemblerneverguessesaboutanything.Under-tighteningorover-tighteningcananddoesleadtoproblemsrangingfromthemildlyannoyingtothemostsevere.DontguessCHOOSINGTORQUEWRENCHRANGEAlltorquewrenchesarenotuniversallyadaptabletoalljobs.Itsimportanttochooseatorquewrenchthatfeaturesyourtorquevaluerequirementinthemiddleofitsrange.Forinstanceifyouneedtotightenafastenerto100ft-lbsdontuseatorquewrenchmodelthathasanupperrangelimitof100ft-lbs.Insteaduseonethatfeaturesarangeofsay25250ft-lbs.Iftighteningafastenerto50ft-lbsuseatorquewrenchthathasanupperlimitofabout100ft-lbsetc.Generallyspeakingtorquewrenchesperformattheirmostaccuratelevelwhentheapplicationisinthemid-rangeareaofthewrenchscalibrationspectrum.Asaresultyoumayneedmorethanonerangeoftorquewrenchforyourtoolinventorydependingonthetypeofworkthatentersyourshop.Obviouslyyouneedtoachievebothft-lbsandin-lbsreadingswhichrequiresseparatetorquewrenches.Howeverevenwhendealingintheft-lbformatmultipletorquewrenchesshouldbeused.Forinstancewhentorqueingconnectingrodboltsletsuse45ft-lbsasasampleaverageyoushoulduseatorquewrenchthathasamaximumrangeofsay100ft-lbsinordertousethemiddleoftherange.Whentorqueingmaincapboltsletsuse110ft-lbsasoursampleyoushoulduseatorquewrenchthatfeaturesa200or250ft-lbcontinuedAlwaysgripthetorquewrenchatthecenterofthetoolsgripareaonly.Thisprovidesincreasedaccuracy. TORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANmaximumrange.Tosometechniciansthismayseemlikeagreatdealofbotherbutifyouusetorquewrenchesatallthewholepointistoattainaccurateandrepeatableclampingvalues.Ifthatsyourgoalthengotheextramileandmaintainseveraltorquewrencheseachwithadifferentlow-to-highvaluerange.Inthatwayyourecoveredforwhateverjobenterstheshop.Examplesinclude-driveinarangeof5-50inlba-drivein30-200inlba38-drivein10-100ft-lb38-drivein50-250inlba38-drivein100-1000inlba-drivein10-150ft-lbanda-drivein25-250ft-lb.Ifyoualsoperformheavy-dutyengineworkortakeintheoccasionalhuboraxlejobyoumayneeda-drivewrenchin100-600ftlbs.Themoralofthestoryifyouonlyownonetorquewrenchthatyoutrytouseforawidevarietyofworkyouwillnotbeabletoachieveaccurateclampingloadsforalljobs.THEDONTSOFTORQUEWRENCHUSEDontuseatorquewrenchasageneral-servicewrenchtotightenorloosenfastenersorasapry-bar..Useitonlyforachievingfinaltorquevalues.Dontusearatchetingtypeordialtypetorquewrenchtoremovefastenersleft-handoperationcandamagecalibrationunlessthetorquewrenchhasbeenspecificallydesignedforleft-handoperation.Dontimmersethetorquewrenchinsolvent.Functionandcalibrationwillbeaffectediftheinternallubricantsarewashedaway.Dontapplyacheaterbartoatorquewrench.Thiscanoverstressthewrenchandcanleadtoinaccuratetorquereadings.Useofsocketextensionsispermittedaslongastheextensionisnotpositionedatananglethatisdifferentfromthetorquewrenchdrive.Forexampletheuseofauniversaljointcancausethesockettooperateatananglerelativetothedrivewhichwillaffecttheaccuracyofthevaluereading.Useofawobble-typeextensionorU-jointwillcauseinaccuratevaluesifthedrivelineangleisalteredthelinefromthedriveheadtothefastener.Whentighteninganyfastenerstrytoholdthetorquewrenchin-planeasmuchaspossible.Dontpushthewrenchinwardtowardtheworkpieceorpulloutwardawayfromtheworkpieceduringfinaltightening.Anyinwardoutwardpressurewilldramaticallyaffecttheresultingtorquevalue.Neverattempttoadjustatorquewrenchoutsideofitsintendedrange.Forexampleiftherangemaximumis100ft-lbsdonottrytoadjustthewrenchhigherandguesswhatthefinalvaluewouldbe.Forexampleasmidgebeyondthe100ft-lbmarkona100-maxtorquewrenchdoesnotmeanthatyoureachieving105or110ft-lbs.Itonlymeansthatyoureoffinno-manslandplayingoneheckofaguessinggame.USEOFADAPTERSEXTENSIONSAslongastheadaptersocketextensionetc.isin-linewiththetorquewrenchdrivenocompensationisrequired.Howeverifanadapterisusedthateffectivelylengthensthewrenchisusedsuchasacrows-footwrenchacalculationmustbemadeinordertoachievethedesiredtorquevalue.Forthoseoccasionswhenastraightsocketcantbeusedaspecialattachmentmightbeneededsuchasacrowsfoot.Theuseofanoffsetadapterchangesthecalibrationofthetorquewrenchwhichmakesitnecessarytocalculatethecorrecttorquesettings.FollowingisamethodofcalculatingthischangeEEffectivelengthofextensionmeasuredalongthecenterlineofthetorquewrench.LLeverlengthofthewrenchfromcenterofthewrenchdrivetothecenteroftheadaptersgripareaTWTorquesettingonthetorquewrenchTETorqueappliedbytheextensiontothefastenerFORMULASTWLdividedbyLExDESIREDTEwheretheadaptermakesthewrenchlongerOrTWLdividedbyL-ExDESIREDTEwheretheadaptermakesthewrenchshorterIfyouwanttoknowwheretosetthetorquewrenchwhenusinganadapterthatalterstheeffectivelengthofthewrenchyoumustcalculatetocompensatefortheadapter.Ifthedistancefromthewrenchdrivetothecenteroftheboltmakesthewrenchlongerthefinalwrenchsettingmustbeadjustedtoalowervalueinordertocompensate.Ifthedistancefromthewrenchdrivetotheboltcentermakesthewrenchshorterthewrenchmustbesettoahighervalueinordertocompensate.Wherelightertorquevaluesarespecifiedtheuseofaninch-poundtorquewrenchwillprovidemoreaccuracythanusingafoot-poundwrench.26OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com27Letssaythatyouwanttotorqueaboltto40ft-lbsbutyoureusinga2-longwrenchextension.Forthesakeofexamplethelengthofthetorquewrenchis14fromcenterofthehandletocenterofthedrive.Addingthe2wrenchextensionmakesthetotallengthcenterofgriptobolt-engagingwrench16.InthiscaseyouwoulddividethelengthofthetorquewrenchLfromthecenterofthehandletothecenterofthedrivebyLEthenmultiplythatratiobythedesiredvalue.Inthisexampletheformulawouldbeasfollows14dividedby16x400.875x4035.Inthisexamplewherewewanttotightenat40ft-lbusinga2extensionwesetthetorquewrenchat35ft-lb.Noteitsimportanttoorientthewrenchextensionin-linewiththetorquewrenchitselftoachieveastraightshotfromthetorquewrenchbodytotheextension.Ifyouangletheextensionoff-paralleltothetorquewrenchthiswillinaccuratelyaffecttheappliedtorque.Alsonoteifduetorequiredaccessoftheboltthewrenchextensionneedstobeplaced180-degreesstillinlinewiththetorquewrenchbuteffectivelymakingthetotalwrenchreachshorterandwestillwanttoachieve40ft-lbsoftorqueweneedtocompensateforthisshorterdistancemymodifyingourformulaasTWLdividedbyL-EtimesDESIREDTE.Ifourtorquewrenchlengthcenterofgriptocenterofheadis14andourwrenchextensionis2longwiththeextensioneffectivelyreducinggrip-to-boltengagementdistanceandwestillwanttoachieve40ft-lboftorqueournewformulaisasfollows14dividedby14-2x4046.6Sincetheleverageofoursetuphasdecreasedinordertoachieve40ft-lbweadjustourtorquewrenchat46.6ft-lb.Iftheadaptermakesthewrenchlongerwemustback-offonthetorquewrenchsetting.continuedAvoidingtheuseofextensionswherepossiblereducesthechanceoftorsionaltwistthatmightbeencounteredwithalongextension.Keepingthedistancebetweenthetorquewrenchheadandtheboltheadminimizesthispotential. 28OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalSpecializinginUsedRebuiltEngineRebuildingEquipmentFARRISEQUIPMENTSALESisoneofthelargestdealersofusedrebuiltenginerebuildingequipmentintheUnitedStates.WehavebeenblessedtoshipourequipmenttonearlyeverystateintheUSAandtoover40othercountriesaroundtheworld.Weinviteyoutovisitourwebsiteforphotosandpricingwww.farrisequipment.comThephotoswillgiveyouanideaofthequalityofourmachinesandalsoshowyouourfacilitiesandpeople.Warrantyprovidedwitheveryrebuiltmachinewesell.ContactSAMFARRISorDONSTONE3001Interstate27LubbockTX79404E-mailsamfarrisequipment.comBuytheRightpieceattheRightpriceFROMTHERIGHTPEOPLECall800-882-1808fortheFARRISTDEALaroundTORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANIftheadaptermakesthewrenchshorterwemustincreasetheadjustmentonthetorquewrench.TIGHTENINGSTEPSFORCYLINDERHEADSInordertooptimizeyourresultsfollowingarestepstoconsiderPressureshouldbewell-distributedalongthejointbeforesignificantloadingisapplied.Towardsthisenditsrecommendedthatthefirsttighteningstepismadeat20-30ofthefinaldesiredtorquevalue.Thisshouldpreventlocalizeddamageduetoexcessivepressure.Inotherwordsperformthetighteningprocessinmultiplestepsratherthantighteningabolttothefinalvalueinonestep.Eachadditionaltighteningstepshouldguaranteebalancedandprogressiveloadings.Mostapplicationscanbeachievedinthreestepsbutmorestepscanbeusedifyouredealingwithagreatdealofcompression.Ifyouoptforamulti-stepproceduremakesurethatthestepsarenottoocloseAselectionoftorquewrenchesisagoodidea.Shownherearetoptobottoma-drivebeamtypea38-drivemicrometertypeft-lbwitharangeof10-100ft-lba-driveinch-poundanda-driveft-lbwitharangeof20-250ft-lbs. www.engineprofessional.com29toeachother.Staticfrictionismoredifficulttoovercomethandynamicfrictionwhichmeansthatifthestepsaretooclosetoeachotherthewrenchmightclickbeforeevenmovingthenutorbolthead.Inotherwordsdonttrystepsthatareonlyafewft-lbsapart.ALWAYSfollowthetighteningpatternorsequencethatsspecifiedforyourparticularheadsandblock.Ifyoudonthavethespecshandyitisgenerallyacceptedthatcylinderheadfastenerswillbetightenedinaspiralpatternstartingatthecenterandgraduallyworkingoutboard.Asyourelookingatthetopofthecylinderheadvisualizeaspiralpatternthatstartsatoneofthecenterfasteners.Thespiralwillintersecttheoppositerowcenterthenasthespiralwidensindiametereachsuccessivefastenerlocationistightened.ThatmaysoundconfusingatfirstbutifyoutakethetimetostudytheboltholelayoutoftheheadyoullbegintoseewhatImean.SHOULDTORQUE-TO-YIELDBOLTSBEREUSEDThisisanissuethatwillstirdebate.ATTYboltisdesignedtostretchtoapointimmediatelypriortoitsyieldpoint.Onthatbasisitistheoreticallypossibletoreusethem.SomecarmakersclaimthatitsOKtoreuseTTYboltsaspecificnumberoftimes.Howeverthatrecommendationisbasedontheassumptionthateachbolthasbeenproperlytightenedinthepast.SinceyouhavenowayofknowingifaTTYbolthasbeenimproperlytightenedperhapspastitsyieldthesafestcourseofactionistoalwaysusenewTTYboltsineverysingleapplication.ThisrecommendationisalsomadebytheleadinggasketmakersincludingFel-ProandVictor-Reinz.InfactFel-ProhasreleasedanumberoftechbulletinsonthisverysubjectemphasizingtheneedtoreplaceTTYboltsineverycaserefertoFel-Probulletins4522-914774-934904Sand5052-96aswellasPerfectCirclesMachineShopServiceBulletinCH-7.Consideringthecostoftheboltsitsacheapinsurancepolicytoprotectacostlyenginerebuild.continuedIfatorquewrenchislabeledasrighthandonlythisclearlyindicatesthatitshouldneverbeusedforcounterclockwiserotationasinternaldamagecanresultwhihwillaffectcalibration. 30OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANTIGHTENINGTORQUE-TO-YIELDBOLTSWhentighteningaTTYboltyouwillinvariablyhavetomeetbothatorqueandanglepublishedspec.Forinstancetheboltspecmaydictatethattheboltistorquedto45ft.lbs.thentightenedfurtherbydegreesofboltheadrotationletssay45-degrees.Someboltspecsmayaskyoutoreachaninitialtorquefollowedbyseveralstepsofrotation20-degreesfollowedby20-degreesfollowedby10-degreesforexample.Inordertoapplyaspecifiedtorqueobviouslyyoullneedtouseatorquewrenchneedletypeorclicktype.Inordertotightentheboltfurtherbyangleyoullneedananglemeter.Theseareavailableasseparateunitsthatareattachedtothewrench.Theyfeatureindexableneedlesandprovideameansofholdingthemeterbaseinpositionsothatonlyhalfofthemetermoves...eithertheneedleorthemeterscale.Thishold-downmaybeintheformofamechanicalstopbuiltintothemeteroraremotecablesecuredtoaconvenientlocationonthecylinderheadviaaclampormagnet.SomeofthesearejunkandsomeareverygoodLisleCorp.makesonethatIlikeverymuch.Onthegoodsidetheyreveryinexpensivesoyoucanaffordtotryafewoutinordertosettleononeyoulike.PRECISIONINSTRUMENTATIONAnotherandveryhigh-techapproachistouseanelectronictorquewrench.AclassicexampleofthisisSunnenscomputerizedETW-125SensorI.Thisthinkingtorquewrenchisahigh-precisionfastenertighteninginstrumentthatbringslaboratoryaccuracyintotheenginebuildersshop.Tomakealongstoryshortthistoolallowsyoutotightenabolttoitstorque-tensionyieldpointwithoutevenknowingwhatthespecsare.Thewrenchhasfourdifferenttighteningmodesanglecontrolwhereyoucantightentoapre-specifiedanglefromtheinitialsnugtorquetorquecontrolwhereyoucantightentoapre-specifiedtorqueyieldcontrolallowingyoutotightenthefasteneruntilitreachesitstorque-tensionyieldpointanddynamictorqueauditwhichallowsyoutodeterminetheexistingtorqueofatightenedfastener.Theheadofthetoolfeaturesastraingaugeandapotentiometerthatdetectstorqueandanglerespectively.Thebodyofthetoolfeaturesaneasy-to-readdigitaldisplayandfourcontrolknobs.Ajointswitchallowsselectionofhardnormalandsoftjointsettingsjointcharacteristicsofmetaltometalwithcoursethreadmetaltometalwithfinethreadorgasketed.Thistellsthecomputerhowofteninmillisecondstocheckitstorqueanglereferencesitwillcheckmorefrequentlyonthehardsetting.Ananglecontrolswitchallowstheoperatortodial-inthespecificanglerequiredbyspecs.Atorquecontrolswitchallowstheoperatortodial-inatorquevalue.Amodeswitchallowstheoperatortoselectthetighteningmodechoosingbetweendynamictorqueauditingforcheckingexistingbolttorquetorquecontrolyieldcontrolmeasuringactualboltstretchoranglecontrol.Aresetbuttonclearsthememoryandreadiesthetoolforthenexttightening.AseriesofLEDstatuslightsprovideinstantinformationanamberrunlightindicatesthatthetoolisreadytouseanambersnuglightindicatesthatsnugtorquehasbeenreachedwhensetforsnugtorqueasafirststepinachievingatorqueangleprocedureagreenOKlightindicatespropercompletionofatighteningoperationwhenpre-settorqueorangleoryieldisachievedandaredfaultlightindicatesunsuccessfultightening.Abuilt-inbeeperprovidesanothersignaltotheoperator.AcontinuoustonesignalsanOKconditionandabeepingtonesignalsafaultcondition.Thisismorethanaglorifiedtorquewrenchsincethetooliscapableofactuallydeterminingwhereboltyieldtakesplace.Thiseliminatesguesswork.Thetoolwillnotonlyfindthepreciseyieldpointofafastenerbutitwillverifyifafastenerisacceptable.Inotherwordsitllfindbadbolts.Thistooleliminatestheneedtouseaconnectingrodboltlengthgaugeandofferstheopportunitytore-usesomeTTYboltsifyoucanaccuratelyverifythataTTYboltisgoodthenitssafetore-useit.NaturallythoughifyoudonthavethistooltheresnowaytodeterminethissoyourealwaysbetteroffbyusingnewTTYbolts.Theelectronictorquewrenchalsohastheuncannyabilitytodeterminetheexistingtorqueofatightenedboltbyapplyingtighteningforceittakesintoaccounttorqueandboltmovementeliminatingtheneedtobreaktheboltlooseandretighten.ItactuallyauditsthetorqueofafastenerwithouttheneedtoloosenthefastenerAccordingtoSunnenthemosteffectivewayofauditingafastenerstorqueistotightenthefastenerfurtherbyasmallpreciseangleandmeasuretheinstantaneoustorque.Itsallamatterofcomplicatedmathematicalalgorithmsthatmymath-professorfatherwouldeasilycomprehendbutthatIwontpretendtounderstand.Somehowitknowswhichisallthatmatters.AsalaymanonceremarkedwhenaplumberattemptedtoexplainhowthewaterwellWhenaccesslimitstheuseofaconventionalsocketwrenchawrenchextensionprovidestheneededoffsetforboltheadaccess.Thisattachestothetorquewrencheffectivelylengtheningthetool.Thelengthoftheextensionmustbefactoredintothesettingofthetorquewrench.Theexampleshownherefeaturesacenter-to-centerlengthof2inches. www.engineprofessional.com31 TORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANworksIjustwanttoturnonthefaucetandhavewater.Idontwanttoknowwhereitcomesfromwecanremainblissfullyignorantoftheinnerworkingsofthistool.Thebottomlineisthatisdoesthejobanditsveryveryeasytouse.Precisionisntcheapandneitheristhistool.Sinceitgoesforaround5000itobviouslyisntatoolthateveryshopwillpickuponawhim.Howeverforhigh-dollarraceshopsandhigh-volumeproductionshopsthatdependonahighdegreeofaccuracyandrepeatabilityitsapurchasethatmakesagreatdealofsense.AnotherfirmRSTechnologiesoffersanarrayoffastenerverificationequipmentreferredtoasTorque-AngleSignatureAnalysis.Thissophisticatedelectronicequipmentiscompactlaptopsizedandallowyoutomonitorfastenertorqueangleboltelasticityandclampingforce.Aspecialtorquewrenchfittedwithatransducerishard-wiredtothecompactcomputer.Whenaboltistightenedorcheckfortightnessasignaturecurveisdisplayedontheunitsmonitorshowingthetighteningcurveastheboltissnuggeddrawnintoanelasticstateandapproachesyield.ReferencecurvescanbeestablishedsayTTYbolttighteningonMitsubishi3.0cylinderheadboltsforexampletoduplicatebolttighteningormakecomparisons.IsawoneoftheseunitsatthePerfectCirclemachineshopschoolanditwasprettywild.Watchingthemonitoryoucanseeexactlywhattheboltisdoingasithappens.Youcanalsosavetheinformationmakeaprintoutordownloaditontoadisc.RSTechnologiesmakesan32OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalWhenusingawrenchextensionyoumustkeeptheextensionin-linewiththebodyofthetorquewrench.Allowingittobepositionedatanoff-anglewillaffecttheappliedtorque. THELEADERINHEAVY-DUTYTOOLSANDSUPPLIESCALL1-800-527-7604www.regismanufacturing.comREGISMFG.POBox152900DallasTX75315-2900800-527-7604214-421-5171Fax800-535-8414214-565-1704DieselValveGuideDriversRemoversandInstallersApplicationspecificexpandedsizesincludingnewsizesforCumminsISXandDetroit60-series.CalltodaytorequestafreeREGIScatalogYellowMagnumValveSeatWheelsforSiouxandKwik-WayGrindandfinishheavy-dutydieselorhardseatsinjustonestepExtra-longSolidTaperedValveGuidePilotsExpandedsizestocoverDetroitCatandCumminsISX.TS-381TS-382RL-700DAValveSpringCompressorforHeavy-dutyApplicationsLarge11x1312frameincludesRL-22CoffsetjawsandRL-CCrecessedjawsforCatandCummins.RL-DETjawsforDetroitsoldseparately.PowderBlueMagnumValveRefacerWheelsIdealfordieselandtitaniumvalves.K-660DTfits7Sioux.K-760DTfits7Kwik-WayRottler.K-8260DTfits8IDLSunnen.www.engineprofessional.com33 TORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANarrayofthesesystems.Themostcompactistheirmodel960HandHeldTransientRecorderwedidnthaveapriceonthisatthetimeofthiswriting.Grantedthisisntforallshopsbutwewantedtopointoutthatinstrumentationlikethisisavailableforthoseshopsthathaveaninterestinqualifyingtheirfastenertightening.THREADEDFASTENERTIPSTheentireissueofTTYboltsraisesapointthatisbynomeansneworsolelyrelatedtoTTYtechnology.Inanysituationwhereverathreadedfastenerisusedheadswaterpumpsmaincapsintakemanifoldsetc.attentiontodetailwillprovideitsownrewards.Hereareafewremindersthatalthoughseeminglybasicinnaturebearrepeating.Inspectandcleanallboltthreadsbeforeusethisappliestonewandusedbolts.Makesurethreadsarefreeofburrsdirtandrustandarenotdamaged.Lubricatethreadswiththeappropriateoilgreaseorsealerasrequiredfortheapplication.Avoidover-oilingboltthreadssinceanexcessofoilmayseeptothebottomofablondholecausingahydrauliclockastheboltistightened.Thiswillprovideaprematureandcompletelyincorrecttorquereadingandwillpreventthefullclampingforce.Inspecttheundersideoftheboltheadtomakesureitsfreeofburrsdirtorrust.Inspectandcleanallfemaleboltholes.Makesurethreadsarecleanandundamaged.Ifitsablindholemakesurethebottomoftheholeiscleanandfreeofdirtgreaserustmetalparticleswateroilorsolvent.Verifytheboltsapplication.Ifthejobrequiresagrade8dontuseadifferentgrade.Inthecaseofheadboltsifthecorrectpartnumberboltsetisusedyoushouldnthavetoworryaboutthis.Verifyboltlength.Ifitstooshortinadequatethreadengagementwillresultinpotentialfailure.Iftoolongtheboltmaybottomoutinablindholeresultinginpoorclampingforceoritmaypassthroughanopenholetocreateinterferencewithanothermovingpart.IfaTTYboltisspecifiedmakesuretheboltstobeusedareindeedTTY.Ifindoubtdontusethem.Unlesshigh-precisionlabverificationequipmentisavailableforboltinspectionneverre-useTTYbolts.PlayitsafeandusenewTTYbolts.UNDERCUTFASTENERSAnoverloadedfastenerwillalwaysyieldandpotentiallybreakatitssmallestcross-section.Traditionallycoursethreadsaretheweakestlink.Thegoalofastudundercutistoprovideadegreeofrelieftothethreadsbybalancingthestressdistributionalongthelengthofthefastener.Anundercutstudwillelongateslightlymorethanafull-bodiedstudservingasaspring.Asanexamplea3.00undercutstudat10000lbfstretchesbarely0.002morethanafull-bodystud34OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional EXPERIENCE.EXCELLENCE.APASSIONFORYOURBUSINESS.GlobalOEManufacturerComprehensiveCoverageStockPerformanceNO.1SUPPLIEROFTOTALVALVETRAINSOLUTIONS2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.www.elginind.comsaleselginind.comContactYourElginDistributorTodayorCall1-800-323-676412-47www.engineprofessional.com35 36OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalbutthatminuteamountofextrastretchcanbeenoughtosaveastudfromfailing.Anundercutstudelongatesinanintelligentmanner.Asthecylinderheadwarmsandreachesfulltemperatureitexpands.Theundercutstudwillaccommodatethiscylinderheadexpansionprotectingthethreadsfromprematureyield.Thestretchisafunctionofthelengthofthefastenerandthedepthoftheundercut.Thestudsetcanbecalibratedandoptimizedtothespecificgasketloadrequirements.Inotherwordsnosingleundercutspecforallapplications.Theundercutstudsmustbeselectedaccordingtothespecificengineapplication.Asecondbenefitofanundercutcomesintoplaywhenthestudsreduced-diametersectionactsasacalibratedbreakerwhichyieldsataloadthatisdefinedbythediameterofthatundercut.Inafull-bodystudstresswillincreaseasthecylinderheadcontinuestoexpand.Thegasketwillthenreachitscompressionstrengthandmayloseitssealingcapability.Theundercutsectionisprogrammedtoyieldatacertainloadinanefforttosavetheheadgasketfromexcessivecrushing.Ofcoursewhentheundercutisyieldedpartoftheinitialclamploadwillbelostassoonastheheadcools.Alightre-torquingmayberequiredbuttheincreasedplasticityoftheundercutwillalloythestudtohandlereasonablestretchwithoutcreatingproblems.Tremendouselongationisrequiredtobreakanundercutstud.Plusifitdoesbreakthebreakwilloccurintheundercutsectionandnotinthethreads.Thismeansthatyouwontbefacedwiththepainfultaskoftryingtoexorcizeabustedstudthatsnappedflushorbelowthedecksurface.Forhigh-RPMengineapplicationsanundercutstudwillalsohandlefatiguebetterandwillfilterordampendynamicbendingcausedbyharmonicvibrations.SPECIALTORQUEANGLETORQUEWRENCHESThankstoadvancementsintechnologytorquewrenchesarenowavailablethatallowyoutoachievebothtorquevalueandappliedrotationanglewithouttheneedforaseparateanglegauge.TORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANMETRICCONVERSIONS1NewtonMeter0.741ft.lb.1NewtonMeter8.892in.lb.1m.Kg7.25ft.lb.1cm.Kg.870in.lb.1n.Kg9.8NewtonMeter1Meter100centimeters1Meter39.37inches1Meter3.2808feet1Kilogram1000grams1Kilogram2.2046pounds1Newton0.2258poundsENGLISHCONVERSIONS1in.lb.1.15cm.Kg1ft.lb.1.35NewtonMeter1in.oz.28.35in.gram1in.lb.16in.oz.1ft.lb.12in.lb.1foot12inches1pound16ounces1pound453.59gramscontinued www.engineprofessional.com37 OneexampleisSnap-OnsTechangleseriesofwrenches.Featuringsensorelectronicsanddigitalcontrolandreadoutyoucanpresetprogramthetorquevalueyouwantorbothtorquevalueandfinalappliedangledependingonyourneeds.Theelectroniccontrolallowsyoutoalsochoosebetweenin-lbft-lborNmplusangle.Aninternalgyroscopeprovidesthedesiredanglesensing.Hereshowitworksyouprogramthedesiredtorquevalueandtightenthefastener.Whenyoureachtheprogrammedtorquevaluethewrenchbeepsandvibrates.Thenifyouneedadditionalanglerotationyouprogramthedesiredangle.Whenyoucontinuetoapplypressureandreachtheprogrammedanglethewrenchagainbeepsandvibrates.ThePresetanglerangeis5to360degreeswitharesolutionof1degreeandaccuracyof-1degree.Unliketheuseofaseparateanglegaugewhereyoucantratchetwithananglegaugeyoumuststartandcontinuetheanglerotationinasteadyone-directionsweepthistoolallowsyoutoratchetwithoutlosingtheanglememory.PrettycoolTwomodelsarecurrentlyavailableincludingATECH2FR100withatorquerangeof5to100ft-lbandATECH3FR250withatorquerangeof12.5to250ft-lb.RECALIBRATIONAnybusyshopshouldplantohavetheirtorquewrenchesrecalibratedatleastonceeachyear.Inadditionifatorquewrenchhasbeendroppedorbangedontotheflooritshouldberecheckedforcalibration.Thisisaprocedurethatmanyshopsignoreprimarilybecausetheyrenotremindedoftheimportanceofthischeck.Torquewrenchesaredelicateprecisionpiecesandsimilartostringsonaguitartheysimplywillnotremaininperfecttunewithoutcareandroutinemaintenance.Donotassumethatyourtorquewrenchesarealwayscalibratedproperlyjustbecauseyouvebeenusingthemrepeatedlywithnoapparentproblems.Ifcalibrationisawryyoucouldunknowinglybeunderorovertighteningwitheveryuse.Torquewrenchesbyvirtueoftheenvironmentinwhichtheyoperatecanbesubjectedtoagreatdealofwear.Whenusedinanenginerebuildingshopthatlivesandbreathesprecisiontorquevaluesthiswearlevelisatitszenitheveninthebest-intentionedhands.Ifabusedbadlysuchasusingthetorquewrenchasahammeretc.thewrenchcanbeinternallydamagediftheimpactforceissevereenough.Thebottomlinedontbangthetoolaround.Treatitaccordingtowhatitisaprecisioninstrumentthatdeservesrespectandcare.Themostcompellingreasontosendyourtorquewrenchesoutforrecalibrationincludelifecycleandovertorquing.Ifthetorquewrenchisusedonaveryoccasionalbasisbyahobbyistsayfivetimesperyearthewrenchprobablymayonlyrequirerecalibrationeveryfiveyearsorso.Ifhoweverthetorquewrenchisusedonaregularbasisinaprofessionalshoptheoperatingcyclesincreasedramatically.Thinkaboutitifyoutorque32cylinderheadbolts10maincapbolts16connectingrodboltsand16intakemanifoldboltsperenginethatsaminimumof74cyclesofuseperengine.Ifyoutorquethemaincapstwiceonceforalignhoningandonceforassemblytorquetherodcapstwiceonceforreconditioningandonceforassemblythatraisesthenumberoftorquewrenchcyclestoaminimumof100perengine.Thatnumberwillriseevenhigherifyoudealwith4-boltmaincapsandevenhigherifyouperformacompletepre-assemblyinadditiontofinalassembly.Ifyouworkontwoenginesperweekthatmeansthatyourtorquewrenchexperiencessomewhereintheneighborhoodofatleast800cyclespermonthwhichequalsaround9600cyclesperyear.Ifyourebuildagreaternumberofenginesandwhenyouadd-intheothermiscellaneoustorqueingapplicationsoilpumpwaterpumpexhaustmanifoldsrepairingshopequipmentetc.evenasmallshopcaneasilyrunover12000to20000cyclesperyear.Thepointisthatthecalibrationofthetorquewrenchhasafinitelifespan.Theinitialcalibrationsettingwontlastforeverandastheuseofthetorquewrenchincreasesthelifeexpectancyoftheoriginalcalibrationdecreasesproportionately.Whiletherearenostrictguidelinesthatcanbeusedacrosstheboardaroutineofrecalibrationshouldbeestablishedforanyworkingshopstorquewrenches.Ifnotusedproperlycalibrationcanbeaffectedpossiblyresultinginover-torquestretchedcylinderheadboltsorstrippedboltholesintheblocketc.inadequatetorqueoruneventorque.Rememberwhentighteningacylinderheadsfastenersunevenorexcessiveboltstretchcanresultinunevenorinadequateclamping.Thisunevenclampingforcecanleadtocylinderheadwarpagecoolantleakscombustionleaksandevencylinderheadcracking..Torquewrenchmanufacturerscommonlyseedamagedtorquewrenchesthatarereturnedforrepairservicewithbrokenhandles.Thisisaclearindicationthattheseprecisioninstrumentsarenotbeinghandledwiththecarethattheyrequire.Ifexternaldamagesuchasabrokenhandleiscommonitssafetoassumethatitsalsocommonforthetoolstobeusedinappropriatelyaswell.Grantedenginebuildersasaruletreattheirtoolswithamuchhigherlevelof38OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANTheexampleshownabovewiththisSnap-Ondigitaltorquewrenchdisplaysadesiredvalueof75.0ft-lb.Oncethisvalueisapproachedthehandlewillvibrateandabeepwillsound.ThesameSnap-Ondigitalwrenchcanalsobesetforangletighteningpicturedrighteliminatingtheneedtoswitchtoadifferenttooloradapter.Thisparticularmodelcanevenbeusedinratchetingmodewhileintheangleformat. www.engineprofessional.com39 40OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalrespectandcarethanwouldoccurinatireshoporgeneralservicegaragebutintheheatofthedayaccidentscanhappenwhichcanleadtotoolabuse.Whenusinganystyleoftorquewrenchitiscriticaltostopassoonasthedesiredtorquevalueisachieved.Inthecaseofaclicktypetorquewrenchyoumuststopapplyingforcethemomenttheclickisheardfelt.Onaveragethetypicalusertendstostoptoolateachievingperhapsa5-10increaseinappliedtorque.Onacriticalapplicationsuchasengineassemblythiscancreatearealproblem.Forexampleifthespecifiedvalueis110ft-lbsandtheoperatorcontinuallyexceedsthestopsignaltheapplicationcouldexperience121ft-lbsormoreandofteninanunevenformatwhendealingwithmultiplefastenersonthesamecomponent.Itmaynotseemlikemuchofaproblematfirstbutunevenorexcessivetorqueingcanoccurevenwhenatorquewrenchisusedifthetoolisusedimproperly.Whenyouuseaclick-typemicrometerstyletorquewrenchyouredealingwithamechanismthatfeaturesaninternalspring.Thisspringispre-loadedviaascrewadjustmentwhenthewrenchisfirstassembledandcalibrated.Whenyoufeelorheartheclickyoureworkingagainstthespringandacammechanism.Whenyouapplyaselectedleveloftorquethecamover-centersabitasthewrenchispulledtotheselectedvalue.Theheartandsoulofthistypeoftorquewrenchisthespringmechanismandtheamountofpreloadonthespringcanchangeovertime.Ifthedeviceisover-torquedpasttheselectedsettingthisabusesthespringandwilldefinitelycauseanout-of-calibrationproblem.Bythewayafterusinganadjustable-settingtorquewrenchalwaysbackthesettingofftothelowsideinordertoremoveexcessivepre-loadfromtheinternalspring.Thiswillgreatlyextendthelifeofthespring.Makeahabitofbackingtheadjusterdowntoalowsettingbeforeyoustorethetoolinyourboxorcabinet.Everytimeyouclickatorquewrenchthatclickrepresentsonecycleofuse.Alltorquewrenchesprobablyneedtoberecalibratedoratleastre-testedafter5000cyclesalthoughsomemanufacturersrecommendrecalibrationafterasmanyas10000cycles.Granted5000cyclesmayseemlikeanextraordinaryamountbutaswementionedearlierthatlevelofusecaneasilyoccurinlessthansixmonthsuseinamachineshop.Mosttorquewrenchmanufacturersrecommendthattheirproductsshouldberecalibratedatleastonceeachyearundernormaluse.Howevertorquewrenchoperationinabusyenginerebuildingfacilityhardlyqualifiesasnormaluse.Evenifthetorquewrenchisnotexternallydamagedwearcantakeitstollbecauseofmultiplemovinginternalcomponents.Itseasytounderstandhowafewthousandthsofaninchofwearcancausedramaticcalibrationchanges.Anotheraspectoftorquewrenchusethatcanseriouslyaffectcalibrationisbi-directionaluseusingatorquewrenchinacounterclockwisedirectioninadditiontoclockwiserotation.Sometorquewrenchesaredesignedforonedirectiononlyclockwisetighteningandothersaredesignedforbi-directionaluseclockwiseandcounterclockwise.Whenapplyingcounterclockwiseforcethroughatorquewrenchthatwasdesignedforclockwiserotationyourefightingalosingbattlebecauseeverythingisstressedinternallytobiastheclockwiseside.Onceyouforcethetorquewrenchintheoppositedirectionyourmakingitdosomethingitwasntintendedtodo.Thisleft-handapplicationofforcemustovercomethebuilt-inright-handstressmovingitpastneutraltowardstheleft.Calibrationonthelefthandsidecanbeseverelyoutofspecification.Theresultisthatyounotonlypotentiallydamagetheright-handcalibrationbutyoualsoarriveatanunknowntorquevaluewhenapplyingleft-handforce.Ifyourequireleft-handoperationthiscanbespecifiedwhenorderingatorquewrenchorwhenoneisbeingrecalibrated.Ifcalibratedforleft-handpullsthesamewrenchcanalsothenbeusedforrighthandpulls.Ifyourshopperformsleft-handtorquingonafairlyroutinebasisitsbesttodedicatethattorquewrenchasyourleft-handdeviceandlabelitaccordinglyalthoughIdontseethisasacommonrequirementfortheaverageshop.Bythewayifaratchettypetorquewrenchisdamagediftheratchetingmechanismbreaksitisacertaintythatthewrenchisalsooutofcalibrationandmustbeservicedimmediately.Neverattempttorepairanytorquewrenchonyourown.Inallcasesthetoolmustbesenttoaspecialtyserviceshopthewrenchmanufactureroranindependentrepairfacilitythatisapprovedbythemanufacturer.IsrecalibrationrequiredforalltypesoftorquewrenchesTheanswerisaresoundingyes.Regardlessofthedesignbeamtypemicrometer-adjustingclick-releasetypeordialtypetheyallfeaturemovingcomponentsthatcanstressorwearout.Agreatmisconceptionwithregardtotorquewrenchesrelatestotheratchetingfeatureoftheclick-typeversion.SomeuserscommonlybelievethatthetoolisaratchetingwrenchthatalsomeasurestorquevalueAsaresultsomeuserstendtousethetorquewrenchtoinstallaswellasfinal-tightenafastener.Inrealitythetorquewrenchshouldneverbeusedtoinitiallyinstallafastener.Theboltornutshouldbeinstalledtofinger-tightsnugforcewithaconventionalwrenchfixedwrenchorratchetandsocketandfinal-tightenedtovalueusingthetorquewrench.Dontbefooledbytheconvenienceoftheratchetingfeature.Onlyuseatorquewrenchtoperformthefinaltightening.Thiswillhelptosavetheinternalmechanismsandthecalibrationsettingswhichwillgreatlyextendthelifeofthetorquewrench.RECALIBRATIONCOSTWhileservicepricescanvaryanexampleisthepricingchargedbyapopularservicefacilityAngleRepairServiceinBeckleyWestVirginia.Theirtypicalrecalibrationfeeis25.Normalturn-aroundtimeisacustomer-friendly24-48hourswhichmeansthatforapaltry25plusshippingyourtorquewrenchwillbebackinserviceinaheartbeat.Consideringthecostandtimeinvolvedtheresreallynoexcuseforignoringthiscriticalmaintenanceprocedure.Dontwaitforthewrenchtostartexhibitingproblems.Rathersetuparoutineofshippingthewrenchoffforrecalibrationonaregularly-scheduledbasis.ITORQUEWRENCHTECHBYMIKEMAVRIGIANMikeMavrigianhaswrittenthousandsoftechnicalarticlesoverthepast30yearsforavarietyofautomotivepublications.InadditionMikehaswrittenmanybooksforHPBooks.ContacthimatBirchwoodAutomotiveGroupCrestonOH.Call330435-6347ore-mailmikebirchwoodautomotive.com.Websitewww.birchwoodautomotive.com 1.866.893.2382WWW.AETCONLINE.COMGetTheLatestConferenceNewsRegisternowasspaceislimitedto350attendees.The399.95feecoversbothdaysoftheconferencealongwithlunchandadmissiontothePRIShow.Makeplansnowtoattendthecant-misseventof2014.Thisistheonlyconferencethatbringstogethertheleadingexpertsfromalldisciplinesofhighperformanceenginedesigntosharethelatesttechnologytrendsandapplicationtechniques.Missthisoneandyoullspendalifetimetryingtogaintheknowledgethatyouwillreceiveatthe25thAnnualAETCheldthisyearonDecember9th-10thdirectlyprecedingthePRITradeShow.TheONEeventwherethelatestinperformancetechnologyisfreelysharedbytheindustryskeythinkers.EngineBuildersBusinessOwnersPartsManufacturersDesignEngineersMediaMembersRacersWHOATTENDSSeethelatestincutting-edgeenginetechnologyMeetnetworkone-on-onewithtoptalentReviewunfilteredrace-provencasestudiesWHYAdvancedEngineeringTechnologyConference9533kDecember9th-10th2014IndianapolisIndianaPrecedingPRIShowWHEREPlatinumLevelGoldLevelSilverLevelisfreelysharedbytheindustrTheisfreelysharedbytheindustreventwherethelatestinperforONETheskeythinkersyisfreelysharedbytheindustreventwherethelatestinperfor.skeythinkersmancetechnologyeventwherethelatestinperformancetechnologySeethelatesticutting-edgeenginetchnologDecember9h-10h201Meetnetworevewunterone-on-onewithtoptrace-provencasestulenesIndianapPrecedioliIndianagPRIShoGoldLevelCINGTECHNOLOGYSilverLevelSilverLevel 42OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTheJaguarAJ-V8BYDAVEHAGENTheJaguar5.0LSCgasolineengineisaliquidcooledV8unitfeaturingdirectfuelinjectionfouroverheadcamshaftsandfourvalvespercylinderandthefirstdesignsweremadeinthelate1990s.Theseenginesareofferedinseveralversionsandboast500horsepowerasdeliveredtotheshowroomfloor.AllfourcamshaftsincorporateVCTvariablecamshafttiming.Themainstructuralcomponentsoftheengineareallmanufacturedfromaluminumalloy.TheengineisbuiltaroundaverystifflightweightenclosedVdeepskirtcylinderblock.AstructuralwindagetrayisboltedtothebottomofthecylinderblocktofurtherimprovetheblockstiffnessminimizeNVHnoisevibrationandharshnessandhelpreduceoilfoaming.Tofurtherenhancethestiffnessofthelowerenginestructureaheavilyribbedsumpisinstalled.Thesumpalsohelpstoreduceenginenoise.Thecrankshaftismadefromspheroidalgraphitecastironwhichcomparedwithgreycastironhashighermechanicalstrengthductilityandincreasedshockresistance.Theundercutandrolledfilletsalsoimprovestrength.Eightcounter-balanceweightsensurelowvibrationlevelsandthelargecross-drilledmainbearingjournalsaredesignedtocontributetostiffness.Anoilgrooveintheupperhalfofeachmainbearingtransferstheoilintothecrankshaftforlubricationoftheconnectingrodbearings.Athrustwasherisinstalledeachsideofthetophalfofthecentermainbearingtocontrolcrankshaftendplay.Themainbearingsarenumbered1to5startingfromthefrontoftheengine.Therearefivegradesofstandardmainbearingsavailableeachbeingcolorcoded.Journalsizesaremarkedontherearofthecrankshafttoassistoneinselectbearingfittoprovidedesiredminimaloilclearanceofnotlessthan.00087.022mmorgreaterthan.0016.040mm.EngineStructure1.LeftHandCylinderHeadBankB2.CylinderBlock3.WindageTray4.Sump5.RightHandCylinderHeadBankACrankshaftDataLocation1.ConnectingRodJournalClassificationandPaintIdentification2.MainJournalClassification3.DateandTimeCode