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UltrasonicCleaningTurncleaningintoprofitsEngineCoatingsPerformanceenhancementthermalbarriersurfaceprotectionandcosmeticapplicationsHigh-PerformanceEngineBearingsOptimizationofclearanceAdvancedHoningValleydepthiskeyALUMINUMALLOYSLIGHTENTHINGSUPFORDIESELSNAVISTARMAXXFORCEDTDIESELENGINEANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONJULY-SEPTEMBER2014 2JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessional4FROMTHEEDITOR6INDUSTRYNEWSWelcometonewAERAmemberscalendarofeventsnewsandviews12MEETINCOMINGCHAIRMANSTEVESCHOEBENByJimRickoff18ENGINECOATINGSByMikeMavrigian38CHEVROLETCRUZENAMEDDIESELCAROFTHEYEARByDaveHagen40LIGHTENINGTHINGSUPFORDIESELSByAndrewHalonen48OPTIMIZATIONOFCLEARANCEDESIGNFORHIGHPERFORMANCEENGINEBEARINGSByDr.DmitriKopeliovich54ADVANCEDHONINGByRayKemble62ULTRASONICCLEANINGTURNCLEANINGINTOPROFITSByPhilEsz68CYLINDERSLEEVESByDavidClinton725MINUTEMETALLURGYLESSONByMichaelPfeiferResidualStressinMetals74TECHSKILLSCONFERENCERECAPBySteveFox76TECHSIDEByLakeSpeedJr.Theendofbackwardscompatibility80AERAAUTOMOTIVEMACHINISTONLINETRAINING82TECHBULLETINS90ONTHESAMEPAGEEnginebuildingbookreviewsbyAERATechnicalSpecialistMikeCaruso91MARKETPLACECONTENTSEngineProfessionalmagazineISSN1945-7634ispublishedquarterlybyAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERA.Copyright2014AERA.Subscriptionrates70peryearoutsidetheUnitedStates90singlecopy20.Publicationedito-rialandbusinessoffice500CoventryLaneSte180CrystalLakeIL60014.Editorial815-526-7600Advertising815-526-7600Circulation815-526-7600.Sendchangeofaddresstotheabove.TheopinionsbeliefsandviewpointsexpressedbythevariousauthorsinthismagazinearethoseoftheindividualauthorsandnotoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationwhichdisclaimsallresponsibilityforthem.VOLUME7NUMBER3PUBLISHERAERA-EngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014815-526-7600815-526-7601faxChairmanoftheBoardSteveSchoebenBloomingtonMNFirstViceChairmanRexCrumptonTulsaOKSecondViceChairmanSteveEdmondsonLouisvilleKYTreasurerRonMcMorrisMapleRidgeBCCANADAPresidentJimRickoffCrystalLakeILEDITORJimRickoffjimaera.orgASSOCIATEEDITORDaveHagendaveaera.orgTECHNICALEDITORSMikeCarusomikeaera.orgSteveFoxsteveaera.orgGaryLewisenginesmsn.comMikeMavrigianmikebirchwoodautomotive.comCONTROLLERMelissaRizzimelissaaera.orgGRAPHICDESIGNMariaBeyerstedtmariamcreative.usADVERTISINGSALESJimRickoffjimaera.orgHalFowlerhalfowlersales.comCIRCULATIONAmandaPotteramandaaera.orgMEMBERSHIPSERVICESKarenTenderingkarenaera.orgINTERNATIONALLIAISONYolandaCarranzayolandaaera.orgCHIEFTECHNOLOGYARCHITECTRichardRooksrichardaera.org12185468 4JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFHiTeamSummertimeequatestoracingtimeformanyofourreadersandAERAmembers.Weknowthatover90ofAERAEngineProfessionalsbuildorsupplyhigh-performanceblocksheadsenginesorpartstotheracingcommunity.ItisaveryimportantsegmentofourindustryandAERArecognizesthis.ThatiswhyAERAhasteamedupwiththeContingencyConnectiontohelpunderwriteandpromoteitsprogramstoourindustry.TheContingencyConnectionisanationalgrassrootsracer-orientatedprogramdelivering100000insponsorshipawardstomembertracksandtravelingseriesincludingcircledragtractor-pulloff-roaddieselmudbogssanddragsimportandmotorcycleevents.Weeklycontingencyawardshelpracerspaytheirracingexpensesmakingitmoreaffordableforthemtoracemoreoftenwhichincreasesshopbusinessasracersneedmorepartsandservice.IfyourlocaltrackorseriesisnotconnectedtotheContingencyConnectionsimplyreferthemtoCCandtheywillofferthemtheprogram.InadditionAERAandEngineProfessionalmagazinehavecreatedtheEngineProfessionalRewardsProgram.WeteamedupwithContingencyConnectiontoputtogetheracouponbookthatofferscouponsfrom35qualitymanufacturerstoallAERAmembershopsforFREE.ThatsrightthiscouponbookisFREEtoallAERAmembershops.ThecouponsinthisbookcanliterallyoffsettheentirecostofanAERAmembershipandmoreCouponbookswillbemailedoutinSeptemberofthisyeartoallmembers.IfyouarenotanAERAmemberNOWisthetimetojoinourgroupofengineprofessionalsWearethesourceforinformationtoengineprofessionalsworldwide.Pleaseseeouradonpage93andjoinAERAtodayTheinformationandvalueweofferispricelesstotrueengineprofessionalsandwewantyoutojoinifyourenewandtocontinuemembershiptoallexistingmembers.Helpingenginebuildersprofessionalsandracersjustmakesgoodsensetous.Thissegmentofourindustryequatestoabigpartofourmembersprofits.Ifwecandevelopprogramsdesignedtohelpracersandenginebuilderswereallin.WearethesupportteamtoourindustryIfyouhaveanyotherideasonhowAERAcanhelppleasedonthesitatetocontactus.InclosingAERAwillbeoutandaboutduringthesecondhalfof2014.OurlastTechSkillsConferencewillbeheldonOctober3attheNASCARTechnicalInstituteinCharlotteNorthCarolinahostedbyRoushYatesandMAHLE.AERAwillhaveboothsattheAAPEXShowlocatedattheSandsExpoandConventionCenteraswellastheSEMAShowlocatedattheLasVegasConventionCenter.BothshowsareheldinLasVegasNevadaduringtheweekofNovember4-72014.AnddontforgetaboutthePRIShowinIndianapolisIndianaheldDecember11-132014attheIndianaConventionCenter.WewillhavelivedemonstrationsofournewPRO-SISEngineSpecificationSoftwareatalloftheseevents.Thisnewversionhasbeendramaticallyupgradedtoallowfasterandsimpleraccesswhileprovidinginstantupdatesonaweeklybasis.Pleaseplanonattendingoneoralloftheseeventsandgatherideasmeetpeersindustryleadersorothermanufacturersthatcanandwillhelpyourbusinessprosper.Iencourageyoutoviewtheseeventsasaninvestmentinyourselfandyourbusiness.YoudeserveitIJimRickoffAERAPresident815-526-7343jimaera.org