www.engineprofessional.com43Thecylinderblockisalsocodedtoindicateoneofthepossible19mainhousingboregradings.Adetailedchartisprovidedtohelpselectthepropermainbearingsinconjunctionwiththepossibletwenty-twocrankshaftmainjournaldiametergradings.PISTONSANDCONNECTINGRODSThediameterofeachpistonisgradedandpreciselymatchedtoeachcylinderboretohelpreducenoise.Intheverticalplanethepistonshaveaslightbarrelformwhichhelpstoensureareliableoilfilmismaintainedbetweenthepistonandthecylinderbore.Asolidfilmlubricantcoatingisappliedtobothreactionfacesofthepistontoreducewearandimprovefueleconomy.Athree-ringpiston-sealingsystemisused.ThesteeltopringistreatedwithaPVDphysicalvapordepositionperipheralcoating.PVDisacoatingtechniquewherematerialcanbedepositedwithimprovedpropertiestoensuregoodcylinderborecompatibilityandwearresistance.ANapiercenterringhelpscylinderpressureandoilmanagementwhilethethree-pieceoilcontrollowerringisproducedfromNitridesteel.Thepistonsarecooledwithengineoilfromfourpistoncoolingjetsinstalledunderthevalleyofthecylinderblock.Eachpistoncoolingjetspraysoilontotheundersideofthetwoadjacentpistonsonefromeachcylinderbank.Theconnectingrodsareforgedfromhighstrengthsteel.Thecapisfracture-splitfromtherodtoensureprecisionre-assemblyforbearingshellalignment.CrankshaftInstallation1.CoolantDrainPlug2.TorqueConverterAccessPlug3.DrivePlate4.RearCover5.MainBearingCap6.IdentificationMark7.FrontCover8.FrontPulleyMainBearingSelectionChartConnectingRod1.AlignmentMarks2.ConnectingRod3.Cap4.ConnectingRodBearingsThecorrectalignmentofthecapwiththeconnectingrodisindicatedbymarksonadjacentfacesofthetwocomponents.ConnectingRodandPistonOrientationA.FrontofEngine1.AlignmentMarks2.LeftHandSideBankB3.AlignmentMarks4.RightHandSideAlignmentMarks5.PistonOrientationFrontArrowTheorientationoftheconnectingrodsandpistonsonthecrankshaftaregivenbelowBankA-Thearrowonthepistoncrownmustfacethefrontoftheengineandthecapandconnectingrodalignmentmarksmustfacetherearoftheengine.BankB-Thearrowonthepistoncrownmustfacethefrontoftheengineandthecapandconnectingrodalignmentmarksmustfacethefrontoftheengine. JAGUARAJ-V8BYDAVEHAGENTherearethreegradesoflargeendbearingavailableeachbeingcolorcoded.CYLINDERHEADSThecylinderheadsaremanufacturedingravitydiecastaluminumalloyandareuniqueforeachcylinderbank.Deep-seatedcylinderheadboltsreducedistortionwhilesecuringthecylinderheadstothecylinderblock.Eachcylinderisservedbyfourvalves.Tohelpachievetherequiredgas-flowcharacteristicsthevalvesarearrangedasymmetricallyaroundthecylinderbore.Eachcylinderhasacentrallymountedfuelinjectorandsparkplug.Thecylinderheadgasketisofamulti-layersteelconstruction.JaguarsengineershadalsoconsideredalternativearrangementslikethefivevalveconfigurationusedsosuccessfullybyYamahaontheirhighperformancemotorcycleengines.Norealadvantagecouldbefoundthatwaysoprogresscontinuedwithamoreconventionalfourvalvelayout.Averyefficientandcompactcombustionchamberwasachievedbyclosinguptheanglebetweenthevalvesfromthe47degreesoftheAJ6andAJ16enginestoamoreideal28degreesacceptingtheslightdrawbackthattheheadboltsweresituatedrightunderthecamshaftssotheheadscouldnotbetotallypre-assembled.Anincidentaladvantageofthenarrowervalveangleisthatithelpstokeepthecylinderheadscompactsominimizingtheweightandpackagesizeofthecompletepowerunit.EXHAUSTMANIFOLDThehighSiMosiliconmolybdenumcastironexhaustmanifoldsareuniqueforeachcylinderbank.Eachexhaustmanifoldinstallationincludestwometalgasketsandtwoheatshields.Spacersonthesecuringboltsallowthemanifoldstoexpandandcontractwithchangesoftemperaturewhilemaintainingtheclampingloads.VALVETRAINThelightweightvalvetrainprovidesgoodeconomyandnoiselevelsandischaindrivenfromthecrankshaft.Doubleoverheadcamshaftsoneachcylinderheadoperatethevalves.ForeachcylinderheadaninvertedtoothtimingchaintransfersdrivefromthecrankshafttotheVCTvariablecamshafttimingunitonthefrontofeachcamshaft.Gradedtappetsenablesettingofinletandexhaustvalvelashclearances.Eachtimingchainhasahydraulictensioneroperatedbyengineoilpressure.Thechaintensionersincorporatearatchetmechanismwhichmaintainstensionwhiletheengineisstoppedtoeliminatestart-upnoise.ThechainsarelubricatedRHright-handAbankcylinderheadshownLHleft-handBbankcylinderheadsimilar.5ValveCylinderHeadLayoutTestedandrejectedforJaguarV8Classic4ValveLayoutasusedforJaguarV8NOTELHBbankinstallationshownRHAbankinstallationsimilar.ExhaustManifold1.CylinderHead2.ExhaustManifoldGasket3.HeatShield4.ExhaustManifoldGasket5.ExhaustManifold6.8MountingBolts7.HeatShield8.4MountingBolts9.Spacers8Total44OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalcontinued www.engineprofessional.com45DiscovertheworldofAutomotiveRemanufacturingremanpartsremanequipmentremancomponents40000sqftshowfloorstrongeducationalprogramVisitAmericaslargestautomotiveremanufacturingeventOrganizedbyMediapartnerAlliancepartnerVenueCo-locatedwithREGISTERTODAYwww.bigrrematecusa.comLasVegasNVNovember1-3 46OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalJAGUARAJ-V8BYDAVEHAGENwithengineoilfromjetslocatedatthefrontoftheengineblock.Nylonchainguidescontrolchainmotiononthedriveside.TheVCTsystemvariesthetimingoftheintakeandexhaustcamshaftstodeliveroptimumenginepowerefficiencyandemissions.Thetimingoftheintakecamshaftshasarangeof62degreesofcrankshaftangle.Thetimingoftheexhaustcamshaftshasarangeof50degreesofcrankshaftangle.InthebasetimingpositionTheintakecamshaftsarefullyretarded.Theexhaustcamshaftsarefullyadvanced.ThesystemconsistsofaVCTunitandaVCTsolenoidforeachcamshaft.TheECMenginecontrolmodulecontrolsthesystemusingPWMpulsewidthmodulationsignalstotheVCTsolenoids.Thetorsionalenergygeneratedbythevalvespringsandtheinertiaofthevalvetraincomponentsareusedtooperatethesystem.VariableCamshaftTimingUnitsTheVCTunitschangethepositionofthecamshaftsinrelationtothetimingchains.EachVCTunitisattachedtothecamshaftbythreebolts.Arotorassemblyandareedplateareinstalledinsideasprockethousingwhichconsistsofasprocketanouterplateandaninnerplateheldtogetherbysixscrews.AreluctorringfortheCMPcamshaftpositionsensoracenterplateandabiasValveTrain1.IntakeCamshafts2.ExhaustCamshafts3.InvertedToothTimingChain4.NylonChainGuide5.AuxiliaryChainTensioner6.AuxiliaryDriveChain7.OilPumpDrive8.AuxiliaryDriveCamshaft9.TimingChainTensioner10.TensionerLever11.VCTUnit12.VCTSolenoidsVariableCamshaftTiming1.VCTUnits2.IntakeCamshaftVCTSolenoid3.CamshaftPositionSensor4.ExhaustCamshaftVCTSolenoidVariableCamshaftTimingUnit1.Bolt3Total2.VCTUnit3.Filter4.Camshaft5.InnerPlate6.HousingandSprocket7.RotorAssembly8.ReedPlates9.SpringandLockPin10.Spring3Total11.TipSeal3Total12.Spring2Total13.TipSeal2Total14.Spring15.DowelPin16.BiasSpring17.SnapRing18.ReluctorRing19.CenterPlate20.SnapRing21.Screw6Total22.SpoolValve23.OuterPlateVCTOperatingRanges SPECIALIZINGINREPLACEMENTPARTSFORBENDIXCARRIERCATERPILLARCUMMINSDETROITDIESELHINOISUZUMIDLANDNAVISTARTHERMO-KINGTRANE...yourFriendlyalternativeDieselenginepartsESCOINDUSTRIESINC.TOLLFREE1-800-372-6872FAX951-782-2136SALESESCOUSA.COMWWW.ESCOUSA.COMALLOTHERCOMPANYBRANDPRODUCTANDSERVICENAMESAREUSEDHEREINFORIDENTIFICATIONPURPOSESONLYANDMAYBETHETRADEMARKSSERVICEMARKSORTRADENAMESOFTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.THEREISNOAFFILIATIONORSPONSORSHIPBETWEENTHESECOMPANIESANDESCOUNLESSEXPRESSLYSTATED.CARRIERBENDIXAREPLASPECIALIZINGINTERPILLARCARRIERBENDIXARTSFORCEMENTREPLASPECIALIZINGINTHERMONMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINS-KINGRMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINSTERPILLARTRANE-KINGTHERMOiend...ourTRANE-KINGyalternativeDieselenginepartsyalternative...yourFDieselenginepartsyalternativeED.XPRETHESECOMPBETWEENSPONSORSHIPTHEREISNOTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.OFVICEMARKSORTRADEMARKSSERTHEBEAREUEDHEREINFRIDENTIFIBRANDPROOTHERCOMPALLANDESCOUNLESSANIESTHESECOMPINRAFFILITHEREISNOTRADENAMESVICEMARKSORANDYTIONPURPOSESONLVICENAMESANDSERBRANDPRODUCT 48OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalJAGUARAJ-V8BYDAVEHAGENspringareinstalledatthefrontoftheVCTunit.Theendsofthebiasspringlocateonthecenterplateassemblyandthesprockethousingtogiveaturningmomenttothecamshaftintheadvancedirection.Asnapringlocatesthereluctorringontoasleeveinstalledinthecenteroftherotorassembly.Theoppositeendofthesleevelocatesinaboreinthefrontfaceofthecamshaftwhichcontainsafilter.Aspringandspoolvalveareinstalledintherotorassemblysleeveandretainedbyasnapring.ThespringkeepsthespoolvalveincontactwiththearmatureoftherelatedVCTsolenoid.EachVCTunitissuppliedwithengineoilfromanoilgalleryinthecylinderheadthroughthecamshaftfrontbearingcapandaboreinthecenterofthecamshaft.VariableCamshaftTimingSolenoidsTheVCTsolenoidscontrolthepositionofthespoolvalvesintheVCTunits.TheVCTsolenoidsareinstalledinthefrontuppertimingcoversimmediatelyinfrontoftheirrelatedVCTunits.EachVCTsolenoidissecuredwithtwoscrewsandsealedwithanO-ring.Atwopinelectricalconnectorprovidestheinterfacewiththeengineharness.EachVCTsolenoidincorporatesaspindlethatactsonthespoolvalveintherelatedVCTunittoadvanceandretardthecamshafttiming.TheVCTsolenoidsoperateindependentlyandarecontrolledbyaPWMsignalfromtheECMenginecontrolmodule.VariableCamshaftTimingBasicOperationWhentheengineisrunningthecompressionandexpansionofthevalvespringscausesmomentaryincreasesanddecreasesinthetorqueactingonthecamshafts.ThesemomentarychangesoftorquearesensedintheVCTvariablecamshafttimingunitsandusedtochangethecamshafttiming.LUBRICATIONSYSTEMTheoilpumpisattachedtotheundersideofthewindagetray.Theinputshaftoftheoilpumpisdrivenfromthefrontofthecrankshaftbytheauxiliarychainat0.87enginespeed.Theoilpumpdrawsoilfromthesumpthroughacentrallymountedpick-uppipe.Theoilispressurizedandpumpedthroughanoutputtubetothecylinderblock.Afterpassingthroughananti-drainvalveandaplatetypeoilcoolertheoilisfilteredbyareplaceablecartridgeinstalledonthefrontoftheRHright-handcylinderhead.Theoutputfromtheoilfilterisdistributedthroughoilgalleriesinthecylinderheadsandcylinderblock.Allmovingpartsarelubricatedbypressureorsplashoil.PressurizedoilisalsoprovidedfortheVCTvariablecamshafttimingsystemthetimingchaintensionersthepistoncoolingjetsandthetimingchainlubricationjets.Theoilreturnstotheoilpanundergravity.Largedrainholesthroughthecylinderheadsandcylinderblockensuretherapidreturnoftheoiltothesump.SystemreplenishmentisthroughtheoilfillercapontheLHleft-handcylinderheadcover.Anoilevacuationtubeisinstalledtoallowoiltobedrawnfromthesump.Theupperendoftheoilevacuationtubeislocatedundertheoilfillercap.AnoildrainplugisinstalledintheRHright-handsideofthesump.OilLevelMonitoringOilLevelandTemperatureSensorSystemsOillevelmonitoringisprovidedbyanoillevelandtemperaturesensorthatmeasurestheoillevelinthesump.Theoillevelcanbedisplayedinthemessagecenteroftheinstrumentcluster.TheoillevelandtemperaturesensorsuppliestheECMenginecontrolmodulewithasignalcontainingthelevelandtemperatureoftheoilinthesump.Theoillevelandtemperaturesensorissecuredtothebottomofthesumpwiththreescrewsandsealedwithagasket.Theoillevelandtemperaturesensorsendsanultrasonicpulseverticallyupwardandmeasuresthetimetakenforthepulsetobereflectedbackfromthetopsurfaceoftheoil.Thistimeiscomparedwiththetimetakenforanultrasonicpulsetotravelareferencedistancewithintheoillevelandtemperaturesensortodeterminetheoillevel.TheoillevelreadingiscombinedwiththeoiltemperaturereadingandtransmittedinaPWMpulsewidthmodulationsignaltotheECMenginecontrolmodule.Unusualsignalswillautomaticallyshuttheenginedownorpreventitfromstarting.IAERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenhasover41yearsofexperienceinourindustry.AsanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistDavespecializedincylinderheadworkandcompleteengineassemblyforthefirst17yearsofhiscareer.LubricationSystem1.OilPumpOutletTube2.Anti-DrainValve3.OilCooler4.OilFilter5.PistonCoolingJets4Total6.TimingChainLubeJet2Total7.OilEvacuationTube8.OilPump9.OilPick-upTube10.OilTemperatureandLevelSensor www.engineprofessional.com49 50OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalMultipleLayerSteelMLSheadgasketshavebeenusedincombustionenginesforyearsandarecommoninsomeofthesmallerCaterpillardieselengines.TheC13isoneofthelargerboreenginesthatwasoriginallyreleasedwithMLSheadgasketsbutoptionalcompositeheadgasketsareavailable.ThereisalsoanoptionalMLSgasketthatcanbeusedtoreplacethecom-positeheadgasketsforthemuchlarger3500seriesCaterpillarengines.UseoftheMLSgasketintheselargerboreengineshasraisedsomequestionsandthereissomeamountofconfusionregardingspeci-ficationsinstallationofthetwodiffer-entgasketdesignsforthe3500seriesengines.WhereasthestandardinstallationprocedureandspecificationsarecorrectforeitherdesignheadgasketfortheC13Catapplications.MLSgasketstypicallyhave3to7lay-ersofsteel.Thelayersmayvaryinthick-nessandtheouterlayersareusuallyembossedspringsteelwhichcreatesaspringaffectthatretainsapositivesealagainstheadliftandmovement.Otherfea-turesmayincludebeadingsandcoatingstoimprovesealability.ForanMLSgaskettosealthesealingsurfacescylinderblockspacerplate-ifequippedcylinderheadmustbewithinspecificationsandtheyrequiresmoothersurfacefinishes.Theydonotdowellwithroughsurfacefinishesorquestionablesur-faceprofiles.ThismakesMLSgasketsfarlessforgivingthantraditionalcompositetypegaskets.Thelargermachinespecialistswevetalkedwithrecommend40Raorsmootherfortheseengineswithcastironblocksandheads.40RaissmootherthansomeoftheOEpublishedspecsbutworkswellforeitherdesigngasket.Onenginesthatuseaspacerplatebetweenthecylinderblockandheadtheconditionofthespacerplateisjustasimportant.Smallerboreenginestendtohavepar-entborecylinderblocksthatdonothavereplaceableliners.Theyrequireboringofthecylindersorinstallingmachinesleevestocorrectcylinderwallwearordamageandaremoreoftencompletelydisassem-bledandmachined.Largerboreengineshavereplaceablelinersandmanytimesmayberepairedorrebuiltonsitewithouttheblockbeingresurfaced.ThisbringsupthequestionofwhetherornottheMLSgasketwillsealcompletelyastheengineagesandifthecompositegasketisbettersuitedforthelargerboreapplications.TheMLSgasketsmayalsohavedifficultyseal-ingblocksthathavebeenrepairedwithMultipleLayerSteelandCompositeHeadGasketOptionsforLargerBoreCaterpillarApplicationsBYSTEVESCOTT MLSANDCOMPOSITEHEADGASKETOPTIONSBYSTEVESCOTTlinerinserts.Thusdependingonthecir-cumstancesthecompositedesignedgasketmaybeabetteroption.ThereleaseoftheMLSheadgasketforthe3500seriesCatenginesalsoincludedanewspacerplateachangetothelinerprotrusionspecificationaswellasanewtorqueprocedureandsequencethespacerplategasketisthesame.Originallytheserviceinformationnotedthatthenewheadgasket3628264hadtobeusedwiththenewspacerplate3629677.Thathasbeenrevisedandanycombinationofnew3629677orold1106994alu-minumor2603904steelspacerplatescanbeusedwithnewMLS3628264oroldComposite1106991headgasketsbutthedifferentlinerprotrusionandtorqueproceduresarestillrequired.ThelinerprotrusionfortheMLSgas-ketis.003-.006nomatterwhichspacerplateisused.Thelinerprotrusionforthecompositegasketis.002-.008nomatterwhichspacerplateisused.AMultipleLayerSteelMLSHeadGasketispicturedtopandaCompositeHeadGasketisshownbeneathit.3200ArrowheadDriveCarsonCityNV89706TEL800227-8360FAX775883-9497Visitusonlineatwww.dura-bondbearing.comKILLERBEEValveSeatLineQualityCamshaftBearingsSince1947VALVESEATTECHNOLOGYHASCHANGEDApplicationPartActualODIDIDTopTaperDepthSeatAngleApplicationysler4.0LChrysler4.0LChr1.19972419CExhaustysler4.0L1.47272420Intakeysler4.0LPartApplication45.3221.0760.96045.3101.3721.250neGeneralMotors6.2LLS3GeneralMotors6.2LLS3ysler5.7LEagleChrysler5.7LEagleChrysler4.7LCorsairChrysler4.7LCorsairChr1.63272444CExhaustGeneralMotors6.2LLS32.19472443CIntakeGeneralMotors6.2LLS31.60272432CExhaustysler5.7LEagle2.18672431Intakeysler5.7LEagle1.50272405CExhaustysler4.7LCorsair2.00172401Intakeysler4.7LCorsair45.4131.34045.4131.90053.7.2761.5041.32253.2.3382.0071.82057.8.2551.4081.21949.2641.9061.73052OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com53 54OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalThetorquesequenceandprocedureforthetwogasketsisshownbelow.Eachstepinthetighteningprocessmustbefollowed.Attemptingtoskipshortenorincreaseanyofthesestepswillplaceexcessiveloadonthelinerflangeaswellasthefirstbolttightened.Asthecylinderheadistight-enedthereisconstantcreepormovementtakingplace.Thetorquesequenceandproceduremustbefollowedcorrectlytoassurethecrushisproperlycontrolled.Beyondthetwogasketdesignsdis-cussedaboveyoumightalsowanttocon-siderthealuminumvs.steelspacerplatesthatmaybeavailable.Mostindustrialengineshavecastironcylinderblocksandheadsourexperiencehasproventhatthesteelspacer-platehasmoreconsistentthermalexpansionwiththosecastingsthanthealuminumplatesandaresuperioroverthealuminumplatesindurabilityandreusability.Anotherareaofimportanceistheinstallationhardwaresuchasthecylinderheadbolts.WhileyoumayfindreusabilityguidesforcriticalhardwarelikecylinderheadboltsweareseeingmoreOEpubli-cationsthatrequireheadboltstobereplacedmoreoftenthaninthepast.Somerecommendoneuseonlyforthecylinderheadboltsandthe3500seriesCatappli-cationshaveamaximumof5usesaslongasthereusecriteriaismet.Theinformationpartsnumbersandspecificationsinthisarticlearethelatestavailabletousatthetimeofthepublica-tion.RefertothelatestOEservicebul-letinsandguidesforadditionalupdates.IMLSANDCOMPOSITEHEADGASKETOPTIONSBYSTEVESCOTTMLSHeadGasketSequenceaTightenbolts1through8to224lbftbTightenbolts1through8to7511lbftcTightenbolts1through8to33011lbftdLoosenbolts1through8anangleof905degreeseTightenbolts1through8to36011lbftfTightenbolts9and10to407lbftCompositeHeadGasketSequenceaTightenbolts1through8to224lbftbTightenbolts1through8to14811lbftcTightenbolts1through8a2ndtimeto14811lbftdTightenbolts1through8anadditional180degreeseTightenbolts9and10to407lbftSteveScottjoinedtheservicedepartmentatIPDin1982workingwithpartsserviceandsalesforavarietyofequipmentdieselandnaturalgasengines.Since2004hehasbeenthedirectorofproductdevelopmentandtechnicalsupportforIPD.Formoreinformationemailsscottipdparts.com. www.engineprofessional.com55 56OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalNationalgovernmentsofindustrializedcountrieshavebecomeincreasinglyconcernedwiththeenvironmentalimpactofpollutantsemittedbymotorvehicleexhaustandthehazardouscompoundsthathavebeenusedinsomevehiclecomponents.Vehicleexhaustemissionsisseenasagrowingprobleminlargecitiestheworldover.Theglobalaspectofecologicalproblemshasmotivatedmanycountriestocooperateandcoordinatetheireffortstoreducetheamountofenvironmentalpollution.Manyhaveinitiatedecologicalmonitoringandimplementedrestrictionsandrequirementswiththepurposeofcontrollingandreducingmotorvehicleemissions.Thisarticlewilldiscussnumerousaspectsofenginebearingmaterialsanddesignandhowtheseareassociatedwiththemodernecologicalrequirementsofmodernengineperformance.LowViscosityOilsAnenginebearingisasleevetypeslidingdevicesupportingthecrankshaftandenablingitsrotationalmovement.Enginebearingsgenerallyworkinhydrodynamicregimesoffriction.Thisrequiresthepresenceofacontinuouslubricantfilmseparatingthebearingandjournalsurfaces.Hydrodynamiclubricationischaracterizedbyrelativelylowcoefficientsoffriction.Howeverpowerlossescausedbythefrictionforcethatisgeneratedbythelubricantbeingsqueezedbetweenthejournalandthebearingmayreachsignificantvalues.Thefactorsaffectingthevalueofthecoefficientofhydrodynamicfrictionareoilviscosityrotationspeedandoilclearance.Oilswithalowerviscosityindexproducelowerfriction.Theyimproveengineefficiencyfueleconomyandreduceexhaustgasemissions.TheeffectofoilviscosityonpowerlossinabearingisshowninFigure1.TheresultswereobtainedbyKingsENSIMcalculationsoftware.Thechangefrom10w60oiltolowviscosity0w20resultsina40reductionofpowerlossinthebearing.Inadditiontofrictionreductionlowviscosityoilsclinglesstotheconnectingrodsurfacethusreducingeffectiverodweight.Sinceconnectingrodsperformacceleratingreciprocatingmovementthepowerrequiredfortheinertiaforcesisproportionaltotherodweight.Withlessoiladheringtotherodsurfaceslesspowerisrequiredfortheirmovement.Inspiteoftheclearadvantagesoflowviscosityoilstheycannotbeusedinallexistingengines.Useoflightweightoilsrequiresamuchlowerbearing-to-journaloilclearance.Thegreaterresistancefrictionofhigherviscosityoilshelpstogenerateastablehydrodynamicforce.Itisthisforcethatkeepsapartthesurfacesofthebearingandthejournalatrelativelylargeoilclearances.Inordertoobtainstablehydrodynamiclubricationwithlowviscosityoilsmuchloweroilclearancesarerequired.Themainparameterreflectingstabilityofhydrodynamiclubricationisminimumoilfilmthickness.Theeffectofoilviscosityonmin.oilfilmthicknessinaconnectingrodbearingofahighperformancehighlyloadedengineisshowninFigure2bearingdiameter2oilclearance0.002below.AsseeninFigure2thevalueofminimumoilfilmthicknessmaydroptocriticallevelsatlowrotationspeedsparticularlyinhighloadhighperformanceengines.EcologicalAspectsofEngineBearingsBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICH1Figure1.Powerlossesinaconnectingrodbearing.Figure2.Minimumoilfilmthicknessinoilswithvariousviscosities.2continued SUPERIORLoadCapacityPerformanceNEWAdvancedFeatures24StrongerOverlayAchieving18.1HV17GreaterFatigueResistanceUniqueGeometricDesignMaximizesSurfaceLoadAreaBullsEyeWallToleranceEnsuresPerfectOilClearanceinEverySetFormoreabouttheNEWFeaturesofKingXPHPvisitwww.KingRaceBearings.com1-800-772-3670PerfectclearanceineverysetBullsEyeToleranceImprovedoilingressElliptiXGreaterloadsurfaceU-GrooveSuperiorloadcapacitypMaxBlackwww.engineprofessional.com57 58OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalTheeffectofthevalueofoilclearanceonminimumoilfilmthicknessinaconnectingrodbearingofamediumloadpassengercarengineisshowninFigure3.Alowviscosityoiliscapableofmaintainingstablehydrodynamiclubricationbetweenthebearingsandcrankjournalswithrelativelylowoilclearancebelow0.0025.Thickoilhoweverworksbetterwithclearancesexceeding0.0025.ZDDPZDDPZincdialkyldithiophosphateisananti-wearandanti-seizureadditivethatpreventsdirectmetal-to-metalcontactbetweenthepartswhentheoilfilmisbrokendown.Theuseofanti-wearadditivesresultsinlongermachinelifeduetohigherwearresistanceandbetterscoreresistanceofthecomponents.Themechanismofanti-wearadditivestheadditivereactswiththecomponentsmetalsurfaceformingaverythinsolidfilmwhichmayslideoverthefrictionsurface.ZDDPisthemosteffectiveinpreventingseizureandreducingwearofcamlobesbucketsandfollowerswhichexperiencemetal-to-metalcontactintheiroperation.Howeverinmodernhighlyloadedenginesworkingwithlowviscosityoilsmineralandsynthetictheconditionofintermittentmetal-to-metalcontactbetweenthebearingandjournalsurfacesiscommon.ThereforeapresenceofZDDPintheoilhelpstoprolongthebearinglifeandreducewearcausedbymicro-seizurebetweentherubbingsurfaces.TheminimumcontentofZDDPprovidingasufficientlevelofanti-wearpropertiesisequivalenttotheconcentrationofzinc1.21200ppm.ECOLOGICALASPECTSOFENGINEBEARINGSBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICH3Figure3.Minimumoilfilmthicknessatvariousoilclearancescontinued VisitusatAAPEXBooth4419andPRIBooth612 UnfortunatelytheuseofZDDPhasastrongimpactontheenvironmentZDDPistoxictohumansandaquaticwildlifeZincandphosphatesclogcatalyticconverterscompromisingtheirabilitytoreducetoxicpollutantsinexhaustgasForthelast40yearsgovernmentshaveimposedenvironmentalrestrictionsonthemaximumlevelofZDDPinmotoroils.Modernpassengercarenginesaredesignedtooperatewithoilscontaining0.8800ppmofzincorevenlessZDDPcontentinoilsforahighperformanceengineiscommonlynotreduced.Lowervalvespringpressuresandthesubstitutionofrollerliftersforflattappetliftershavereducedthepressureofthemetal-to-metalcontactinthevalvemechanism.DespitethefactthatenginebearingsarelesssensitivethanvalvepartstothecontentofZDDPthecombinationofhigherspecificloadsappliedtothebearingsloweroilviscosityandlowerZDDPcontentresultsinfrequentbreakingofthehydrodynamiclubricationregime.Bearingsinmodernenginesmayexperiencemetal-to-metalcontactmuchmorefrequentlythaninclassicolderengines.Inordertopreventseizureandreducewearofabearingmaterialtheoilshouldhaveenhancedanti-frictionproperties.Thismaybeachievedbyincorporatingsolidlubricantsintothebearingmaterialstructure.KingEngineBearingshasdevelopedSVbearingsmadeofastrongintermediatecopperalloyandahighstrengthmetallicoverlaycontainingdispersedparticlesofasolidlubricant.TheSVoverlayhasnotonlyextremelyhighfatiguestrengthofupto17400psi120MPabutisalsowearandseizureresistant.Thematerialisusedinhighloadhighperformanceandpassengercarengines.Anevenmoresignificanteffectofenhancinganti-frictionpropertieswasobtainedwithbearingshavinganadditionalpolymercoatingcontainingasolidlubricantsuchasmolybdenumdisulfidePTFEorgraphite.DieselEnginesDieselengineshaveconsiderableadvantagesovergasolineengineswithregardtoenvironmentalpollution.Dieselfuelproduces11moreenergythanthesamevolumeofgasolinefuel.Additionallydieselenginesoperateatcylinderpressurestwicethatofgasolineengines.Thereforetheefficiencyofdieselenginesishigher.Thetotaladvantageofdieselenginefuelefficiencyisabout40greaterthangasolineengines.Alsodieselslowerfuelconsumptionresultsinlowerexhaustgasemissions.Thechemicalcompositionofdieselgasemissionisdifferentfromthatofgasoline.DieselexhaustgasescontainmuchlessCOcarbonmonoxidebutmorenitrogenoxides.ThecontentofcarbondioxideCO2greenhousegasislowerindieselemissions.Themostpollutantladenemissionisproducedbycoldengines.Theadvantagegoestodieselenginesherebecausetheywarmupfasterthangasolineengines.Thusdieselenginesareamoreecologicalengineandtheirpopularityisincreasing.InEuropemorethanhalfoftotalpassengervehiclesalesaredieselpowered.IntheUSAgasolinepoweredcarsarestillmorepopularbutsalesofdieselenginecarsaregrowingeveryyear.Thebetterfuelefficiencyofdieselenginesisduemostlytotheirhighercompressionratio.Itisabout201incontrasttogasolineengineswithabout101.Highercompressiontogetherwithagreaterenergyoutputandturbochargingleadtomuchhighercylinderpressurestheycanreach200-230baror2940-3380psi.Theloadproducedbythepressureistransmittedbytheconnectingrodtotheupperpartoftheconnectingrodbearing.Inmoderndieselenginesthespecificloadappliedtotherodbearingisabout15000psi100MPa.Mostenginebearingmaterialshavefatiguestrengthbelow15000psi.Thereforetheyarenotcapableofwithstandingsuchhighloads.Tri-metalsputterbearingswithanoverlaycomposedofanaluminum-tinalloydepositedbyphysicalvapordepositionPVDweredevelopedforhighloaddieselengines.AsacosteffectivealternativetothesputterbearingKinghasdevelopedtri-metalSVmaterialhavingaloadcapacitysimilartothatofsputterbearings.Start-stopandHybridEnginesInstart-stopenginesidlingtimeisreducedduetotheautomaticshutdownoftheenginewhenthecarstops.Theenginerestartswhenthebrakeisreleasedortheclutchisdepressedforselectingagear.Thestart-stopsystemsavesfuelwhenthecarstopsatatrafficlightorisinatrafficjam.Inurbantrafficfueleconomyisincreasedby5-10.Sincestart-stopenginesdonotemitduringtheeliminatedidlingperiodtheirtotalemissionisreducedascomparedtotheclassicengine.Thestart-stopsystemisalsousedinhybridcarscombiningtheadvantagesofaninternalcombustionenginewithanelectricmotor.Theecologicalbenefitsofstart-stopenginesareevident.Howeverastart-stop60OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalECOLOGICALASPECTSOFENGINEBEARINGSBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICHThesourceforinformationTomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.JointodayGotopage94foramembershipapplication. www.engineprofessional.com61systemproducesundesirableconditionsforenginebearingoperation.Enginebearingsgenerallyworkinahydrodynamicregimeoflubricationwhichisstablewithinacertainrangeofrotationspeed.Ifthespeeddropsdownthehydrodynamicforcedecreasesandbecomesinsufficientforcounteractingtheloadappliedtothebearings.Metal-to-metalcontactensuesandthebearingmaterialwearsfasterthaninthehydrodynamicregime.Sincestart-stopenginesshutdownandrestartveryfrequently10timesmorefrequentlythanclassicenginesthebearingsoperateinaconditionofmixedlubricationwithmetal-to-metalcontactmuchmoreofthetime.Suchconditionsrequirebearingmaterialswithgreatlyenhancedanti-frictionproperties.Thematerialsdevelopedforstart-stopenginescontainanincreasedamountofsolidlubricant.Thiscompensatesforthelackofliquidlubricantoilduringmixedlubrication.PolymercoatingscontainingarelativelylargeamountofsolidlubricantparticlesmolybdenumdisulfidegraphitePTFEarebeingdevelopedforstart-stophybridengineapplications.Thecoatingsmayalsocontainparticlesofreinforcingphaseaddedtothematerialforgreaterstrengthandwearresistance.Lead-freeMaterialsLeadisanexcellentanti-frictionmaterialhavinganexclusivecombinationofpropertiesLowcoefficientoffrictionLowshearstrengthExcellentseizureresistanceExcellentconformabilityExcellentembedabilityTechnologicalconveniencesmachinabilitycastabilityeasilyelectroplatedLowcostDuetoitspropertiesleadhasbeenwidelyusedinenginebearingmaterialsleadedbronzescastbabbittsleadbasedelectroplatedoverlays.Relativelythickcastbabbittsandoverlayswereverysuitableforoldenginescharacterizedbylow-to-mediumloadscontaminatedoilsandgeometricirregularities.Leadedmaterialsarestillverypopularinmodernhighperformanceengines.Thisisbecausetheirbearingsworkmuchmoretimeinamixedregimeoflubrication.Undertheseconditionsthereismetal-to-metalcontactandthesoftsurfacepropertiesofleadarecritical.Thechiefdisadvantageofconventionalleadbasedoverlaysislowloadcapacity.KingEngineBearingshasdevelopedaneffectivemethodofsurfacehardeningleadbasedoverlays.ThenewpMaxBlackleadedoverlayhasprovenitseffectivenessinincreasingthefatiguestrengthofhighperformancetri-metalbearings.Todaytheuseofleadisunderstrictgovernmentalregulationsandrules.Leadisatoxicheavymetalaffectinghumanheartboneskidneysreproductiveandnervoussystems.InmostcountriesincludingtheU.S.A.automobilemanufacturersarenolongerallowedtousebearingmaterialscontaininglead.BearingsmanufacturedfortheOEmarketmustbelead-free.Environmentalrestrictionsandregulationsmotivateenginebearingmanufacturerstodevelopneweffectivematerialswhichdonotcontainlead.Oneofthemostpromisingcandidatesforreplacingleadisbismuth.Ithassimilaranti-frictionpropertiestoleadbutisconsideredenvironmentallyfriendly.Bismuthisusedasananti-frictionadditiveincopperalloys.Bismuthmayalsobeusedintheformofoverlays.Anothermetallicmaterialwhichmayreplaceleadintheoverlaysoftri-metalbearingsistin.Tinisalreadyutilizedinbi-metallead-freebearingconstructionsintheformofthealuminum-tinlining.Thesebearingsareusedformanymoderateloadapplications.Excellentanti-frictionpropertiesevenbetterthanthoseofleadmaybeachievedbyapplyingpolymercoatingscontainingeffectivesolidlubricantssuchasmolybdenumdisulfidegraphitePTFE.Inapplicationsrequiringhighloadcapacitylead-freetri-metalmaterialssuchasKingproprietarySVbearingsorsputterbearingsareused.KingEngineBearingshasdevelopedawiderangeofeffectivelead-freematerialsfordifferenttypesofenginesseeFigure4.InparallelKinghasupgradedtheperformanceoftraditionalleadedmaterialsandmanufacturesleadedbearingsforapplicationswheresuchmaterialsarerequiredhighperformanceandaviationengines.Conclusions1.Modernecologicalrequirementsandrestrictionsdemandmodificationsofenginebearingdesignandthedevelopmentofnewbearingmaterials.2.Tighteroilclearancesarerequiredforthestablehydrodynamiclubricationofbearingsworkingwithlowviscosityoils.3.Bearingmaterialswithenhancedanti-frictionpropertiesshouldbeusedwhencombinedwithoilshavingreducedZDDPcontent.4.Increasedpopularityofthemoreefficientandenvironmentallyfriendlydieselengineisproducingagrowingdemandforbearingmaterialswhoseloadcapacityexceeds15000psi100MPa.5.Bearingmaterialscontainingalargeamountofsolidlubricantsarerequiredforstart-stopandhybridengines.6.Leadedbearingmaterialsmaybereplacedwithneweffectivelead-freematerialscontainingbismuthtinorsolidlubricants.IDr.DmitriKopeliovichisregardedasoneoftheforemostauthoritiesonenginebearingresearchanddevelopment.HeearnedhisPh.D.inmaterialsengineeringandservesasresearchanddevelopmentmanageratKingEngineBearings.AsthemanagerandteamleaderofKingsadvancedmaterialsresearchanddevelopmentunitDr.KopeliovichisknownastheEngineBearingDoctorforhisextensiveinvestigationsintothecauseandpreventionofprematureenginebearingfailure.ToaskDr.Kopeliovichaquestionvisitwww.kingbearings.comandclickonAskDr.Dmitri.Figure4.Kingleadfreetrimetalbearing. 62OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalSelectingthecorrectcuttingtoolsforeveryprojectcreatestheexactingresultsrequiredtomeetthedemandsofcuttingedgemachining.Extendedtoollifecomesalongwithchoosingthecuttingcomponentsthatmatchupwiththevarietyofenginemachiningprocesses.Insertselectionhasneverbeenmoreimportantastheavailabilityofspecializedinsertsprovidesformanyoptionsincreatingsuperiorfinishes.Newblockandheadmaterialtypesandcoatingsrequirespecialcare.Castironcuttingandhoningefficienciescanbegreatlyimprovedbythoroughlyunderstandingcuttingtoolspecialization.PositiveRakeInsertsforboringbenefitfromcoatedcarbideextendingtoollifewhilemachiningtotighttoleranceborespecs.Rottlerinsertsconsistentlyprovidesuperiorcounterboresandfinishes.Utilizingradiusinsertsof164thor132ndarerecommended.Longboresthatarecutwiththespindleintheextendedpositionbenefitfroma164thradiusatafeedrateof.002to.005perrevolution.Radiuscuttingof132ndisbestataperrevolutionrateof.004to.008.Greycastironwearsuncoatedcarbidesignificantlyfasterthanthepreferredcoatedinserts.Toollifeisextendedandsuperiorfinishesarecreatedat300to800SFPM.GeneralpurposeuseandsleevingaretypicallyrunwithcoatedinsertsathigherRPMandfeedrates.BlackCeramicCoated164thInsertsworkwellforthroughboringandmachiningofcounterboresat.002to.005perrevolutionfeedandSFPMof800to1200.Heavysleevecuttingandgeneralmachiningbenefitfromcoatedcarbide132ndradiusinserts.Thelargerradiusprovidesasmootherfinishatagivenfeedrateimprovingheattransferwhensleevesareinstalled.Thecoated132ndinsertcreatesmoretoolpressureandcanberunupto30fasterascomparedtothe164thversion.Feedrateforthe132ndradiusinsertsshouldbe.006to.012perrev.Forgreycastiron800to1200SFPMprovidesthebestproductivityandtoollife.NegativeRakeInsertsforboringworkwellwithhighspeedoversizethroughboring.Whenthroughboringasquareblackceramiccoatedinserthas8cuttingedgesforeconomicalusageinremoving.010to.060.4inchboresrunat1000to1200RPMandafeedof.008to.012perrevolution.Thesameinsertcanbeutilizedforsleevecutswhenasquarestepisnotrequired.Cuttingat.200perpassat1000to1200RPManda.005perrevfeedratearerecommendedforthisoperation.SquaredoublesidedCBNinsertsworkwellforhighspeedthoughboringprovidingexceptionallylonglifewhenremovingmaterialupto.040.TheseinsertsarebestusedonRottlerF60F80andF90SeriesMulti-Purposemachines.TheCBNinsertsexcelrunningat1000to2200SFPMandafeedof.010to.014perrevolution.BoringwithaPCDinsertisonlyusedonaluminumcylinders.PCDinsertsaretriangularwithablackdiamondtipanda132ndradius.Runningat400to4000SFPMandafeedrateof.004to.010hasproventocreatesuperiorfinishesinaluminumbores.BoringinsertsthatrunattooslowofanRPMspeedcandevelopchippingoftheinsert.ReducingSFPMwillreducechippinginconjunctionwithRPMspeedmanagement.CuttingcompactedgraphiteorductileironblocksrequiresaSFPMreductioninthe200to400range.Surfacingwithgrindingmachinesistypicallyslowduesmallperpassmaterialremoval.Finebuildupquicklymakesamessofthecoolant.Grindingaluminumheadsorblocksisinefficient.Oftenthesemachinesarehydraulicallydriven.Creatingconsistentprecisionandefficiencywithhydraulicgrindingcanbeachallenge.Dullorcloggedstonescangiveafalseimpressionofatrulyflatsurface.MachinesspecificallydesignedtouseCBNhaveinfinitelyvariablespindlespeedsforproperSFPM.ACservodrivefeedmotorsforinfinitelyvariablefeedratesprovidethedesiredresults.Feedsystemballscrewssetinrigidmachinebasesprovidedsmoothtravelmanufactureconsistentprecision.Rigidspindlesandfixturingcanmillnearlyanymaterialincludingcastironaluminumcompactedgraphiteandductileiron.ConvertedhydraulicgrindingmachinesarelimitedbytwospeedspindleRPM.Theseconvertedmachinessimplycomeupshortwhencomparedtothespeedeaseofuseandaccuracyfoundinprecisionballscrewmachinedesigns.Thenearlyunlimitedvarietyofinserttypesallowsforimprovedsurfacefinisheswheninsertsarematchedwithspecificmachiningoperations.MachineToolChipsBitsBYEDKIEBLER 2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.1-800-323-6764www.elginind.comsaleselginind.com1InperformancestockCOVERAGETheressimplynobetterchoicethanELGIN.AftermarketVALVETRAINmanufacturer1AftermarketROCKERARMmanufacturer1OEaftermarketPUSHRODmanufacturer1wwwl--ginind.comsaleseginind.comwww.engineprofessional.com63 64OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalMACHINETOOLCHIPSBITSBYEDKIEBLERCBNandPCDinsertsdemandrigidfixturesandspindlestoperformproperly.SFPMfortheseinsertsrequiresafullrangeof1000to4000.CBNinsertsrequire1000to2000SFPMandPCDbenefitsfrom1000to4000.PCDinsertscreatefinefinishesandlongtoollifeisexpectedwithinsertavailabilityinsingleordoublesided.Surfacingspeedsarefastandtheinsertsoffermaximumversatility.CBNcancutmostmaterialsincludingaluminum.Beadvisedthataluminumdoescreateprematurewear.PCDinsertsareutilizedspecificallyforaluminumandaretypicallyroundin38or12inchdiameter.CBNrounddoublesidedinsertsin38diameterprovidelonglifewhensurfacingcastironheadsandblocks.Theroundshapecreatesmanycuttingedgesoneachsideoftheinsertextendingtoollifewhileimprovingfinishquality.RPMshouldrangebetween900to1200RPMwhenmountedina14cutterplate.Singlesidedround38diameterCBNinsertsperformwellonhardcastblocksandheads.OperationsareimprovedwhenusingthisinsertwithcompactedgraphiteheadsandblocksusinganRPMrangeof650to750oncompactedgraphitecomponents.Roundsinglesided38diameterCBNinsertsworkbestonaluminumblockswithcastironlinersoraluminumheadswithpre-combustionchambers.RottlerspraymistcoolantsystemsorGoodensHPS-10HighPerformanceResurfacingSprayaregoodrecommendationsforthiswork.A14cutterheadshouldrunat650to750RPM.Castironheadswithsteelpre-cupsbenefitfromround38diametersinglesidedCBNinsertsrunningat500to600RPMona14cutterplate.Aluminumheadsandblockswithoutlinersutilizeround38diametersinglesidedPCDinsertsata14cutterplateRPMof900to2000.Purchasinga12inchnegativeraketoolholderisneededfor12inchdiameterroundPCDinserts.PCDcreatesasuperiorfinishonaluminumatanRPMrangeof1000to2000ona14cutterhead.RounddoublesidedCBNinsertsrunefficientlyat900to1200installedonacutterheadof14diameter.InsertselectionrequiresmorecarewhensurfacingBi-Metalmaterials.TherearemanymetalcombinationsandidentifyingoneinsertforallBi-Metalprojectsisnexttoimpossible.Insertselectionistailoredtospecificmetalcombinationsasoneinserttypecomesupshortwhenmetalcombinationsvary.ToollifecanbesubstantiallyreducedandtheinsertcostperjobincreaseswhenBi-Metalsurfacingoccurs.Factoringintheaddedinsertcostmaintainsprofitability.Identifyingtheinsertthatbestmatchesthedifferingmetalcombinationsisjobspecific.Takingthetimetoidentifyinsertcompatibilityimprovesefficiency.IncreasingtheprojectsalespriceisanecessityduetothereducedtoollifeandaddedtimetakentolocatethebestinsertforthevarietyofBi-Metalapplications.HoningMachinesdesignedtousestandardabrasivessuchasaluminumoxidesandsiliconecarbidesrelyheavilyonabrasivehardnesstoaddressdifferentmaterials.Partthicknessmustbefactoredintocreateroundbores.Thesetypesofmachinesincreaseconsumablecostsashoningoilislostduringoperation.Typicallytwostonesandtwoguidesarerequiredandoperatorsspendmoretimeattendingtothemachineasitruns.UtilizinghoningmachinesthatarespecificallydesignedforDiamondHoningStonesandSuperabrasivesincreasesefficiencyimprovesaccuracyandreducesoverallcosts.Operationrequireslessoperatorinterfaceandwalkawayoperationcanbeachieved.Multi-stonehoneheadscanfurtherincreaseproductionwhilecreatingsuperiorandconsistentlyaccurateroundbores.Dependingontheapplication4to12stonecapabilityshouldbebuiltin.Machinesthataredesignedtosenseandadjusthoningloadautomaticallyimproveprecisionwhilesavingoperatortime.DiamondStoneHoningoffersanumberofprofitableadvantages.DiamondStonesareverylonglastingandtypicallycreate20000to40000precisionbores.BlindborehoningbenefitsfromtheDiamondHoningprocess.DiamondStonesimproveboresizecontrolwhilepromotingborestraightness.Precisionistypicallymaintainedwithina.0002boretoboretolerance.HoningdifferenthardnessmaterialsandavarietyofmaterialtypesresultsinfewerstonechangesduetotheversatilityoftheDiamondStones.CastironcompactedgraphiteNikasilchromeandmoreareoftenhandledwithoneDiamondStoneset.AluminumblockswithsilicaparticlessuchasAlusilLokasilandSilitecareCBNrounddoublesideinsertsprovidedlonglifewhensurfacingcastironheadsandblocks.Manycuttingedgesarecreatedbythedualsidedroundshape. www.engineprofessional.com65 66OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalincreasinginpopularity.MercedesBMWAudiLandRoverJaguarandPorscheblocksnowutilizethesematerials.PCDinsertsarerequiredtoborethesesilicaimpregnatedaluminumblocks.Properhoningshouldremove.002to.004.Finalboresizeshouldbeheldtowithin.002andmaterialshouldberemovedatarateof.004forthefinalsizingpass.DiamondStonescanhonetothenextoversizewhenhoningAluminumSilicaParticleblocks.200RPMisidealandcrosshatchangleof15to20degreesisdesired.FollowingaprovenprocessismandatoryforAluminumSilicaParticleblocks.400gritDiamondAbrasiveStonesworkwellwhenhoningtosize.UsespecialKSRedDiamondStonesfor10strokesat15to20load.ThenusespecialKSexposingstonesfor10strokesat15load.Cleanthecylinderbyfloodingwithcoolantandwipingthebore.RunasecondoperationwithspecialKSexposingstonesfor10strokesat15toproperlyexposethesilicaparticlesonthealuminumsurface.FollowingtheseMACHINETOOLCHIPSBITSBYEDKIEBLERDiamondHoningStonesaredesignedforlonglifeandperformthrough20000to40000precisionbores. Callusoremailusatsalesuempistons.comforapersonalresponseabouthowUEMpistonscanmakeyourbuildsmoreprofitableandsuccessful.TOLLFREE800.648.7970Checkoutthefullselectionwww.uempistons.comWhetheryourebuildingasmallblockabigblockoravintageflathead-UEMhasyourpiston.AsNorthAmericaslargestpistonmanufacturerourtechnologyprocessesandequipmentfeaturethelatestdesignsforOEreplacementorhigh-performancepistonsforeverytypeofengineyouarebuilding.Wehavebeenmanufacturingaftermarketpistonsforautomotivelighttruckpopularimportandheavydutyapplicationssince1922.Whygoanywhereelsewww.engineprofessional.com67 68OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalstepsexactlyisextremelyimportanttopreventtearingorrippingofsilicaparticlesfromtheboresurface.AnysurfacefinishproducedbystandardhoningstonescanbegeneratedviatheDiamondHoningprocess.Plateauhoningfinishesrequiredifferentsurfacemeasuringparameterstoensurethegenerationofaplateau.RKparametersaretypicallyusedinlieuofRaorRz.Raisanaverageofthesurfacefinishanddoesnotdistinguishbetweenpeaksandvalleys.Rzmeasuresthe5highestpeakscomparingtothe5lowestvalleysin5samplelengths.Thesetwoparameterscanbemeasuredwithrelativelyinexpensivesurfaceanalyzers.RKparametersaremeasuredwithpowerfulanalyzerstocomputeproperly.Severalpistonringmanufacturesrequireplateausurfacefinishesforperformanceringpacks.TypicalparametersrequiredbyringmanufacturesRa10to20Rpk10to20Rvk30to60Rk25to50DiamondStonesmeettheseparameterswithathreestepprocess.Thebasefinishiscreatedwitha270325grittofinishsizeat180RPM60SPMandaroughloadof35.Finishloadisrunat20.Steptwoutilizesa550DiamondGritStonerunat5strokesat20load.Thefinalstepusesplateauhoningtoolswith5strokesand20load.Shopsthattakeadvantageofnewageuserfriendlymachineinterfacesmaintainacuttingedgeoverthecompetition.Understandingthebestinsertforeachapplicationwillincreasequalityandimproveefficiency.LonglifeDiamondHoningStonesproducedesiredfinisheswithaccurateperformance.Choosingthebesttoolsandinsertsforeachapplicationwillcreatequalityoutputwhileaddingcapacityandsustainablelongtermgrowth.IMACHINETOOLCHIPSBITSBYEDKIEBLERDiamondHoningcanproduceanyfinishfoundbyusingstandardstoneswhileimprovingshopprofitability.Largerradiuscoatedcarbideinsertscreatesmootherfinishesimprovingheattransferwhensleevesareinstalled.Newagehoningmachinesutilizeuserfriendlycontrolsthatareeasilysetupforwalkawayoperation.EdKiebleristheSalesManagerforRottlerMfg.inKentWashington.Formoreinformationpleasegotowww.rottlermfg.comorcall253872-7050. NewvehiclecomplexityFindingtraininggoodemployeesCompetingwithbigboxstoresAWAKEATNIGHTWHATKEEPSYOUREGISTERNOWATAAPEXSHOW.COMAERAAAPEXeduNOVEMBER3-62014EXHIBITSNOVEMBER4-6SANDSEXPOLASVEGASNEVADAwww.engineprofessional.com69 70OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalBYKEITHWILSONWITHMIKECARUSOForusatWilsonManifoldswehavealwaysbeenchallengedbythebestraceteamsintheworldtoworkonprecisefuelcontrolenhancedairflowbalanceairandfueldistributionforthemostpoweraspossible.WehavedonethisforNASCARINDYCARNHRATopFuelFUNNYCarPROSTOCKandmanyotherclasses.Wegiveourcustomersapoweradvantagebutalsohoneourskillsasweareheldtosuchhighlevelsoftestingandscrutiny.Teamsweworkforhavesomeofthebestmostrepeatabledynosetupslookingfor1-2HPandtheycangetthattorepeat.Rememberthatwhenyougetuptothelast10ofanythingtoreachthetopishardprecisework.Thisiswhereourmindsetcomesfromandweapplythesameapproachtoweek-endracers.Mostpeopleusingapoweraddersomehowbelievethatthemanifoldandothercomponentsarenotasimpor-tantasnaturallyaspiratedengines.Nothingcouldbefartherfromthetruth.Themorepoweryoumakenaturallyaspi-ratedthemoreyouwillmakewithanypoweradder.Manypeoplelosesightofthisbasicfacteasytodotoday.Simplythinkofitasalightercarisquickerandfasterthanaheavycar.Whenracingyougetinasituationwhereyouarenotthefastest.Soyouareforcedtoleanonituppingthepoweraddermoreaggressivelyandmostlikelytheresultisyouenduphurtingtheengine.Thisespeciallyhappenswhentheintakemanifolddistributionisnotevenclose.Thiswillalwayscausemajorcylinderissueshurtingtheengine.Ifyoutuneoffonecylinderyoumostlikelyhaveaproblemsogetsomehelptofixit.PreparationworkforbalancedsystemsAFairfuelFFfuelflowandNFnitrousflowmustbecheckedandcorrectedasrequired.Whenwetakeonacustomerprojectwehaveaninformationsheetthatasksmanyquestionsonenginecombinationandtypeofracingorloadtheengineisputthrough.Inthemanifoldpreparationordesignwewilllookatrunnerlengthstaperintherunnerstotheheadcarbure-tionorfuelinjectionandplenumsizeandlayoutoftheplenum.Themostcommonnitroussystemsareeitherplatestyleordirectport.Choosingonewoulddependonrulesenginedesignandpowerdemandandsomepeoplerunbothsystems.Ourplatesystemhas2patentsoneforthespraypatternthatdeliversfuelandnitrousevenlyaroundtheplenumandbreaksupthewetfueltoasmallerdropletsize.Hencewithourplatesystemweworkonthemanifoldonall8portsasevenlyaspossibleontheflowbenchratherthanfavoringcylindersfalse-lyblamedforbeinginefficient.WithadirectportNitroussystemyoucantuneeachportindividuallybutwestillhavetobalancethemanifoldasmuchaspossible.Theplenumneedstonottoallowthefueltoseparateoutofsuspen-sion.Thesebigfueldropletswillneverburncompletelyandtheyalsothenleanoutyourcylinderandactualcombustionburntime.Sometunersthinkthatthecylinderisnotgettingfuelwheninfactitisgettingtoomuchthiswetfuelwillactuallycausetheringstolosesealandwearcylinderwallsprematurely.Rememberoncethefuelfallsoutofsus-pensionandGOESWETintoadropletyoucanNEVERrecoverit.Wearelookingtokeepthefuelvapor-izedforbestcontrolledburning.Wearealsolookingtohaveallcylindersburningfuelandproducingthesameexpansionpressureinthecylindersturningourcrankshaft.Attentiontothedetailsmakesallthedifference.IntakemanifoldrunnerlengthcanbeshorterwhennitrousisbeingusedtogiveupsomeatlowRPMandenhancethetopendRPM.Butwedoflowcustomerswithotherbrandsofnitroussystemsthattheyalreadyhaveandneedhelponpoweranddurability.Onceweevaluatethenitroussystemandknowwhatcylindersthecus-tomerishavingissueswithwethencare-fullystudythecustomersmanifold.Wegivethemdifferentlevelsofimprovementsdependingontheirbudget.WecanoffertoManifoldswithNitrousorPowerAddersLookscanbedeceiving...Thissinglestagefoggerisdesignedtoflowasmuchas1000hpofn2o.Whencombinedwithourprogressivecontrolleritcanyieldsimilarresultstoamanifoldwith3systems. PERFORMANCESTARTSHEREFor90yearsSunnenhaskeptcompanywiththetopnamesinthebusiness.FromraceteamstoproductionrebuilderstoOEMstoringmanufacturersandevenoiltestinglabsworldwideSunnenisthenametheytrust.Theyknowhoningisouronlybusinessandwhenyouonlydoonethingyouhavetodoitwell.SinceintroducingthelegendaryCylinderKingin1964wehavesoldnearly8000cylinderhonesworldwideandhavecontinuedtoadvancehoningtechnologywithsuchinnovationsasdiamondhoningrotaryfeedsystemstwo-stagehoneheadsadvancedPCcontrolstrueverticalstrokingmultiplespindlesandautomatedblockrolloverfixtures.Todayweofferfourdifferentcylinderhoningmachineswithfeaturestofitanyhoningrequirementsorbudget.NomatterwhatyourcylinderhoningneedsSunnenhasyoucovered.2014SunnenSt.LouisMOUSAA14-1RTestedbytime.Trustedbythebest.SV-10Theindustrystandardforperformanceenginebuildingprovideseverythingyouneedforconsistentboresizeandsurfacefinishwithconventionalordiamondabrasives.SV-20Verticalstrokerotaryfeedandtwo-stagediamondhoningmakethistheNEWchoiceformid-volumeenginebuildersperformanceshopsandraceteams.SV-2410SV-2510Theultimateinproductioncylinderhoningwithautomaticstepandrepeatautomatedrolloverfixtureandallaxesservodriven.Standardorcustombuiltforyourneeds.PutSunnentothetestandyouwillseewhythebestchooseSunnen.Formoreinformationvisitsunnen.comorcontactyourlocalSunnenrepresentativeat1-800-325-3670.VisitusatSEMABooth10179andPRIBooth5101www.engineprofessional.com71 72OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalMANIFOLDSWITHNITROUSORPOWERADDERSBYKEITHWILSONporttheworstcylindersfromjustplenumtodownthoseparticu-larrunners.Taperedrunnersincreaseairspeedbutsometimesitalsohastobesloweddownatapointtoallowairtoturnwithoutthefuelseparating.Alsowecansolveanyissuesindistributionintheirplateordirectportsystems.BetweenflowingtheairthroughthemanifoldandflowingnitrousandfuelsystemwehavebeenverysuccessfulonpickinguppowerspeedETandreliability.Butwestilladvisetodoingacompleteportingtomanifoldsandthebestcompo-nentsfornitrous.Itisuptocustomerdesiresfromthere.Wedothesameforblowersandturbopoweradders.PeopledonotbelievethatportshapedoesthatmuchbutitcertainlydoesallthewaytotodaysTopFuel10000HPintakemanifoldsandcylinderheadswhichareprofessionallyportedandflowedformaximumpoweroutputandbalance.WaybackintheolddaysofTopFuelRacingtheyjustraisedtheamountorpercentageofNitrotogofasterblowingupenginesleftandright.WhentheystartedtofueltuneeachofthecylindersitresultedinlessenginefailureandgoingthesameMPHtrapspeedonlowerNitro.WhattheydidbackthenlikeKinslerworkingwiththefuelsystemtryingtobalancetheenginescylinderpressurescylinder-to-cylinder.Equalpowerfromallcylindersismuchsaferfortheengineplusprovidesbetterresponse.Wehavefoundthistobetruenomatterwhattypeofpoweradderorformofracing.Boostedengineswithabalancedmoreefficientintaketractuselesshorsepowerpushingthecompressedairthroughtheintaketractoftheengineallowingmorepowertoturnthecrank-shaft.MostthinkIwilljustturnupmyboostbutyouwillgetabettergainsupplyingmoreintothecylinderwithouttakingmoreforcebydraggingcylindersnotfillingthesameamount.Thesamegoesasfornitrousdistribution.Thebetterthemanifolddesignnomatterwhobuiltithastohaveacloseport-to-portorcylinder-to-cylinderdistributionformorepowerreliabilityandortuneability.Notonlydoyouhaveaverybalancedengineitsalsomuchsafertotunetotheedgewithouthurt-inganyparts.YoucannotevengetclosetorunninganON-KILLtuneupwhenyouhaveafewcylindersthataremarginaltobeginwithonbalancetoeachother.Assoonasyoustepupyourtuneupthosecylinderswillcauseyoubigproblemsallthetimeandareexpensivetorepair.Spendingalittlemoremoneyupfrontandpayingattentiontodetailswillsaveyoumoneyinthelongrun.I360PatentedSprayPatternsaturatestheplenumevenly.Helpswithcommonissueplaguingplateusersover-efficientcornercylinders.ThismanifoldisplumbedforbothaDirectPortSystemaswellasaCrossbarPlateSystem.Intendedtobeusedindependentlydependingontheever-changingchangingrulesfortodaysclasses.ThismanifoldisequippedwithDualDirectPortSystemsformultiplelevelsofpowerondemand.KeithWilsonhasdedicatedhisworkinglifetoairfloworengineinternalaerodynamics.FormoreinformationcontactWilsonManifoldsinFortLauderdaleFL.Call954771-6216orgotowww.wilsonmanifolds.com. LiftTablewithAGITATIONTouchScreenPLCControlsDualFiltrationSystemOpposingHorizontalTransducersUltraSoniccleanfromTWOdirectionsStainlessSteelConstructionInsulatedTankandLidAutomaticCyclesLOWERLABORCOSTINCREASEPROFITSEMPLOYEEFRIENDLYReducereplacehazardoussolventsOptionsOilSkimerAutoWaterRe-FillUltra3800FLTMainScreenManualOperationScreenULTRA3800FLTCustomUnitsandPLCMulti-StageSystemsAvailablewww.engineprofessional.com73 74OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalInmylastarticleIcoveredindetailthehistoryofironandthedevelopmentofthedifferentversionsofironasitrelatestoourautomotiveindustry.AsanextensionofthatconversationIwouldliketoadvancethesubjectmattertothemostimportantpartforallofushowdowedoitandhowdoesitworkTheprofessionalsatAERAonthetechsidefieldnumerousquestionsonadailybasisofhowtoandwherecanIgetthisAtDartonwemaintainafullcomple-mentofengineandtechprofessionalsalsobutspecificallydealingwithsleeveissues.ThenumberonequestionwegetishowmuchwallthicknessisrequiredonasleeveforXperformanceTheanswerisfairlyinvolvedandreliesonthestructureoftheblock.Dartonlearnedmanyyearsagothatjustbecauseyouhaveafactoryblockdoesnotnec-essarilymeanyouhaveautomotiveperfec-tiononthecontrarymosthighvolumeOEMblockssufferfromvaryingamountsofcoreshift.Whatthismeanstotheengineprofessionalasitrelatestoblockmachiningisunpredictabilityincorewallthickness.InmylastarticleIusedthetermmass.Thistermandwhatitmeanstotheenginebuilderiskeyindeterminingtheminimumamountofsleevewallthicknessandhowthisrelatestothefinishedjobintermsofcylinderseal.DartonhasbeensupplyingtheranksofNHRAfuelprofessionalsforthelast25yearsandcurrentlywearecountedasthemosttrustedsleevesupplierinthiscatego-ry.Wedidnotgetherebyaccidentitwasalongandarduousroadtoprovidethehighestqualitysleeveabletowithstandtherigorsof10000horsepowerandprovideaproductwiththeabilitytolastmultipleruns.Oneofthemorevexingissuescon-frontingusearlyonwassleeveround-ness.AllofoursleevesaremachinedtotenthsinsizeandconcentricitysowhenaTopFuelteamwouldcomplainofthesleevegoingoutofroundespeciallyastheTopFuelcommunityconvertedtoforgedblocks.TheshortanswergetsbacktoquestionnumberonehowthickshouldsleevewallthicknessbeInthecaseoftheTopFuelcommunityitwasdeterminedthatthesleevewasfollowingtheboregeometryoftheblock.Whentheblockandsleevewerecoldbothitemswereroundhoweveraftera4secondruntheboresmightbeoutofroundasmuchas.010.Ofcourseitwaspresumedthatthesleevewasatfaultwheninrealitythesleevewasmimickingtheboreoftheblockwhichhadalsogoneoutofroundbythesameamount.Analysisofthisrevealsthesimplefactthatdespitehowtheblockismanufac-turedcastforgedorbilletthearchitec-tureoftheblockisthedeterminingfactorindeterminingthetypeandamountofmasssurroundingthecylinderhole.Inotherwordswithinthe360arctoptobottomthereisnoconsistencyinmassespeciallyconsideringthewaterjacket.Nowaddtothisequationthesubjectofcoreshiftandtheneachtimeweboreaholeinacylinderforasleevewedonotactuallyknowwhatremainingwallthick-nesswillbetheretoprovidemasstothefinishedbore.Sotheanswertothequestionisitdependswhichsometimesdrivesourcus-tomerscrazybecausewearesupposedtoknowtheanswer.Rememberthesleeveisawearsurfaceandusuallynotstructuralasmightbethecaseinawetordieselsleeve.Alsooneoftheageoldpracticesofhardpressonsleeveinstallationissometimes.005ormoreactuallyiscounterproductive.Considerthisgiventhefactthattheblockwallthicknessbeforeorafterborevariesbyasmuchas.050aroundthecircleandtoptobottomahardpressisgoingtoexertmoreforcereaddistortionthanalighterpressandconsequentlybettercylindersealwhentheenginereachesoperatingtemperature.Thereforetherealanswertothenum-beronequestionisthethickerthebetterwhichisusuallycontrarytotheobjectiveofmoresize.Alsoconsiderthefollowingthecoefficientofexpansionverticallyinablockdiffersandincombinationwithpis-tonringdragminordimensionaldiffer-encescanoccurtoptobottomwhichmayaffectcylindersealing.Anaidetosleeveinstallationandheattransfercanbeaccomplishedwithadhe-sives.Therearesomeproductsonthemar-ketthatpromotesleeveinstallationwithclearanceandaproprietaryadhesivethatisswabbedonwithanapplicator.Inourexperiencenochemicalwillformacontin-TheSleevingSolutionBYDAVIDCLINTON www.engineprofessional.com75uingbondinclearanceforsecurityandheattransfer.Metaldeformationwithheatandcoldisanelasticexperiencewithvary-ingdegreesofpredictabilitydependingonmaterialspecifications.WhenanadhesiveiscalledforDartonspecifiesLoctiteandfollowstheirguidelinesforapplicationandprocedures.Heattransferissometimesmisunder-stood.Certainmarriagesofmaterialchemicalsandusagepromoteheattransferandothercircumstancesrejectheat.Forinstancepistonsareroutinelycoatedespe-ciallyonthedomestorejectheatandtopromoteperformanceandpreventpistondistortion.Heatisformedinmorethanonewayinanengine.Forcesoffrictioncompressionandcombustionallcontributetoheatcreation.Heatdissipationoccursthroughuseofpowerexhaustandpowerstrokeconductivityoflubricationmateri-alsandabsorptionthroughoutmetalcom-ponents.Mostaluminumwillnottoleratehightemperaturesforanylengthoftime.Thecombustionandcylinderscavengingsorapidlyprocessairmassthatheatonpistonsheadsandvalvesisresidentforshortperiodsoftime.Whenthiscyclebreaksdownsuchasdetonationorleanmixtureswehavewhatiscalledmeltdown.Cylinderswallsbycontrastmustresideinastaticstateofhighheatallthetime.Forthisreasonheatabsorptionandmaterialresiliencyarecrucialtotheheattransferprocesswithoutmeltdownordis-tortion.Topromoteheattransfercylinderlinersmustbecastwiththerightchem-istryproperlydistributedthroughoutthesleevewallwithnoocclusionshardspotsorgrainstructureconcentrations.Dartonsfoundryusesspecialprocedurestoassureperfectchemicalbalanceanduniquefur-naceprocedurestocontrolhowwellthematerialhomogenizesduringpouringandcentrifugalcasting.Whenthematerialisproperlycompactedheattransferefficien-cythenbecomesafunctionofsleeveblockfitblockstructureblockcoolingmediumandwaterflowdirectionandspeed.Dissimilarmetallurgyi.e.ironaluminumexasperatescoolingefficiencyduetodiffer-encesinthermalexpansionrates.Typicallyaluminumenginesmadewithironsleevesaredesignedandcoreddifferentlythantheircastironcousinstocompensateforthermalexpansionvariances.DartonmanufacturesductileironsleevesfordryinstallationinaluminumblockswithspecialsurfacefinishesandrecommendsthataluminumblockcylinderwallsbelightlyhonedwithBrushResearchbumblehonespriortosleeveinstallation.Thecombinationofmaleandfemalesurfacepreparationgreatlyenhancesheattransferwhenthesleevesareinstalledandfitproperly.ThesecondmostaskedquestionatDartontechdealswithmachiningtech-niqueoninstallingsleeves.Oneoftheareasthatgreatlyaidesinsleeveinstalla-tionisperfectionandconsistencyholetohole.Rememberthereisalwaysatoler-anceonthesleevesandtheblockbore.AsaforinstanceDartonusuallydoesnotrec-ommendanymorethea.002interfer-encefitonadrysleeveinstallsowithoutmeasuringeachsleeveandboreitiscon-ceivabletohavemuchmoreinterferenceormuchlessthandesired.ThereforemeasureEVERYsleeveandEVERYholetoproper-lymarrytherightpartsforuniformfitandinterference.Agreattoolforsleeveinstallsisamandrelwithashouldersothesleevecanproperlyalignedandinsertedonastraightaxis.Whenusingdifferentialtem-peraturestoaidinsleeveinstallsitiseasytogetasleeveoffaxisandcausescuffingordistortiononinsertion.AtDartonwhen weinstallsleevesweroutinelyuseaman-drelandhaveaseriesofsplitaluminumadaptorstoaccommodatethedifferentboresinvolved.ThenextmostaskedquestionatDartondealswithmachiningtechniqueandtypesofmachinesinuse.ObviouslyinthelastgenerationtherehasbeenmassconversiontoCNCtypeequipment.IwouldventuretosayitisimpracticalorsometimesimpossibletoprovideaqualityaftermarketmachinedproductwithoutsomelevelofCNCequipmenttypicallyintheenginemachineshopbusinessatypicalmachinewouldbeastandaloneblockmachiningbyRMCRottlerCentroidSunnenorothers.Therearealsocustomapplicationsbyneedandamyriadofothermachinesfordedicatedjobssuchashoninglineboringheadworkandsuch.Whenwegetinvolveditusuallyinvolvesadiscussionaboutfixturingtol-erancesandwetordrymachining.Withoutquestionallofourmachiningisdonewetwithfloodedcoolant.Whiledrymachineworkisstillaccomplishedinsomeenvironmentsourexperiencehasrevealedandamuchmoreconsistenttoler-ancelevelbettersurfacefinishandlongertoollifewhenwetmachiningisperformed.Theoverridingissuebetweenthetwomethodsisthelittleconcernedeffectthateachtypeofmachiningimpartstothehostmaterial.Drymachiningisusuallyslowertakeslongerandheatsupthehostmateri-alsometimestothepointofchangingthemicrostructureorsurfacehardnessbothbadevents.Usingfloodedcoolantorattheleastaspraymistincylinderboringisthebestwaytoassuremoderatesurfacetemperaturespreventinganykindofannealingtogetthebestjobandintheleastamountoftime.WETSLEEVESAsthenameimpliessleevesthataresur-roundedbycoolantwheninstalledareconsideredwetsleeves.Thesignificantdif-ferenceinsleevedesignbeyondthetermswetordryarewhatstructurewithinthecylindercarriestheload.Inadryapplica-tiontheycylindercompressiveforceiscar-riedbythesleeveandtheblock.Inawetsleeveapplicationthecom-pressiveforceistotallysupportedbythesleeve.Thereforebynatureofapplicationandintendedusewetsleevesmustbeverystrongandmechanicallyabletowithstandcompressiveandfrictionalforcesthrough-outtheirtotalunsupportedlength.Castironandalloysleevesandaluminumgen-erallydonothavetherequiredstructuralTHESLEEVINGSOLUTIONBYDAVIDCLINTON76OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional strengthandmechanicalpropertiesrequiredforwetsleeveinstallations.Thisapplicationnormallyrequireshighstrengthductileironorsteelorhybridsofeither.Thefeaturesofthematerialtobeusedinawetsleevedesignaretensilestrengthhardnessandelongation.AlthoughDartonlistsASTMA536asourbaselineductileironourmaterialexceedsallthemechanicalspecificationsbyawidemargin.Dartoncurrentlypro-ducesvariationsofductileironbutourbaselineper-formancematerialequals130000psitensile280-290Bhnhardnessand5-6elongation.Forwetsleevestensilestrengthdeterminesthematrixstrengthoftheparthardnessdeterminessurfaceabrasionresistanceandelongationequalsflexibilitywithoutmemorytoabsorbshocksofcombustionandresistspermanentdeformation.Ascompressiveandcombustivepressuresrisewetsleevesfaceenormousstressescausedbypressureheatandringfriction.Withoutsuperiormetallurgythesekindsofsleeveswouldnotendure.Typicaldieselsleeveapplicationsmayreach20-1compressionandturboboostsof60pounds.Inadditiontomechanicalstrengthwetsleevesmustbeconstructedofenoughwallthicknesstoreplaceblockintegrity.Nomatterhowstrongthematerialismassandstructurewilldetermineperformanceandlongevity.AsaguidelineDartondoesnotrecommendwetsleevewallthicknessunder.150.Blockmachiningforeitherdryorwetsleevesalwaysrequiressomehomeposition.Aspreviouslydiscussedthesubjectofcoreshiftwillrearitsuglyheadifthecylinderblockisnotproperlyfixturedsecuredandwithafullproofmethodofdetermininghome.Theessen-tialpieceofinformationtoproceedistheborecenterdistance.Inapreciseblockmachinejobthecentertocentershouldbecontrolledby-.0005YES5tenths.TheoldmethodofmountingaboringheadontheblockandlocatingofeachholeisguaranteedtobreakoutawallsomewhereespeciallyifgoingformaxboreorinstallingawetsleevekitlikeDartonsMIDAngularityoftheblockfixturetodeterminetheactualverticalaxisoftheholeisequallyessentialattemptingtoestablishthe90axisoftheborefromthedeckisnotadvisable.Theonlytrueandaccuratewayistotruetheblockonthemachinewithprecisionfixturingthatlocatesonthecamcrankcenterlineprecisiondowelpinlocationsorotherknownprecisionjigpointsontheblock.Iwww.engineprofessional.com77DavidClintonisthepresidentCEOandfounderofDartonSleevesinCarlsbadCA.Formoreinformationcall760-603-9895orvisitwww.dartonsleeves.com.WEST800713-2786or760603-9895EAST888877-8484dartonsleeves.com2011DartonInternationalInc.PRIOCT11RonCappsNAPA2011Superiorstrengthcentrifugalductileironwithtensilestrengthupto130000p.s.i.StrongestDuctileIronintheworldSpeciallyengineeredcoolingflowinflangetopromotestability.IncreasedboresizeandwallthicknessWetsleevedesign.CustomSleevesTopFuelSleevesUSPatent6799541FOLLOWUSThesourceforinformationTomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.JointodayGotopage94foramembershipapplication. 78OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalPROSISPROBYSTEVEFOXAERAsenginespecificationsoftwaregetsacompleteoverhaulOverthepastseveralmonthsAERAhasbeenworkingonnewlyredesignedspecificationsoftwarecalledPROSISPROwhichhasrecentlybeenreleasedtomembership.PROSISPROencompassesallthefeaturesfromallthepreviousversionsofPROSIS.TheAERAtechnicaldepartmentwhoareallfromamachineshopbackgroundgavevaluableinputtothedesignoftheprogramtomakeitaseasyaspossibleforamachineshoptouse.AERAwillhavetwoversionsofthePROSISPROprogramavailabletoitsmembersawebversionandadesktopversion.Thewebversionwillbeavailablefirstandthedesktopversionwillbeavailableaboutonemonthlater.OnceyouhaveaccesstothenewPROSISPROyouwillseethatsomegreatfeatureshavebeenaddedtotheprogram.ForinstanceontheDashboardpageyouwillseethreesectionsbelowtheenginesearch.YouwillhaveinstantaccesstothecurrentissueofEngineProfessionalmagazinebyclickingthereadbutton.Inadditionyoucankeepup-to-dateontheTechSkillsConferencesandothereventsinwhichAERAisparticipating.YoucanalsogetinformationregardingtheAERAOnlineTrainingProgram.ThePROSISPRODashboardalsoshowsyouthelatestTechnicalBulletinsandEngineSpecificationsaddedbyAERAstaff.OneofthenewfeaturesintheenginesearchistheabilitytosearchbyVehicleType.ThisfieldwasaddedtoIntroducingtheall-newPROSISPROThisscreenshotshowstheDashboardofPROSISPROwhereyoucansearchforenginespecskeepup-to-datewithEngineProfessionalMagazineAERATechSkillsConferencesandOnlineTraining.YoucanalsoseethelatestTechBulletinsandEngineSpecificationsaddedtotheprogram.AnewVehicleTypesearchallowstheuserstoselectthetypeofvehicletheyarelookingforfromadropdownmenu.TheprogramwilldefaulttoALLwhichincludesalltypeslisted. theprogramtoallowuserstonarrowtheirsearchrightfromthestart.ThefieldwilldefaulttoALLwhichmeansallthevehicletypeswillbeselected.IfauserislookingforinformationonamotorcycletheywillwanttoselectmotorcycleundervehicletypewhichwillnarrowtheMakefielddowntoahandfulofoptions.Onceyouhaveselectedyoursearchcriteriaandhitthesearchbuttonyoursearchresultswillshowatthebottomofthescreen.Iconshavebeenaddedheretohelpusersidentifythetechnicalbulletinsanddiagramsrightaway.Ifyoulookyouwillseeatackandcameraiconontherightsideofthescreen.Thetackwilllettheusersknowthenumberofbulletinsassociatedwiththatengineandthecameradoesthesamefordiagrams.Toviewanyofthoseyoujustneedtoclickonthenumberanditwilltakeyourighttothosesectionsoftheprogram.ThesearejustafewofthenewfeaturesofthePROSISPROprogram.AERAandtheAERABoardofDirectorsfeellikewehaveaneasy-to-useprogramforthemachineshopwiththeabilitytohavespecsatyourfingertips.InupcomingissuesofEngineProfessionalwewillgooverallthefeaturesoftheprogramincludinglookingupenginespecssearchingforacastingnumberlocatingtechnicalbulletinsetc.IfyouwouldlikemoreinformationaboutjoiningAERAandlookingatPROSISPROpleasecallAERAtoll-freeat888326-2372.WewillalsohavelivedemonstrationsattheAAPEXBooth4480andSEMAshowsinLasVegasandthePRIshowinIndianapolisBooth5516sobesuretostopbyandcheckoutthenewPROSISPROIAERATechnicalSpecialistSteveFoxhasover25yearsexperienceintheenginebuildingindustrywith10ofthoseyearsspentworkinginthemachineshop.SteveisanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistaswellasalongtimememberofthedragracingcircuit.www.engineprofessional.com79Thetackandcameraiconsshownontherightsideofthesearchresultsidentifiesthenumberofbulletinstackanddiagramscamerafortheengines.Over7000differentOEenginespecificationsfrom150manufacturerscoveringautoheavy-dutyagriculturalindustrialmarineandimportenginesAccuratelyandquicklyidentifiescylinderblocksheadscrankshaftscamshaftsandconnectingrodsbysearchablecastingnumbersOver37000castingnumbersOver3000AERATechnicalBulletinsNewsearchoptionsincluding10vehicletypesEfficientlyprovidesallenginespecsfromonesourceWriteanestimateworkorderinvoiceandtracksyourcustomersEasy-to-useEngineCompressionCalculatorAutomaticdailyupdatesHerearejustafewofthekeyadditionstothenewprogramReadthelatestissueofEngineProfessionalmagazinewithoneclickfromPROSISPRO.AERATechSkillsConferenceinformationandtradeshowsthatAERAisattendingwillbevisibleonthePROSISPRODashboard.Usersnowhavetheabilitytoaddcustomenginesandmissingspecstotheprogramonthewebwhichcouldnotbedonebefore.UserscanalsosharetheinformationwithAERAwithasinglemouseclick.ThisallowsAERAtoverifythatthespecificationiscorrectandupdatethedatabase.Userscanalsoaddtheirowncompanylogototheprogramsothatwhentheyprintinformationfromtheprogramtheirlogoandcompanyinformationwillbeincluded.UsershavetheabilitytorequestspecsonlinesimplyfillouttheRequestSpecformandhitsubmit.TherequestissentdirectlytoAERAandthetechdepartmentwillresearchthemissingdata.PROSISPROENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWARE 80OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalLikechildrenwithashinynewtoyadultsintroducedtosocialmediajumpedinandstartedplayingpostingpersonalphotostoFacebookacceptingrequestsforfriendshipfromlong-losthighschoolpalsandcheckingintoeverywherefromthecoffeeshoptotheirfavoritelocaleatery.WhatfunSuddenlyweweregettinganinsidelookintothelivesofpeoplewehadntconnectedwithinyearsButunlikeanewtoysocialmediadidntcomewithanyrealinstructions.Weunwrappeditsignedupandoffwewentsharingourworldwiththeworld.Asmoreandmorepeopleglommedontothisnewwayofcommunicatingtheseedsofchaoswereplanted.RulesofEngagementWithoutguidelinesonhowtousesocialmediadisasterisjustatweetaway.Manypeopleandcompanies--havefoundthisoutthehardway.Embarrassinggaffsimpulsiverantsandmisguidedcommentshaveensued.Whatyoupostonsocialmediasitesisoutthereforever.TheInternetneverforgetsaselfiepostedafteranightonthetownoratweetaboutacolleaguecancausemoredamagethanyouthink.Itsdangeroustoassumeprivacysettingsprotectyou.EvenifyouvelockeddownyourFacebookpageonceitspostedtothewebyoucanguaranteesomeonewhoisnotdirectlyconnectedtoyouwillfindit.Allittakesisforoneofyourfriendstoshareitwiththeirfriends.AndwhatyousayCANandWILLbeheldagainstyouYourfuturebossclientspartnersvotersandvendorarewatching.AgoodruleofthumbwhetheryouareengagingonsocialmediaforpersonalorinbusinessisthisIfyouwouldntsayitloudlyinfrontofyourmotherorbossyoushouldntpostitonlineanywhereWithsomanycompaniessupportingBYODitsmoreimportantthaneverthataclearsocialmediapolicyisinplaceforemployees.Youremployeesarerepresentativesofyourbrandandinbusinessperceptioniseverything.Toprotectyourselffromtheembarrassmentofasocialmediafauxpascreateapolicythatclearlystateswhatyouexpectfromyouremployeeswhenitcomestosocialmediause.Setclearboundariesespeciallyforthosewhoarepartofyourbrandbuildingprocess.DoIKnowYouInthisworldofconnectivityhowconnectedarewereallyHasthewordconnectedlostitsmeaningWithourabilitytoconnecttoanyoneanytimeanywherethroughsocialmediathetermconnectedhasbeenwatereddown.ThinkabouthowmanyofthegenericIdliketoaddyoutomyprofessionalnetworkonLinkedIninvitationstoconnectyoureceiveeachmonth.Veryfewofthemarefrompeopleyouhavetrulyconnectedwithoutsideofsocialmedia.Itfeelsalittlelikethepersonwiththemostfansandfollowerswins.ButdotheyreallyBeforetherewasLinkedInyouwouldntdreamofaskinganewacquaintancetobuysomethingfromyoujustminutesafteryoumet.Andyoucertainlywouldntshowupatanetworkingeventinyesterdaysoutfit.Justlikeofflinenetworkingbuildingrelationshipsonlinefollowsthesamebasicetiquetterules.HereareafewtokeepinmindBeprofessional.OnTwitterdontbetheeggpostaprofessionalphotoofyourselfonyourprofile.Thisholdstrueonallsocialmediasites.Abusinesscolleagueshouldrecognizeyoufromyouronlinepicture.Includeinformationaboutyourself.Yoursocialmediaprofilesaretheequivalentofyourbusinesscardsobesureyoukeepitupdatedasyourprofessionalinformationchanges.Alwayskeepyourbasiccontactinformationupdatedandlinktoyourotherprofessionalprofiles.Introduceyourself.WantpeopletogetasenseforwhoyouarePostinterestingvalue-addedcontentonyoursocialmediaaccountstoshowcaseyourprofessionalexpertise.ThisisespeciallytruewithLinkedInwhenyouupdateyourstatuswithusefulinformationyourebuildingtrustamongyournetworkopeningdoorsforintroductionstonewconnections.Beauthentic.Justlikeinreallifenoonewantstoconnectwiththatguy.Youknowtheonetheguyinthesleazysuitwhospendshistimeschmoozing.OneofthebiggestmistakespeoplemakewhenconnectingonLinkedInorFacebookisnotpersonalizingthemessageintheinvitation.SwapoutthedefaultmessagewithsomethinglikeGeorge.Ireallyenjoyyourblogatxblog.com.Theleadershipcontentyoushareissovaluable.Idliketoaddyoutomyprofessionalnetworkandgettoknowmoreaboutyourbusiness.Thiswilllettherecipientknowhowyoufoundthemandwhyyouwanttoconnect.Inturntheywillknowthatyouarentconnectionforthesakeofjustaddingtotheirnumbers.Listen.Buildingconnectionsthroughsocialmediaisntjustaboutpushingoutcontentonthisnetworkorthat.Ifyourenottakingtimetolistenandengagewithinfluentialpeopletheonesyouarehopingtoconnectwithyouremissinganopportunity.ChooseahandfulofkeypeopleyouwanttobuildabusinessrelationshipwithreadwhattheyarepostingandwherethereisanopportunityforyoutoaddvaluejumpinWhetheryouareconnectingwithpeopleintheonlineworldoratadinnerpartyknowinghowtopresentyourselfinapositivewayisthesame.Thinkbeforeyouspeaktranslatestothinkbeforeyoutweet.IMargaretPageisarecognizedetiquetteexpertspeakerandcoachwhohelpspeopleandorganizationsbemoreprofessional.SheistheauthorofThePowerofPoliteBlueprintforSuccessandCognitoCardsWisdomforDiningSocialEtiquette.SheisthefounderandCEOofEtiquettePageEnterprisesaleadingWesternCanadiantrainingorganization.TolearnmoreaboutMargaretfollowheronTwitterandFacebookorsignupforherEtiquetteblogorEtiquetteEdgeNewsletter.FormoreinformationortocontactMargaretpleasevisitherwebsiteatetiquettepage.comorcall604880-8002.SocialMediaEtiquetteBYMARGARETPAGE www.memorialmachine.comForover40yearsithasbeenourgoaltoprovidethehighestqualityenginecomponentrepairavailable.OurTulsaplantat43000sq.ft.isoneofthelargestmostmodernintheindustry.PlusourOklahomaCityplantwith23000sq.ft.givesustheabilitytolimitcriticaldowntime.IEngineBlocksWehavethelargestandmostmodernengineblockrebuilddepartmentsintheindustry.Wehave8CNCboringmachinesandhavethecapacityofmachining3600CaterpillarandATWaukeshaengineblocks.MemorialMachinealsohasaroboticmetalsprayingsystemtoreclaimdamagedmainboresandworntopdecks.ICylinderHeadsOurcylinderheadrepairservicemakesuseofthelateststate-of-the-artmachinesavailablespecificallydesignedtoproducethefinestqualityofwork.Allheadsarebuiltwiththehighestqualitypartsavailablematchedtoexactspecificationsforbothlandfillandnaturalgasapplications.AllheadsarebuiltwithNewPartsnotrefurbishedorreuseandsalvageguidelines.IConnectingRodsandAccessoriesWehavethemostuptodateconnectingroddepartmentintheindustry.Wehavedevelopedprocessestorebuildnearlyalltypesofhighspeedconnectingrodsincludingmanywithserratedcaps.CompleteReconditioningServiceavailableforwaterpumpsoilpumpsrockerarmassembliesfuelvalvesandmanyotheraccessoriesforhighspeedengines.WespecializeinthefollowingenginesWaukesha704270441179817AT-25AT-27WhiteSuperior6G-8258G-82512G-82516G-825Caterpillar379398399Caterpillar3508351235163520Caterpillar36063608361236166303S.40thW.Ave.TulsaOK74132Toll-free800-437-7986Phone918-446-1828Fax918-446-1504SpecializinginRebuildingNaturalGasandLandfillGasEngineComponentswww.engineprofessional.com81 82OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com83 TB2652EngineCodesP0011P0012P0021P0022P034XOn2009-11Ford3.0LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingenginecodesP0011P0012P0021P0022P034xon2009-11Ford3.0Lengines.ThesecodescouldappearonenginesbuiltonorbeforeMarch12011.Fordoffersthefollowinginformationintryingtoeliminatethesetroublecodesfromhappeningagain.Tobegintheenginebuilddateneedstobeverifiedasonlysome2011modelyearenginesareaffected.Iftheenginewasbuiltafter312011donotcontinuewiththeinformationinthistechnicalbulletin.Iftheenginewasbuiltonorbefore312011theinformationprovidedinthistechnicalbulletinapplies.ThecauseoftheproblemseemstobewearinthecamshaftthrustbearingcapcausingthevariablecamshafttimingVCTtosetDTCsduetooilleakagefromexcessiveclearanceinthecambearingcap.ThisinturnwillnotallowenoughoiltofeedtheVCTphaserforproperoperation.DuringinspectionofthecamshaftthrustbearingscapsthecapsofbothintakeandexhaustmayshowsignsofwearasshowninFigure12.Ifthecamshaftcapsdonotshowanysignsofabnormalwearthecapscanbereinstalledontheheadandtorquedto7.5ftlbsandreplacebothVCTsolenoids.Iftherearesignsofwearinthecamshaftthrustbearingcapsthecamshaftwillneedtobeinspectedforwearaswellandifthecamshowssignsofwearitwillneedtobereplaced.Thecylinderheadwillneedtobeinspectedatthistimeandiftherearesignsofwearinthecylinderheaditwillneedtobereplacedaswellwithlikethecamshaft.SlightpolishingFigure3isconsiderednormalandshouldnotreasonforacylinderheadreplacement.TB2652Figure3SlightPolishinginCylinderHeadTB2653OilPumpModuleTimingMarkConfirmationOn2006-15Hyundai2.02.4LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingoilpumpmoduletimingmarkconfirmationon2006-15Hyundai2.02.54Lengines.Iftheoilpumpmoduleisnotproperlytimedorindexedcustomersmaycomplainofabnormalenginevibrationsintheengine.Iftheoilpumpmodulehasbeenreplacedorremovedfromtheenginewhileengineisstillassembledconfirmationoftheproperindexingneedstobedonebeforeinstallationoftheloweroilpan.LocatethetimingmarksforcrankshaftpulleyandtimingcoverAcounterbalancedriveshaftandhousingBandoilpumpdrivesprocketandhousingCshowninFigure1.RotatethecrankshaftpulleyAuntilthenotchedmarkonthepulleylinesupwiththe0TDCsightmarkTonthetimingchaincovershowinFigure2.ConfirmthatthecounterbalanceshaftdrivenshaftandthehousingmarksBarelinedupwhentheoilpumpdrivensprocketandhousingmarksCarelinedupshowinFigure3.Iftheoilpumpdrivensprocketandhousingmarksarenotalignedrepeattheprocessbyrotatingthecrankshaftonecompleteturnclockwise.Thisproceduremayneedtoberepeatedupto3timesuntilthemarksareproperlylinedup.Ifthemarksdonotlineupadjustmentisrequired.TB2653Figure3ConfirmingbalanceshaftandoilpumptimingNOTESRedmarksinphotosareforvisualizationpurposesonly.Markingcolorsontheactualenginemayvary.ThecounterbalancedrivenshaftBturnstwicethecrankshaftspeedTheoilpumpdrivensprocketCreturnstothesameindexedpositionafter4completeclockwiserotationsofthecrankshaftpulleyAReinstalltheoilpumpdrivechaintothedrivensprocketandaligntimingmarksifallmarksarenotaligningproperly.84OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionaltechTB2653Figure1TimingmarkverificationTB2653Figure2Crankpulleyalignment0TDCmarkTB2652Figure1CamThrustCapWearTB2652Figure2CamThrustCapWear www.engineprofessional.com85TB2654CounterboreRepairforCaterpillarC3400SeriesDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowingguidelinestocoversomecommonproblemsthatcanoccurduringreconditioningCaterpillarCand3400Seriesdieselcylinderblocks.Minorerosiononthetopdeckofthecylinderblockcanbesalvagedbymachiningandresurfacingthetopdeck.Minorerosionischaracterizedaserosionthatislessthan.011.28mmdeep.Anadditionalrepairmayberequirediftheblockdeckismachinedwhichistore-establishthecounterboredepthtoitsproperspecification.Ifthereiserosionintheuppercounterboreandacceptablerepairistomachinethecounterboresformetalinserts.TB2654Figure1.EstablishingCounterboresbyMachiningNoteNewlinerseatinsertsdonotneedtobeinstalledintoallcylindersiferosionhasoccurredononlyonecylinder.Table1liststhestainlesssteelinsertsthatcanbeusedonthecylinderblockson3400SeriesandCSeriesenginesiftheerosionislessthan.20715.260mmdeeponthetopdeck.NoteDonotcounterborethetopdeckofthecylinderblockmorethan.20715.260mm.Torepairthoseblocksathermalspraycanbeusedinordertorestorethecontactsurfacesofthegaskettotheoriginaldimensions.AcceptableprocessesareFlameSprayandArcSpray.RefertoCatCD-ROMSERF8704FlameSprayGuideandCD-ROMSERF8473ArcSprayGuideformoreinformationaboutsalvagingcylinderblockswiththermalspray.Measurethethicknessoftheinsertpriortomachiningthetopdeckinordertoensurethecorrectlinerprojectionaftercounterboringthecylinderblock.NoteDonotuseinsertsofcastironoranyothermaterialonthe3400SeriesorC-Seriesenginesinordertoadjustthelinerprojection.UseonlytheinsertslistedinTable1.Theareaaroundtheseatforthelinercansometimesbepolishedbytheslightmovementsbetweenthecylinderlinerandthecylinderblock.Thispolishedsurfacecanlooklikeerosion.Thetopdeckdoesnotneedtobemachinedinordertoinstallaninsertiftheerosionislessthan.0010.0254mm.Besuretocheckforthecorrectprojectionofthecylinderlinerduringassembly.Erosionaroundtheholeforthewaterdirectorisnotcriticalifthereisenoughmaterialinordertosupportthewaterdirector.ErosioninthisareacansometimesbecorrectedwithRTVcompound.TheRTVcompoundwillhelpsealthewaterdirectorintothecylinderblock.Analternativerepairhereistomachinearoundcounterboreinstallabrassplugandthenre-establishthewaterdirectorhole.TB2654Table1.LinerSeatInsertsfor3400SeriesandC-SeriesEnginesInsertPartNumberTypeofInsertThickness16I-4361Undersize.03040.772mm9Y-3368Standard.03240.822mm6I-4362Oversize.03430.872mm6I-4363Undersize.06121.555mm2W-3815Standard.06321.605mm6I-4364Oversize.06521.655mm6I-4365Undersize.10472.660mm5N-0093Standard.10672.710mm6I-4366Oversize.10872.760mm101-0524Undersize.20325.160mm101-0523Standard.20515.210mm101-0525Oversize.20715.260mm1Theindicatedthicknessisanominaldimensionwithatoleranceof.0004.010mm.ThesourceforinformationTomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofes-sionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.JointodayGotopage94foramembershipapplication. TB2655DEFDieselExhaustFluidOn2011-15Dodge3.06.7LDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingDEFDieselExhaustFluidon2011-15Dodge3.0L6.7Ldieselengines.Thistechnicalbulletinappliestobothversionsofthe3.0Lengineinline4cylinderandtheV6engines.TheaffectedvehiclesareequippedwithdieselenginesthatuseaSelectiveCatalyticReductionSCRexhaustemissionsaftertreatmentsystem.ThistechnologyisusedtoreducetheNitrogenOxidesNOxemissionsoftheenginesothatitmeetscurrentU.S.EPAandCaliforniaexhaustemissionrequirements.InordertofunctionproperlyandensurethevehiclemeetsapplicableemissionstandardstheSCRsysteminjectsDieselExhaustFluidDEFintotheexhaustupstreamoftheSCRcatalyst.TheDEFreactswiththeexhaustgasinsidethecatalysttoconvertNOxtoharmlessgassespriortoreleaseintotheatmosphere.DiagramofcommonSelectiveCatalyticReductionSCRonDieselEnginesSinceDEFisconsumedduringoperationofthevehicletheDEFtankmustberefilledperiodicallyasoutlinedintheOwnersManualDieselSupplement.TheDEFfillercapisclearlymarkedDieselExhaustFluid.OnCabChassisvehiclesthecapislocatedbehindthecabonthedriverssideofthetruck.OnPickuptrucksandGrandCherokeevehiclesthecapislocatedbehindthefuelfilldoor.Thetankispre-filledwithapproximately3gallonsofDEFfromthemanufacturingassemblyplant.ThisfactoryfillshouldbeadequatetoperformthevehiclesPre-DeliveryInspectionandotherin-dealershipoperations.ThedriverwillbenotifiedwhenthelevelofDEFdropsbelowapproximately2.5gallons.ThefirstlevelwarningdisplaysthemessageEngineWillNotRestartinXXXXmiDEFLowRefillSoon.IfthevehicleisdriventoolongwithlowDEFthemessageEngineWillNotRestartinXXXXmiRefillDEFwillbedisplayed.AndfinallyEngineWillNotRestartRefillDEFwillbedisplayedifthedrivercontinuestooperatethevehiclewithoutrefillingtheDEFtank.Atthatpointtheenginewillnolongerrestartifitisshutoff.Aminimumof2.5gallonsofDEFwillneedtobeaddedinordertobeabletorestarttheengine.ThefollowingDiagnosticTroubleCodemaybedisplayedonaDiagnosticScanToolifthelevelofDEFwaslowP203F-DieselExhaustFluidReductantLevelTooLow.WhenthiscodeissetthePowertrainControlModulePCMinitiatesacountdownthatwillinhibitanenginerestartiftheDEFsystemisnotservicedwithin500miles805kmofthefaultbeingdetected.ItalsocommandstheElectronicVehicleInformationCenterEVICtodisplaytheLowDEFmessages.IftheenginefailstostartduetoLOWDEFaminimumof2.5gallonsarerequiredtobeaddedbeforethevehiclewillstart.NOTEDonotprematurelyfilltheDEFtank.DEFhasalimitedshelflifebasedonambienttemperatures.VehiclesthatareexposedtohightemperaturesforlengthsoftimemayhavetheirDEFureaconcentrationdegradetothepointthattheDEFwillbecomelesseffectiveatreducingNOxlevelsintheSCRcatalyst.IfthisoccurstheenginecontrolsystemmayilluminatetheMalfunctionIndicatorLampMILandsetrelatedDiagnosticTroubleCodesDTC.RefertothefollowingcharttogetabetterunderstandingofDEFshelflife.TemperatureEstimatedUsefulLife32F0CIndefiniate50F10C75Years68F20C11Years86F30C23Months95F35C10Months104F40C4Months122F50C1Month140F60C1WeekDEFhasatemperaturedependentshelflifethatshortenswhenexposedtoelevatedtemperatures.AstemperaturesincreasetheUreaintheDEFdegrades.AstheconcentrationdegradestheureawillbecomelesseffectiveatreducingNOxlevelsintheSCRcatalyst.ThechartprovidestheapproximateshelflifeofDEFversustemperature.ItisrecommendedthatDEFisstoredinalocationthatminimizesthisdegradation.TheDEFtankhasbeendesignedwithanairspacethataccommodatestheexpansionofDEF.Nevertop-offtheDEFtankafteranormalfillasthatwillallowDEFtofilltheexpansionspacewhichcancausedamagetothetank.86OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionaltechAERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlineTechnicalBulletinsfromthisissuecanbefoundonourwebsitealsoinSpanish.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorneedtechnicalsupporte-mailinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.www.engineprofessional.com OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayTobecomeamembersimplyfillouttheapplicationonpage94callAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.organdcompletetheonlineapplication.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepwww.engineprofessional.com87 88OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionaltechTB2656TimingChainInstallationOn2005-11Ford4.6LVINHEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingthetimingchaininstallationon2005-11Ford4.6LVINHengines.Installingthetimingchainandgettingitalignedproperlyisdifferentfromthepreviousversionsofthe4.6Lengine.Fordoffersthefollowingproceduretogetthecorrecttimingandifthealignmentisnocorrectenginedamagemayoccur.1.Rotatethecrankshafttopositionthecrankshaftsprockettimingmarkinthe6oclockpositionasshowninFigure1.2.RotatethecamshaftsprocketstopositiontheRightHandRHcamshaftsprockettimingmarkatthe11oclockpositionandtheLeftHandLHcamshaftsprockettimingmarkinthe12oclockpositionasshowninFigure2.3.CompressthetensionerplungerbyusingaviseandinstallaretainingcliponthetensionertoholdtheplungerinplaceduringinstallationrefertoFigure3.Removethetensionerfromthevise.4.IftherearenocoloredlinksvisiableonthechainlaychainoutandstretchitsoyouhavetwolinksonbothendsandmarkthoseforrefereceasshowninFigure4.5.InstalltheRHLHtimingchainguidesalongwithbolts2oneachoneandtighento89inlbs10Nm.6.PositiontheLHTimingchainonthecamshaftsprocketandmakesurethatthesprockettimingmarkisalignedwiththecoloredmarkedchainlinkasshowinFigure5.7.PositiontheLHtimingchaintensionerarmonthedowelpinandinstalltheLHtimingchaintensioer.Tightenthe2boltsto18ftlbs25Nm.NOTELHtimingcahintensionerarmhasabumpnearthedowelholeforidentification.RemovetheLHtimingchainretainingclipfromthetensioner.8.PositionthelowerendoftheRHoutertimingchainonthecrankshaftsprocketaligningthetimingmarkonthesprocketwiththesinglecoloredmakredchainlinkasshowninFigure6.9.PositiontheRHtimingchainonthecamshaftsprocketmakingsurethecamshaftsprockettimingmarkisalignedwiththecoloredmarkedchainlink.NOTEThecamshaftphaserandsprocketwillbestampedwithoneoftheillustratedtimingmarksfortheRHcamshaftshowinFigure7.10.PositiontheRHtimingchaintensionerarmonthedowelpinandinstalltheRHtimingchaintensionerandtightenthe2boltsto18ftlbs25NmandremovetheretainingclipfromtheRHtimingchaintensioner.11.Asapost-checkverifycorrectalignmentofalltimingmarksasseeninFigure8.Alsoverifythatthetimingmarksonthesprocketscorrespondwiththefollowing.TheRHandLHcamshaftphasersprocketsaresimilar.RefertothesingletimingmarktoidentifytheRHcamshaftphasersprocketandtheLtimingmarktoidentifytheLHcamshaftphasersprocket.TB2656Figure1CrankshaftTimingMarkat6oclockpositionTB2656Figure5LHTimingChainAlignmentOnSprocketTB2656Figure2RHLHCamshaftTimingMarkLocationsTB2656Figure3CompressingTensionerPlungerandInstallingRetainingClipTB2656Figure4TimingChainReferenceMarksForInstallation www.engineprofessional.com89TB2656Figure8VerifyTimingMarkAlignmentTB2656Figure6RHTimingChainAlignmentWithCrankshaftSprocketTB2656Figure7ReferenceIdentificationMarkForRHCamPhaserSprocketOpenforAERAhalfpageadSAVINGCYLINDERSFORNEARLY70YEARSCONNECTINGRODSWeofferthehighestqualityconnectingrodsforavarietyofapplications.SERVICEPARTSBOLTSOliverservicepartsaremanufacturedtomeetourexactingspecificationsmakingthemidealforreconditioningeffortsandthereplacementofsinglerodsbushingssleevesandbolts.