CumminsISB5.924valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1185CylinderHeadComplete.............................1395CrankshaftSteelforged................................895GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................79CumminsISC8.324valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1980CylinderHeadComplete.............................2385CrankshaftSteelforged...............................995GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................95ProudmemberofandsupplierofKMSGBuyingGroupCummins8.3L6C6CT6CTACummins5.9L6B6BT6BTA6BTAACummins3.9L4B4BT4BTACompleteHead995eachBareHead680eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead355eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead350eachORDERLINE1-866-210-9251ACCESSINDUSTRIESCO.ORDERLINE1-866-210-9251E-MAILnewcasting1998gmail.comCUTANDSAVETOFILECylinderBlocksCrankshaftsCamshaftsGM6.5truckvan.......................................1185eaCummins3.94BTOEM....................................950eaCummins5.96BT.............................................995eaCummins8.36CT...........................................1795eaCaterpillar3306DI..........................................2780eaCummins4BT....................................................575eaCummins6CT8.3..............................................780eaCummins6BT5.9..............................................695eaCaterpillar3306.................................................998eaCummins3.9.....................................................158eaCummins5.9.....................................................138eaCummins8.3.....................................................188eaCYLINDERHEADGM6.5TruckVan..................198eaChevy350Vortec......................228eaChrysler318360........................228eaChrysler3.9................................180eaCaterpillar3306PC8N1187......730eaCaterpillar3306DI8N6796.......730eaCaterpillar3406DINEW..........1580eaCaterpillar3406PCNEW.........1580eaCYLINDERHEADCaterpillar3304PCDI...............580eaJeep4.0331..........................375eaFord4.0EarlyLate...................138eaLONGBLOCKCummins5.9OEM..................5980eaCummins3.94BTOEM...........3980eaCummins8.36CTOEM...........6980eaCONNECTINGRODCummins5.93.96BT4BT...........68eaCummins8.36CT.......................86eaGM6.5NEW.................................55eaOILCOOLERCummins3.9................................98eaCummins5.9..............................108eaCummins8.3..............................138eaGASKETKITCummins3.9UpperKitOEM......88setCummins3.9LowerKitOEM.....88setCummins5.9UpperKitOEM......98setCummins5.9LowerKitOEM.....95setCummins8.3UpperKitOEM....128setCummins8.3LowerKitOEM...108setCALLFORCOMPLETEPRICELIST.NEW AERAwelcomesnewmembersACTIVEAARebuiltLansingILAdePatsRepairSpringGroveMNAFMMachiningPhoenixAZAlbertandChildsPhoenixAZAppliedAutomotiveEngineeringMaddingtonWAAUSTRALIABacasMachineShopSouthSanFranciscoCABergmann-WunderlichMachineLLCTroyMOCastTechnologyIncSouthPlainfieldNJCentralAutomotiveofTavaresTavaresFLCentralEngineMachiningADivofCentralDieselFranklinParkILCreasonAutoTroyMODavidsMachineShopIncTheodoreALDaytonaAutoMachineDaytonaBeachFLDinosAutoSalesIncCasperWYDMC2BirdsboroPAExpertEngineScarboroughONCANADAFrancisSonMachineShopGreenvilleOHGJDieselBillingsMTGulfCoastDieselFolsomLAHighwayTruckPartsLtdNewLondonWIKringsMotorsportsArpinWIMarketStreetPerformanceScottsboroALMunroCylinderHeadsWestbankBCCANADANizenMachineShopLLCNewHavenCTPreciseAutomotiveLtdSaskatoonSKCANADARamcoMachineSaltLakeCityUTRogersPerformanceHatboroPAShallcrossAutomotiveEngineeringDurbanKZNSOUTHAFRICASKSEquipmentDieselUnionBridgeMDSolakAutomotiveMantuaOHStampsAutoMachineSanTanValleyAZSuperstitionMotorsLtdElCajonCATheEngineShopIncCollingdalePAWRELindenhurstNYASSOCIATEBasysProcessingLenexaKSMachineShopProsChatsworthCASCHOOLSMuncieAreaCareerCenterMuncieINAERAwelcomesAmandaPotterAmandaPotterhasjoinedAERAstaffascirculationandcommunicationspecialist.AmandacomestoAERAfromMediascopeInc.adirectmarketingsolutionscompanylocatedinWinonaMN.AmandahadbeenAERAsdirectCSRandhasworkedverycloselywithAERAforover10years.NowAmandasknowledgeincirculationlistmanagementanddirectmar-ketingmediawillbeavaluableassettoAERAsteamfulltime.Amandacanbereachedatamandaaera.org.IDaveHagenpromotedtoassociateeditorofEngineProfessionalDaveHagenanAERAtechspecialistforover25yearsandakeymemberoftheEngineProfessionalteamthatbringsapplicationdrivenarticlestoourreadershiphasbeenpro-motedtoassociateeditor.Davewillcontinuetoworkonourtechteamansweringmembershiptechnicalques-tionswritingAERATechnicalBulletinsandnowwillcarrytheadditionaltitleandresponsibili-tiesofassociateeditorforthemagazine.IIindustrynewscalendarOCTOBER3AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyRoushYatesandMahleCharlotteNCOCTOBER16-17ROTTLEROPENHOUSEKentWANOVEMBER4-6AAPEXSHOWAERABooth4480SandsExpoCenterLasVegasNVwww.aapexshow.comNOVEMBER4-7SEMASHOWLasVegasConventionCenterLasVegasNVwww.semashow.comDECEMBER11-13PRISHOWAERABooth5516IndianapolisConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.performanceracing.com6JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalCorrectionInour2ndquarterEPissueApril-June2014intheZ28Camaroarticleweinadvertent-lyreversedsomeofthefactsonpage20underthesub-headThenandNow.Itshouldhavestatedthecylinderblockofthe327not283andthecrankshaftofthe283not327.Weapologizeforanyconfusionthismayhavecreat-edandsincerelythankthoseofyouwhoarecertainlyread-ingfordetailandletusknowourerror.GoodcatchIRepublicDieselacquiresassetsofCenterAutomotiveMachineRepublicDieselheadquar-teredinLouisvilleKentuckyhasacquiredcertainassetsofCenterAutomotiveMachineCompanyinAkronOhio.ThenewnamewillbeCenterDieselMachineadivisionofRepublicDieselandwilloper-ateatthesamelocation274E.SouthStreetAkronOhio.InadditionRepublicDieselhaslocationsinLexingtonandPrestonsburgKentuckyJeffersonvilleIndianaandHarrogateTennessee.RepublicDieselsince1911isanindustryleaderprovidingcompletedieselenginemachiningservicesundercarriagedriveshaftsyardtrucksandanexclusivelineofaftermarketpartsforlightmediumandheavytruck4x4onandoffhighwayandindustrialequipment.IHigh-PerformanceEngineBearingsModerntrendsinmaterialsAirScoopsSizelocationdesignpressurebalanceValveSeatsFixesforfailuresUNDERSTANDINGANDSELECTINGCONNECTINGRODS2014LS77.0LV-8FORCHEVROLETCAMAROZ28GENERALMOTORSANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONAPRIL-JUNE2014 8JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalRottlerOpenHouse2014Rottlers7thAnnualOpenHousewillbeheldThursdayandFridayOctober16-172014.TheRottlerOpenHousehasturnedintoapremiereventforindustryleaderstosocializenetworkandshareknowledge.Itwillincludetwodaysoftechnicalseminarstabletopexhibitorslivemachinedemonstrationsentertainmentandgreatmeals.Formoreinformationgotowww.rottlermfg.comopenhouse.IPaulHauglienamedNationalSalesManagerforQualCastQualCastLLCannouncedthatPaulHaugliehasbeenhiredastheirnewNationalSalesManager.HaugliespreviousexperienceincludeshavingservedaspresidentoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERAforthelastyearandahalf.PriortothatheworkedforMellingEnginePartsasboththesalesmanagerforMellingsSelectPerformancelineandasregionalsalesmanagercover-ingCanada.InhisnewroleHaugliewillleadQualCastssaleseffortsintheUSworkinghandinhandwithitsnetworkofmanufacturersrepresentatives.QualCastLLCwasfoundedin1997inNashvilleTennesseeandhasbecomeoneoftheworldsleadingsuppliersofvalvetraincomponentstotheautomotiveaftermarketaswellassupplyingsomeOEmanufacturers.IMellinghiresJohnShellbergasPurchasingSourcingManagerMellingEnginePartshashiredJohnShellbergforthepositionofPurchasingSourcingManager.Johnbrings18yearsofSupplyChainPurchasingexperienceworkinginboththeOEMandAftermarketarenas.JohncomestoMellingfromROUSHIndustriesInc.wherehewastheirDirectorofCorporatePurchasingmanagingallprocurementwhichinvolvedinseveraldifferentcommodities.JohnsdetailedunderstandingofSupplyChainandInternationalsourcingwillbeveryvaluabletotheorganizationaswecontinuetodiversifyandgrowthefamilyofMellingcompanies.IFederal-MogulVehicleComponentsDivisionRenamedFederal-MogulMotorpartsFederal-MogulHoldingsCorporationNASDAQFDMLannouncedthenextstepinitsongoingstrategytodrivetheglobalgrowthofitspremiumproductsandleadingbrands.EffectiveimmediatelythecompanysVehicleComponentsdivisionwillberenamedFederal-MogulMotorparts.Federal-MogulMotorpartsisaleadingproviderofpremiumbrandsincludingMOOGFel-ProChampionWagnerANCOandFerodototheglobalaftermarket.Federal-MogulMotorpartsalsoprovideshigh-qualityvehiclebrakingchassisandwipercomponentstoglobaloriginalequipmentmanufacturers.ThenewFederal-MogulMotorpartsnameandlogowillberolledoutgloballyeffectiveimmediatelyleadingintonewmarketingcampaignsforitsproductbrands.IIindustrynewsTECHN1.866.611.1820DRIVENRACINGOIL.COMScanthisQRCodetolearnmoreaboutCarbDefenderandthegrow-ingproblemofEthanolcorrosion.THEPROBLEMEthanolCorrosionInCarburetedVehicles---THESOLUTIONDrivenCarbDefenderFuelAdditive-CarbDefenderisproudlymadeintheUSAandsoldinconvenient6-packcartons70041.EthanolKillsCarbsEthanolCorrosionAttacksCarburetorsEthanolCorrosionIsAMajorProblem.PROTECTYOURENGINEWITHCARBDEFENDEREthanolCorrECTPROosionIsAMajorPrEthanolCorrWENINGEOURoblem.osionIsAMajorPrEFERBDACTHINoblem.RDENEoblemofEthanolcorringpraboutCarbDefenderScanthisQRCodetolearosion.oblemofEthanolcorr-owandthegraboutCarbDefenderenmorScanthisQRCodetolear www.engineprofessional.com9 AreyouanengineguyWeareContactusbecausewehavetheanswersforengines.Formoreinformationgoonlinetowww.aera.orgorcalltoll-free888-326-2372.JointodayGotopage94foramembershipapplication.500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepIindustrynews10JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalAERAcongratulatesthosewhohavecompletedtheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramAsofJuly12014311peoplehaveenrolledintheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramforCylinderHeadandEngineMachinistcertificates.Foracompletelistofgraduatesgotowww.aera.orgaera-universitycertificates.ProfessorCliffordG.Meyeralongwithseveralofhisstu-dentspicturedaboveintheautomotivetechnologyprogramatSaddlebackCollegeinMissionViejoCaliforniahaverecentlycompletedAERAsonlinetrainingcourse.MeyerstatedIamveryproudofthesestudentsandtheirindividualaccomplishmentsMygoalfornextyearistoofferthesamepositivereinforcementasIdidthisyeartostu-dentswhopassthetwoAERAexams.Thestudentreceivescredittowardthemachiningcoursefinalexam.Ibelieveincertificationanditsimportancetotheautomotiveindustry.IndividualslikeProfessorMeyerandhisstudentsleadthewayformanyotherdedicatedenginemachinistsinterestedinprovingwhattheyknow.FormoreinformationabouttheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramseepage80.IAERAOnlineTrainingProgramIfyouareinterestedinaddingtoyourresumeofengineexperiencecallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenTenderingore-mailkarenaera.org.Shecanansweryourquestionsandwhenreadyregisteryoutobegintheprogram. EXHIBITDAYSTUESDAYNOVEMBER4FRIDAYNOVEMBER72014EDUCATIONDAYSMONDAYNOVEMBER3FRIDAYNOVEMBER72014LASVEGASCONVENTIONCENTERLASVEGASNVTALKISCHEAP.Registeringforthe2014SEMAShowisinexpensive.REGISTERNOWSEMAshow.comEPRTalkallyouwantTheresnosubstituteforaction.Newproductsnewideasnewwaystoprotthisisnoemptypromise.Nohollowguarantee.ThisistheSEMAShowandthisiswheretheactionis.www.engineprofessional.com11 12JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalBYJIMRICKOFFProbablyoneofthemostenjoyableaspectsofmycareerinourindustryhasbeenmyexperiencesvisitingshops.IhavebeenfortunatetohavevisitedshopsineverystateinourcountryincludingseveralinMexicoandCanada.Everyonegoesabouttheirbusinessalittledifferentlyandthatswhatmakesvisitingshopssointerestingandfuntodo.Oneofthegoldenrulesofmarketingisthatperceptionisreality.Comingfromanoldmarketingguycreatingapositivesuccessfulandvalueaddedimageisparamount.WellIvestruckgoldsotospeakfindingabusinessmodelthatimpressesmegreatly.ThismodelwasfoundwhenvisitingournewAERAChairmanoftheBoardsshopnamedHeadwerksInc.intheMinneapolisMinnesotasuburbofBloomington.YesmanyofyoumayhaveheardofBloomingtonMinnesotabeforeitwashometotheoldMetStadiumwhichwashometothePurplePeopleEatersoftheNFLtheMinnesotaVikings.LonggoneistheoldMetstadiumitgavewaytotheMallofAmerica.HoweverSteveSchoebensshopcalledHeadwerksisaliveandwellinthissuburbandIsincerelybelievehehasamessagethatallshopscanprosperfrom.WhenfirstenteringStevesshopyoucantellitsdifferent.ItsmorelikeenteringaHarley-Davidsondealershiporintoanicenewservicedepartmentswaitingroomatacardealership.IffirstimpressionsmeananythingHeadwerksgetsanautomaticA.TruthfullyHeadwerksiscleanerthanmanyhousesIvebeeninandImeansupercleaneverywherewiththecoolestdcortoo.Thebathroomsbreakroomwaitingroomshoproomeveryroomisoverthetop.IfyouhavereadanyarticlesonHarley-Davidsonssuccesstheywilltellyouthatthedealersstoreappearancewaskeytobringingbackthismanufacturerssuccess.Cardealershipsandtheirservicedepartmentshaveadoptedthismodelandspentmillionsofdollarsperlocationtobrightenandmodernizetheserviceareasintheirfacilitiestohelpmakethemselvesmoreappealing.Thismodelistriedandtrueithashelpedkeeptheserviceworkin-housewhilechargingalmostdoubleinshoplaborratesoverindependentrepairshops.Dealershipshavetheirlaborrateswheretheyshouldbetheymakemoneyfromtheirshops.Theyareinbusinesstomakemoneyandsoshouldyou.Profitisnotafourletterwordnothingdirtyorwrongwithprofit.Keepingafacilityascleanaspossiblewillmakeiteasierforyoutochargewhatyoushould.Itsnoteasybutthedividendsarethere.WhileIrealizenoteveryonesshopcanlooklikeStevesbutdoyourparttocreateapositiveperception.Andrememberperceptionisreality.LetsmeetSteveSchoebenownerofHeadwerksandAERAsnewChairmanoftheBoardJRStevehowdidyougetintoourindustrySSIwasalwaysinterestedintheinnerworkingsofengines.Iwasfortunateenoughin1978atage16tolandajobasahelperinanautomotivemachineshopinthebackofapartsstore.IcouldnotWAITtogetdirtybuffingthecarbonoffthosevalvesandoutofthecombustionchambers.EventuallyIbecameshopforemanandoversawtheirshopscity-wide.JRHowdidyourbusinessHeadwerksgetstartedandwhatkindofworkdoyouperformSSIalwayswantedtohavemyownbusinesssteeringtheshipthedirectionIwanted.Headwerkswasfoundedin1992.Iwantedtoprovideservicesothersshopswerentoffering.AluminumcylinderheadweldingandstraighteningissomethingIwantedtospecializein.Anotherexampleisremovalofbrokentapsdrillbitsandeasy-outsusingMetalDisintegration.WeIntroducingAERAsnewChairmanoftheBoardMeetSteveSchoebenownerofHeadwerksinBloomingtonMN www.engineprofessional.com13AERAChairmanoftheBoardSteveSchoebenispicturedathisshopHeadwerkslocatedinBloomingtonMN. 14JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalQualityControlledExpansionPlugsSince1921BrassStainlessSteel800-433-64141335WFULLERTONAVEADDISONIL60101630953-1000FAX630953-0174EMAILINFOUSTOOLANDMFG.COMU.S.TOOLANDMFG.CO.MEETSTEVESCHOEBENBYJIMRICKOFFwantedtobearesourcetoothershopsaswellasourcustomers.JRInallhonestySteveyourshopisoneofthecleanestIhaveevervisited.Itsbrightsharpcleanmodernandveryprofessional.WhatmotivatesyoutokeepyourshopsocleanandcoolSSREPUTATIONANDIMAGE.Inmymindmachineshopsdonothavetobedirty.IdidnothaveadvertisingdollarsbutIwantedtobedifferentandcreatemyreputationasbeingoneofthecleanestprofessionalshopsaround.Whenacustomervisitsacleanshoptheymaketheassumptionthattheworkreflectstheenvironment.It www.engineprofessional.com15THEONLYHEATTABMADEINU.S.A.DONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITATIONSSILVERSEALCENTERMATERIALISCERTIFIEDMADEINTHEU.S.UNDERU.S.STANDARDS.p800-521-2936f800-521-0580silver-seal.comSilverSealProducts19224AllenRd.TrentonMI48183silversealKEEPAMERICAWORKINGPREMIUMHIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPLOW-TEMPDIESELMARINEU.S.PATENT5482000250-255F121-124C250-255F121-124C225-230F107-110C187-192F86-89CFRONTBACKPERSONALIZEDHEATTABSAVAILABLEHEATTABADHESIVEEXCLUSIVEFORMULAMADEINTHEU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHEATTABSPARTHT1MELTINGPOINT250-255F121-124CWecertifythatthematerialsuppliedpursuantorderissuedbyyouandnumberedaslistedaboveconformstoapplicablespecificationsorrequirements.ForCompleteProtectionsilversealBatch100612GeoffreyA.HavensSr.PresidentCertificationofCenterMeltMaterialAMUSTforEngineBuilders-LargeorSmallCourtCasesWonwith100ResultsDONOTRiskYourHardWorkUsingOffShoreImitationsMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGTHEU.S.MADEINEREALENIDONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITHEHEONLENTP.S.UUNDERU.S.THEU.S.TIFIEDERIALIETERMPIEFRMFFHREIMIABMADEINU.TTIONSABMADEINU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPPREMIUM121-124C250-255F121-124C250-255FMARINEDIESELLOW-TEMPHIGH-TEMP121-124C250-255F107-110C225-230F86-89C187-192FFRONTEeeuetratthk.ishatengineotenstarTINGO1-124CaabevidenachaofoftheheatvismpleteWhenanentltorachesthgihece250-255F1INthereabouiFeas.ementrAttachOnEachHeadBothSidesofBlock.lnsotirissuedbcplescabntolipoapmsedpunterialsuptambWeceranouyrdsulipftich100612.0HIGHMEL1TEMPARP80tBMI4818ENTORD.CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKUsingOffShoreImitationsorkWurHardDONOTRiskonwith100ResultsWCourtCasesLargeorSmallAMUSTforEngineBuilders-CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKonwith100ResultsCertificationofCenterMeltMaterial19224AllenSilverSealProductssilver800-521-2936fpsilveVER-EAL.O70TentredisyA.HafreGeo734.479225LSI.WWOCALP734.479.47AXAXF800.521.2936FREEPHONOL8.FALLENTRENTON192vensSr.MI48183entonRd.19224Allen-seal.comsilver800-521-0580800-521-2936favUsingOffShoreImitationsMI48183800-521-0580alsoforcesustotakecareofourequipmentwhichsavesmoneyinthelongrun.JRWhatarethebiggestchallengesyourshopfacestodaySSPEOPLE.Ishouldhavedoneabetterjobcultivatingpotentialemployeesfiveplusyearsago.NowIstruggletofindgoodexperiencedhelp.IneedaCHEFnotashortordercook.Thisseemstobeacommonthemeamongshopstoday.ImWORKINGonthisoneJRHowandwhydidyoudecidetobecomeinvolvedinAERAHowhasAERAhelpedyourshopSSMyfirstemployerwasanAERAmemberbackinthedayswhenonehadtoapplytobeamember.SoitwasagiventhatHeadwerkswouldbeamember.AERAwasandremainsourgotoresourcefortechnicalinformationPRO-SIS.WeusePRO-SISdailyinourshop.TheinformationPRO-SISprovidesenhancestheservicesweprovideourcustomers.Asanexampleweprovidetorquespecificationslashsettingsandanytechnicalbulletinspertainingtoacustomersparticularjob.Weprintthisinformationandincludeitwiththecompletedjob.Thetopoftheprovidedmaterialincludesourshopsheaderwhich 16JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalMEETSTEVESCHOEBENBYJIMRICKOFFaddstoourprofessionalismandenhancedimage.Thecustomeroftensavesandrefersbacktothesespecsbulletinsandthenisremindedwhoprovidedit.Additionallythisprintedinformationsavesthetechniciantimeandassuresthejobiscompletedcorrectly.ThenewfutureversionofPRO-SISwillallowustodisplayourcompanyslogoinadditiontoourshopsinformationontheheader.Helpingacustomersolveaproblemthroughatechnicalbulletinispriceless.JRIknowyouhaveaninterestinshopsoutsideofourcountry.HowcanAERAhelpthoseshopsSSWearelivinginaglobalsociety.MypersonalgoaloflearningSpanishasasecondlanguagehasenabledmetomeetpeersinashopsimilartomineinMexico.Westrugglewiththesameissuesgettinggoodpeopleandinformation.ManyshopsdonotrealizethatAERAoffersallthesamemembershipperksinformationinSpanishaswellasinEnglish.JRDoyouhaveanyadviceforothershopsinourindustrySSFindwaystosetyourshopapartfromothersBEDIFFERENTandkeepitcleanI 