-38716DIAMETERBOLTSUPGRADEOPTIONSAVAILABLESALESOLIVERRACINGPARTS.COM231237-4515WWW.OLIVERRACINGPARTS.COMCRAFTSMANSHIPPRECISIONDURABILITYSTRENGTH 90OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionaltechTB2657CrankshaftIdentificationfor2001-2012FordMazda2.53.0LDuratecEnginesTheAERATechnicalDepartmentoffersthefollowinginformationregardingcrankshaftidentificationfor2001-2012Ford2.5.0LDuratecDOHCengines.Theseenginesareusedinamultitudeofvehiclemodelsandsharemanyinternalenginecomponents.Oncethosecomponentshavebeendisassembledfromtheirformerhomeidentificationcanbedifficult.TB2657Figure1.CrankshaftVisualAppearanceThecrankshaftforthe2.53.0LenginesatfirstglanceappeartobeidenticalinphysicalappearanceasshownintheFigure1.DimensionallythecrankshaftsarethesameandboltholeconfigurationsmatchasshowninFigure2.Thecrankshaftbalanceofthetwodifferentenginesisuniquetoeachengine.Thismeansusingthewrongcrankshaftinanenginemaycreateanunwantedharmonicconditionandcauseanenginevibration.Todateisbeenobservedthatall2.5LcrankshaftshavegonethroughanextraweightremovalprocessatthefactoryasshowninFigure3.Usingitasanidentificationmarkerwillhelpduringthecrankshaftselectionprocess.Itisadvisedtoalsomarkeachcrankshaftwithanindeliblemarkerastothelitersizetoensureproperidentificationatalltimes.TB2657Figure2.BoltHoleConfigurationTB2657Figure3.2.5LExtraMachining AbouttheProgramEachprogramisanonlineself-pacedcoursewithuptooneyeartocomplete.GaryLewisbookAutomotiveMachiningEngineRepairwillbeincludedwiththe150registrationfee.Everythingatechnicianwillneediscontainedintheprogramwithvideoclipsandsupplementalreadingsatkeylocationswithintheprogram.Thebookwillbeusedasasyllabuswhennotonline.Eachchapterwillbefollowedbyamultiplechoicetest.TherewillbeafinalexamforeachcertificationCylinderHeadandorEngineMachinist.AERAoffersacomprehensiveonlinetrainingprogramnotjustatestleadingtodiploma-qualitycertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.Technicianswhosuccessfullyearneithercertificatewillholdproofthattheyhaveaprofessionalunderstandingofautomotivemachiningfundamentalsmeasuringtoolsshopsafetyfastenersenginetheoryenginediagnosisenginedisassemblycomponentcleaninginspectioncrackdetectionandrepaircomponentreconditioningandcylinderheadandblockresurfacing.Theinformationinthisprogramispresentedfromtheviewofenginemachineshopoperations.Basicproceduresareselectedfromthosewithwideindustryacceptanceandrepresentwell-balancedandcompetentstateoftheartpractice.GaryLewisInstructorandAuthorFormoreinformationcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202oremailkarenaera.org.CylinderHeadandMachinistCertificateProgramwww.engineprofessional.com91 EFIConversionsByTonyCandelaConvertingfromacarburetedfuelsystemtoelectronicfuelinjectionEFIimprovestheperformancedrivabilityandfueleconomyofanyclassicvehicle.Throughaseriesofsensorsprocessorsandwiresitgathersengineandatmosphericinforma-tiontopreciselydeliverthecorrectamountoffueltoyourengine.Withacarburetoryoumustmanuallyadjustandchangepartstoadaptittodifferingcon-ditionsandapplications.Installingacom-pleteaftermarketEFIsystemmayseemtoocomplexbutitiswithinyourreachbyusingtheclearandeasy-to-understandstep-by-stepinstructions.YouwillbeabletoconfidentlyinstallthecorrectEFIsys-teminyourvehicleandenjoyalltheben-efits.AvarietyofEFISystemsarecurrentlyavailablethrottlebodyinjectionTBImultiportfuelinjectionMPFIstacksystemsapplicationspecificandspecialapplicationsystems.AuthorTonyCandelarevealstheattributesofeachsoyoucanselectthesystemthatsidealforyourcar.Heexplainsinexceptionaldetailhowtoinstallbothofthesesystems.ThisbooktakesthemysteryoutofEFIsoitsnotablackartbutratheraclearworkingsetofparameters.Youareshownhowtoprofessionallyinstalltheinjectorsintotheintakesystemaswellashowtointegratethewiringintothemainharness.Inaddi-tioneachstepofupgradingthefuelsys-temtosupporttheEFIisexplained.Thebookalsodelvesintointegratingignitionandcomputercontrolwiththeseafter-marketsystemssoyoucanbeoutdrivingratherthanstrugglingwithtuning.SuggestionGreatbooktostartwithaboutswappingovertoEFI.WheretoBuyPublishedbyCarTech.ISBN9781613250839ProductCodeSA261HondaK-SeriesEngineSwapsByAronBonkTheHondaK-seriesenginewasintro-ducedin2001replacingtheB-seriesastheengineofchoiceforHondaenthusi-asts.ThesenewK-seriesarethemostpowerfulstockHondaAcuraenginesyoucanget.Theyfeaturenewtechnologysuchasarollerrockervalvetrainbetterflowingheadsandadvancedvariablecamtimingtechnologyallofwhichmaketheseenginesthemostpowerfulandeffi-cientintheHondaenginefamilylineup.Andthatswhereengineswapperscomeinlookingforgreaterpower-density.InHondaK-seriesengineswapsauthorAronBonkguidesyouthroughallthedetailfactsandfiguresyouneedtocompleteasuccessfulK-seriesswapintoyourfavoritechassis.HecoversallK-seriesengineVariantsaswellasinter-changeabilitycompatibilityaccessorieswiringcontrolsoperationdrivetraincon-siderationsandmore.WhileyoucanstillmodifyyourexistingB-seriesdollarfordollaryoucantmakemorepowerthanyoucanwithaHondaK-seriesengine.Ifyouhaveanolderchassisandarelookingforseriousinjectionofpowerandtech-nologyswappingaK-seriesengineisagreatoption.HondaK-seriesengineswapstellsyoueverythingyouneedtoknow.SuggestionTheinformationinthisbookmakesitveryeasytoswaptheK-seriesengineinplaceofotherengines.OnethingthatjumpedrightoffthepagesatmewasjustpassontheAcuraRDXengine2007-2012.NotthatitisabadenginebutitisnotcompatibleatallwithK-seriespartsandmountsjustabouteverythingisdifferentthantheK-series.WheretoBuyPublishedbyCarTech.ISBN978-1-61325-103-4ProductCodeSA276TheGreatFEIntakeComparoByJayBrownThebookbeginswithJayinformingthereadersonthehowsandwhysofsettingupadynocorrectlytoproduceaccurateresults.Thisisagreatstarttothebookbecauseitwillmakeyoubetterinformedaboutdynotestingsoyouarenoteasilyfooled.JayhasspentaminimumoffouryearsonhisowndynokeepingtheresultsallunderhiscontrolsotheinfoisnotjusthearsayUsetheinformationinthisbooktoeducateyourselfemployeesandcus-tomerswhenitcomestobuildingorredesigningtheFordFEengine.OneexampleIthoughtwasgreatinthebookwasmakingsurethattheintakemanifoldwillsupportalltheperformancethatyourcustomermaybelookingtoachieveinthefinalresults.JayhastestedseveralFordFEintakemanifoldsincludingsomecastironOEFordFEaluminumintakesandthelatestofferingsbythehighperform-anceaftermarketcompanies.Itwasnicetoseetheresultsofallandyoucanmakeaneducateddecisiononwhattousebytheresultshefound.Rememberonethingyourresultswilldifferduetomanyvariableslikeenginedisplacementcylinderheadairflowcamshaftprofilesvalvetrainetc.ThisisagreatbookthatgivesyouseveralideastoconsiderwhenachievingwhatyouarelookingforoutoftheFordFEEngines.IwouldliketopersonallythankJayfortakingthetimetogethisthoughtsandresultsdownonpaper.Thisisanout-standingbookforanyonewhoisaFEFordenthusiastorlookingforsomegreatinformationWheretoBuyPublishedbySpecialtyPerformancePublications.ISBN978-0-615-41724-092OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalONTHESAMEPAGEBYMIKECARUSO www.engineprofessional.com93PEGGYGREENCall507-457-0755or866-457-8975peggybigrivergmail.comRepresentinganumberofqualitylinestobringyouthebestvalueforallyourshopsupplyneeds.HOMEOFREGISNORTH35517SkyviewDriveWinonaMN55987HOMEOFREGISNORTHCallENGINEREBUILDINGEQUIPMENTSUPPLIESServingtheEngineRebuildingIndustryforover25Yearswww.rtsalesinc.com1625NorthMilfordRdHighlandMI48357Phone248-887-0422Fax248-887-0150MARKETPLACEGrayMarineParts.comWeofferavastarrayoforiginalGrayMarineenginesenginepartsaccessoriesandsomuchmore.Ifyouhavebeensearchinghighandlowforahard-to-ndpartthensearchnomoreCallusandwellnditforyouCall630-485-5007salesgraymarineparts.com 94OCT-DEC2014engineprofessionalAPPLICATIONFORU.S.ACTIVEMEMBERSHIPELIGIBLITYREQUIREMENTSApplicantshouldbeaproprietorshippartnershiporcorporationthathasadequateautomotiveshopequipmentandperformseitherenginemachiningenginemodificationengineassemblyorengineinstallationandwhoseprincipalbusinessservestheautomotivetrucktractormarinedieselandotherclassesofretailindustrialandcommercialaccountsandnotprimarilysellusedpartswhichtermdoesnotincluderemanufacturedpartsintheirmainplaceofbusiness.1.Pleaseremitasheetofcompanyletterheadcompanybusinesscardorcompanyinvoicewithapplication.2.Ifyourbusinessmeetstheabovecriteriapleasecompletetheformbelow.Pleaseprintlegiblyortype.COMPANYINFORMATIONCompanyNameDatebusinessstartedContactPersononenameonlyBusinessAddressCityStateZipPhoneFaxEmailWebsiteHowmanypersonnelinyourshopincludepart-timepersonnelPleasechecktheappropriatecategoriesforlistingintheAERAMembershipDirectoryIACCustompassengercarandlighttruckenginerebuildingIADDieselheavy-dutyandindustrialenginerebuildingIAFForeignmotorcycleandsmallenginerebuildingIAHHigh-performanceenginerebuildingIALDrivelinerebuildingIAMMarineenginerebuildingIAPProductionenginerebuilding100permonthIAYCylinderheadrebuildingspecialistIAIEngineinstallationIOtherPAYMENTMUSTACCOMPANYAPPLICATIONIENTIREAMOUNTENCLOSEDMONTHLYPAYMENTPLANSAVAILABLEContactAERAfordetails.CREDITCARDIVISAIMasterCardIAmericanExpressIDiscoverICHECKPleasemakecheckpayabletoAERACardholderNamepleaseprintCardNumberExpirationSecurityCodeCardholderSignatureIattestthatmyfirmmeetstheaboverequirementsandgiveAERApermissiontoverifytheinformation.SignatureTitleRECOMMENDEDFORMEMBERSHIPBYSendapplicationandpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.Orfaxyourcompletedapplicationwithpaymentto888-329-2372toll-freeor815-526-7601.Youmayalsoapplyonlineatwww.aera.org.IfyouarealreadyanAERAmemberpleasegivethisapplicationtoafriend.CallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372ordirect815-526-7600withanyquestions.AERAMEMBERSHIPDUESSelecttheappropriatepersonnelcategoryforyourshop.NumberofshoppersonnelI1-3........................................38131.75monthI4-8........................................46738.92monthI9-24......................................60350.25monthI25ormore............................71259.33month www.engineprofessional.com95ADVERTISERINDEXAAPEXShow...............................................................69AccessIndustries...........................................................5ACL........................................................................1523AERA.....................................................................8791AETC...........................................................................41BigRReMaTecUSA...................................................45CIFIC..............................................................................7Cloyes..........................................................................31CTPCostexTractorParts...................insidebackcoverCWTIndustries...............................................................1Darton..........................................................................77DNJEngineComponents...................outsidebackcoverDrivenRacingOil............................................................8Dura-Bond...................................................................52Elgin.......................................................................3563EndurancePowerProducts.........................................53EnginePartsGroupInc................................................24Enginequest.................................................................59ESCOIndustries...........................................................47FarrisEquipment..........................................................28FederalMogulFel-Pro....................................252729Fluidampr.....................................................................18FowlerSalesService.................................................58Goodson......................................................................22Hastings................................................insidefrontcoverIPD...............................................................................51Jamison.......................................................................19JoeBakerEquipmentSales.........................................66KingEngineBearings...................................................57L.A.Sleeve....................................................................89MAHLEClevite...............................................................3Maxiforce.....................................................................55Melling..........................................................................10MemorialMachine........................................................81NPR.............................................................................39OliverRacingParts.......................................................89PEP.......................................................................3234QualCast......................................................................36QualityPowerProducts................................................37Regis............................................................................33Rottler..........................................................................96S.B.International............................................................9SafetyAutoParts.........................................................65SEMAShow.................................................................11SilverSeal....................................................................17Sunnen........................................................................71Topline....................................................................82-83Tracto-PartsCenter......................................................49UltrasonicLLC............................................................73UnitedEngineandMachine.........................................67U.S.ToolandMfg.Co..................................................16Vibratech......................................................................90ADVERTISINGOPPORTUNITIESGetyouradvertisingmessagedirectlyintotheshopswhoarebuildingrebuildingandinstallingenginesbyadvertisinginEngineProfessionalmagazine.Engineprofessionalsworldwidereceivethisfull-colorpublicationfourtimesperyear.Eachissueispackedwithhighlytechnicalapplication-drivenarticlesfromourstaffofwritersaswellasfeaturecontributionsfromindustryprofessionals.Formoreinformationdownloadamediakitfromourwebsiteatwww.engineprofessional.comorcontactouradsalesstaff.AdSalesHalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comJimRickoff815-526-7343jimaera.orgForadpaymentcirculationmembershipinformationCallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600.MonthlyPaymentOptionsAERAnowoffersmonthlyinstallmentpaymentoptionsforyourannualAERAmembershipandPRO-SISsupportfees.CreditcardDirectwithdrawlfrombankaccountTherewillbenoadditionalfeesifyouelecttopaymonthly.ExampleAsmall1-3manshoppaysanannualrateof381or31.75permonthfor12monthscreditcardordirectwithdrawlfrombankaccount.FormoreinformationcallKarenat888-326-2372ore-mailkarenaera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.org THECUTTINGEDGE8029South200thStreetKentWA98032USA125387270501-800-452-0534www.rottlermfg.comwww.youtube.comrottlermfgwww.facebook.comrottlermfgcontactrottlermfg.comSoAdvancedItsSimpleH75AAutomatesHighAccuracyTrueVerticalDiamondHoningDualstagehoningunattendedoperationNearlyinstantAutomaticQuickChangeToolClampingRottlereliminatescomplexCNClearningcurvePrecisionBallScrewMechanismsforaccurateresultsAutomaticLoadForcecontrolThePerfectPairingforPerformanceBuildersEngineRemanufacturesCalltoarrangealivesoftwaredemoonyourcomputerovertheinternetRottlerWalkAwayAutomationAllowsOneOperatortoEasilyRunBothMachinesIntuitiveRottlerSoftwareisEngineeredtoEasilyMoveManualOperatorsintoSimpleDigitalControlF79AAccuratelyHandlesaWideVarietyofMachiningOperationsBoringSleevingSurfacingMainCamshaftLineBoringBuiltforIndustrialHighPerformanceBlocksEasytolearndesignedforfastprotableoperationTravelingColumnSpindleQuillDesignaccommodates2workstationsDirectDrivePrecisionBallScrewsRottlersensesinterferencewithintegratedAutomaticCrashPreventionNHRANitroMethaneFunnyCarRottlerMakesPowerFastTimWilkerson96OCT-DEC2014engineprofessional