800-841-5405www.jamisonequipment.comn5Ro70-rGaServEquipSE-3310PowerstrokingCyl.HoneServEquipSE-3310PowerstrokingCyl.HoneouAaSuperowSF-600Flowbench-13024deSuperowSF-600Flowbench-13024SuperowSF-1020ProbenchFlowbenchgeSuperowSF-1020ProbenchFlowbenchqapfoSuperowSF-1020ProbenchFlowbenchem-AXELookto4-54AXE.jamisonequipment.comwww.jamisonequipment.com.jamisonequipment.comwww.engineprofessional.com17 18JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalTheuseofanoil-sheddingcoatingisextremelyusefulforcrankshaftcounterweightsallowingoiltomorequicklydepartfromthecounterweightsurfaces.Thisreducesthedragthatwouldexistbecauseofclingingoilwhichinturnreducesparasiticpowerloss. www.engineprofessional.com19EngineCoatingsAnupdatedlookatvariouscoatingsapplicableforenginebuilds.BYMIKEMAVRIGIANAvarietyofcoatingsareavailableforbothinternalandexternalenginecomponentswithapplicationsvaryingfrompowerenhancementengineefficiencyanddurabilitylongevitytocorrosionprotectionandexternalappearance.Herewelltouchonalloftheseapplications.PERFORMANCEENHANCEMENTCOATINGSOnceviewedasunnecessaryaddonsandinitiallythoughtofbysomebuildersasgimmicksspecializedinternalenginecoatingshaveproventheirworthintermsofbothpowerincreasesfrictionreducersandbenefitsintermsofenginelongevity.Todayscoatingsincludethosedesignedtoreducefrictionandenhancelubricitythermalbarriercoatingsforincreasedengineefficiencyandprotectionofcomponentsexposedtoextremeheatlevelsanddrainbackcoatingsthatspeed-upoilreturntothesump.Todaysavailablecoatingsofferdistinctadvantageswithregardtothermalcontrolincreasedlubricityandresultingreductionoffrictionaswellasoilsheddingpropertiesthatservetofree-uphorsepowerbyreducingparasiticoildragonrotatingassemblies.Inanutshellfourdistincttypesofcoatingsareavailableforperformanceengineapplicationsthermalbarriercoatingsheat-emittercoatingslow-frictioncoatingsandoil-sheddingcoatings.THERMALBARRIERCOATINGSThermalbarriercoatingswhichcanbereferredtoasaheatshieldfeatureaceramicformulationdesignedtopreventexcessheatfrompassingintoandbeingabsorbedintoacomponent.Applicationsincludepistondomesturbochargerhousingscylinderheadcombustionchambersexhaustportsexhaustvalvethroatsandexhaustmanifoldsandtubularheaders.Thespecificformulaswilldifferdependingontheapplication.Specializedthermalbarriercoatingsappliedtopistontopsaidinreflectingheatreducingtheamountofpistonexpansionallowingthebuildertomaintainmoreconsistentwallclearanceandprotectingthepistonfromextremetemperaturesencounteredinforcedinductionsystems.Forforcedinductionandnitrousapplicationshighlyspecializedthermalbarriercoatingsareavailabletonotonlyenhancecombustionefficiencybuttoprotectthepistonfrompotentialheat-relateddamage.Byapplyingaceramicheatshieldcoatingtoareasexposedtothecombustionprocesschambersvalvefacescontinued exhaustvalvethroatsexhaustportspistontopsandtheexhaustpathcombustionefficiencycanbeenhancedwhichaidsinproducingadditionalpower.Essentiallythermalbarriercoatingsappliedtothecombustionandexhaustpathservetocontaincombustionheatenergygreatlyreducingheatsoakandresultingwastedthermalenergy.Bearinmindthatthequalityofapplicationofaceramiccoatingespeciallyforinternalenginecomponentsisextremelycritical.Thelastthingyouwantisforhardandpotentiallydamagingceramictobreaklooseandcontaminatetheengine.Thatswhyyouneedtouseestablishedcoatingservicessuchasthoselistedinthisarticle.Whenproperlyappliedthecoatingnotonlyadherestotheappliedsurfacesbutpermanentlybondstothematerialessentiallybecomingpartofthebasematerial.Ifsubstandardapplicationpracticesareusedthecoatingmaynotbefullybondedand20JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANcontinuedMAHLECleviteasanexampleusesapolymer-basedmoly-graphitecoatingontheirperformancebearings.Specificformulasmayvarybutthegoalisthesametopromoteoilretentionandtoprovideaprotectivelubricitysurfaceintheeventofinadequateortemporaryreductionofoildeliverysuchasduringacoldstartortemporarystarvation. www.engineprofessional.com21 22JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANcouldflakeoff.Inotherwordsdonttrythisathome.Inthecourseofbuildingenginesfor24-hourenduranceracingIvehadmanydozensofenginebuildcomponentsceramiccoatedheadspistonsvalvesexhaustwithabsolutesuccessbutIveseenafewdevastatingissueswithcomponentsthatwerecoatedbyinexperiencedmomnpopshopsthatcausedseriousdamage.Dontbeafraidofceramicinternalcoatings.thetopshopsdoanoutstandingjobandtheyknowwhattheyredoing.Theirspecificprocessesarekepthighlyconfidentialtheycouldtellyouhowitsdonebutthentheydhavetokillyou.Dontbetemptedtocheap-outandgoforbargainbasementservices.Ifsurfacepreptemperatureandapplicationisntrightyoureaskingforproblems.WhileIadmitthatIhaventusedalloftheshopslistedinthisarticlebutIhaveusedtheservicesofSwainandPolydynandhaveneverhadaproblem.AfterLOSINGMONEYONENGINEPARTSFeaturedProductEngineProHeadBoltswww.goenginepro.comENGINEPROBRANDENGINEPRODUCTSvailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProparts.ADiscovertheprofit-buildingpowerofEngineProbrandengineINNENMNEINEPingpowerofEnYandyourcustomergetsmoreAndtheyrepricedsoyoumakeaprofitproductsmeetorexceedcompetitorsfeatures.vailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProparts.AcompletelinesintheindustrtEngineProHturedProduceaFandyourcustomergetsmoreycompletelinesintheindustrtEngineProHforthemoumakeaprofitcompetitorsfeafortheengineENINPRBRANDENIPRDUTSpecializedwristpincoatingssuchastheCasidiumtreatmentshownhereincreasespinlubricity.continued www.engineprofessional.com23experiencingmyinitialresultsyearsagowithtwoenduranceengineswhereItookadvantageofthermalbarrieranti-frictionandoilsheddingcoatingsIbecameanavidfanoftheprocessesasourenginesproducedmeasurableincreasesinpowerandsignificantresistancetowear.Ceramictopcoatingsonpistonsserveasathermalbarrierreducingheatsoakandprotectingthepistonfromextremesofheat.Anti-frictionusuallymolyskirtcoatingsprovidesuperioroilretentionandprovideaslicksurfacetoreduceskirt-to-wallcontactwear.Inadditiontopistondomecoatingthesamehigh-temperatureheatbarriercoatingcanbeappliedtothecombustionchamberallvalvefacesexhaustvalvethroatsandexhaustvalveportswhichcompletelyencapsulatesthecombustionstreampathcourtesyDart.continued 24JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANANTI-FRICTIONOILMANAGEMENTANDHEAT-RELEASECOATINGSAnti-frictioncoatingsareapplicabletosurfacesthatmakeorpotentiallymakecontactsuchasbutnotexclusivetomainbearingsrodbearingcambearingsandpistonskirts.Anti-frictioncoatingsalsocalledlubricitycoatingsprovideatemporarylubricitywhenifthesurfaceisstarvedforoiluponcold-startsetc.butalsoservetoretainoilonthesurface.Whilespecificanti-frictioncoatingformulasvaryamongthecoatingservicesthematerialsaregenerallycomposedofmolygraphiteorTeflonbasedmaterials.Theintentistoprovidebetteroilretentionandtoprovideasuper-slipperysurface.Pistonskirtcoatingsaregenerallyappliedatanaveragethicknessofabout.0005persidewhichmightprovideabouta.001increaseinpistonoverallskirtdiameter.Sincethemolyisappliedinsuchathinlayernoadditionalboredimensionchangesarerequiredtorunmoly-coatedpistons.UnlessotherwiseinstructedbythepistonmakerDONOTcompensatefortheaddedmolycoatingwhenfinishingyourbores.Inadditiontoanti-frictioncoatingsspecializedmaterialscalledoilsheddingcoatingstreatmetalsurfacestorepeloilinordertoreduceparasiticenergylossesthatwouldnormallybecausedbyoilcling.Applicationsincludecrankshaftcounterweightsconnectingrods.Inadditiontoreducingparasiticdragthesecoatingsalsoreferredtoasoildrainbackcoatingscanbeappliedtospecificsurfacestopreventoilclingandtospeed-upoilreturntothesumpsuchastheinsideofvalvecoversoilpanwallswindagetraysandevenoilpumps.Applyinganoil-sheddingcoatingtotheflowareasofthepumpgearsandpassagesallowsthepumptomoreefficientlymoveoilreducingtheamountofoilthatclingstothepassagesurfaceareas.Thinkofitasanaerodynamicbodyeffectsapproachthatreducesthedragcoefficientfortheoilpump.....anoilsheddingcoatingletsoilmovethroughthepumpfasterwhilereducingtheamountofoilthathangsaroundbystickingtopassagewalls.Valvecoversrepresentauniqueopportunitytohelpcontroltemperaturesthatwouldotherwiseencasethevalvetraininadditiontopromotingquickeroildrainbackinsidethecovers.Athermalbarriercoatingcanbeappliedtothecoverexteriorwhileanoilsheddingcoatingcanbeappliedtotheinterior.Thisdualcoatingcombinationhelpstoreduceradiatedcovertemperaturewhilepreventingoilfromclingingtothecoverroofandwallsallowingoiltoscootbacktothemovingpartswhereitsneeded.Heatemittercoatingsrepresentyetanotherspecially-formulatedapplicationthatunlikeaceramicbarriercoatingthatpreventsheattransferservetopromotethereleaseofheat.Thistypeofcoatingcanprovideadistinctlongevityadvantagetocomponentssuchasvalvespringswhichservestoprolongspringlife.Thissamplearrayofpartshelpstoillustrateheatbarrierandanti-frictioncoatingapplications.TheexamplesshownherecourtesyofSwainincludehigh-temperaturethermalbarriercoatingsonheadchamberspistondomesturbohousingandheadersanti-frictioncoatingsonskirtsvalvestemsandbearingsandheat-releasesheddingcoatingsonvalvesprings. www.engineprofessional.com25DIAMETERCLEARANCEINCREASESInadditiontoprovidingpowerenhancementandlubricityimprovementsspecializedcoatingsorotherspecializedprocessesaresometimesavailabletoincreasethesurfacediameterofapartortorestoreawornpart.Usinganappropriateprocessaskilledcoatermaybeabletobuilduppistonskirtdiametersrestorecamjournaldimensionsetc.Servicesandspecificapplicationsvarysocheckwiththecoatingshopofyourchoice.Keepthisinmindasapotentialanswertoaspecificdimensionalorclearanceissue.CeramiccoatingofexhaustmanifoldsortubularheadersactasaheatbarrierreducingexteriorsurfacetemperatureandheatradiationinsidetheenginebayandpromoteamoreefficientexhaustflowinadditiontotheobviouscorrosionpreventioncourtesyCerakote.Camshaftbearingsarereadilyavailablealreadycoatedwithmolyfromseveralbearingmakers.Oryoucansendyourbearingsoutforcoating.continued 26JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalSpecializinginUsedRebuiltEngineRebuildingEquipmentFARRISEQUIPMENTSALESisoneofthelargestdealersofusedrebuiltenginerebuildingequipmentintheUnitedStates.WehavebeenblessedtoshipourequipmenttonearlyeverystateintheUSAandtoover40othercountriesaroundtheworld.Weinviteyoutovisitourwebsiteforphotosandpricingwww.farrisequipment.comThephotoswillgiveyouanideaofthequalityofourmachinesandalsoshowyouourfacilitiesandpeople.Warrantyprovidedwitheveryrebuiltmachinewesell.ContactSAMFARRISorDONSTONE3001Interstate27LubbockTX79404E-mailsamfarrisequipment.comBuytheRightpieceattheRightpriceFROMTHERIGHTPEOPLECall800-882-1808fortheFARRISTDEALaroundENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANPOWDERCOATINGANODIZINGANDHYDROGRAPHICSPOWDERCOATINGTheprocessofpowdercoatingismuchmoresimplethanmostfolksrealize.Thissimplyinvolvesapplyingdrythermosetorthermoplasticpaintpowderfollowedbyoven-curingwhichmeltsandflowsthedrypowderresultinginatoughprotectivefinish.Typicalpowdercoatapplicationinvolvessprayingthepowderinastateofelectrostaticcharge.Thecoatedpartisthenheatedtoapproximately320-410degreesFtypicallyaround395degreesFwhichcausesthepowdertomeltandflowcreatingacontinuousfilmcoating.Oncecuredpowdercoatingprovidesaverydurableprotectivefinishthatishighlyresistanttochippingpeelingorcrackingandweatherroadconditionexposure.Typesofpowdervaryintermsofresistancetoheatbutpowdersareofferedthatwillwithstandasmuchas100degreesFwithoutdiscoloring.Forautomotiveuseathermosettypepowderisusedtobetterwithstandheatenvironments.Theapplicationisfairlystraightforward.Theparttobecoatedmustbecleanandmustprovideadecenttoothforpaintadhesion.Typicallythiswillinvolveblastingthesurfacewithaluminumoxideorothermediabutavoidsiliconglassbeadasthiscancontaminatethesurface.Thepartisthenwashedanddried.Anoilsheddingoildrainbackcoatingappliedtotheinsideofoilpanspromotesfasteroilreturntothesump.courtesyCalico www.engineprofessional.com27Powdersprayingisdonewithanelectrostaticspraygunorinapowder-emittingtunnelwhiletheparttobesprayedisgrounded.Becausethepowderparticlesareelectrostaticallychargedthepowderwrapsaroundthepartcoveringallsurfaces.Thepowderwillremainonthesurfaceaslongastheelectrostaticchargeispresentifthepartisbumpedduringtransportintothecuringoventhepowdercanfalloff.Oncethepowderpainthasbeenappliedthepartiscarefullymovedintoacuringovenwhereitsbakedat360-400degreesFtoashighas550degreesFdependingonthespecificapplicationandtypeofpowder.NoteItispreferabletopre-heatthepartpriortopaintwhichservestocookoffanysurfaceoilsfingerprintsetc.Whenthepartispre-warmedinthismannerthepowderpaintadheresbetterespeciallytosmallnooksandcrannies.Whilesomepowdercoatingshopsmayofferonlyalimitedcolorselectionpowdersareactuallyavailableinanincrediblearrayofcolorsandfinishesincludingflatmattesemiglosssatinhighglosspebblefinishhammeredtextureswrinklefinishandmore.Evenmetallicchrome-likeneonandAnodizingalloypartsinvolvesanoxidationprocessasopposedtoacoatingprocess.Forthesakeofappearancecolordyesareaddedtoprovidethecolorsofchoice.Anodizingprotectsthesurfacesfromfurtheroxidation.Hardanodizingdependingontheapplicationisalsoavailabletoprovideahardermoredensesurface.continued 28JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANtranslucentfinishesareavailable.Youmayneedtosearchabitforashopbeyondyourimmediatelocaleforcertaincolorsandortexturesbutitsallavailable.Regardingpowder-coatresistancetoglycolbrakefluidbrakefluidwontblisterorremovethepowdercoatbutifleftexposedforalongenoughperiodoftimeexposuretobrakefluidcancreateastainordullsheenoratworsethepowdercoatcanturnmuddyandpliable.Soeventhoughapiecehasbeenpowdercoatedyouneedtocontinuetobecarefultoavoidglycolbrakefluidexposure.ANODIZINGItsimportanttounderstandthatanodizingisnotacoatingandhasnothingincommonwithcoatingssuchaspaintpowdercoatorplating.Anodizinginvolvesanelectrolyticoxidationprocessthataltersthesurfaceofanalloycomponentwiththeprimarybenefitinvolvingsurfaceprotectionandadegreeofwear-resistantsurfacehardening.Theadditionofadyeprovidesthedesiredcolorwhichisabsorbedintotheoxidizedsurface.Aluminummaterialsmaybeanodizedclearorinanyofavarietyofcolors.Aluminummaterialmaybeanodizedinavarietyofcolorsincludingclear.Duringtheprocessaluminumoxideisgeneratedduringanodizingatnearthesurfacecreatingaluminumhydratewhichprovidestheadditionalsurfacehardness.Sincetheanodizedsurfaceisalsofairlyporousitreadilyacceptsacolordye.Intermsofincreasingsurfacehardnessvaryinglevelsofhardnessarepossibledependingonthecomponentsapplication.Thetreatmentisreferredtoasanodizingbecausethepartbeingtreatedformstheanodeofanelectricalcircuit.Theprocessaltersthemicroscopictextureofthealloysurfaceandthecrystallinestructureofthealuminumsurface.Theanodizingprocessappliestoalloysonly.Anodizingsteelorironmaterialswillresultinunappealingoxidation.Whiletheprocesscanbeappliedtoaluminumcastingsresultsmaybesketchyduetoirregularitiesorimpuritiesincastmaterialsasadullgrayornon-uniformitycolormayresult.Thebestchoicesforanodizingarealuminumbilletmachinedforgedmaterials.Theappealoftheanodizingprocessinvolvesavoidingsurfacecorrosiontoapplyacolortothesurfaceanddependingonthelevelofanodizingtoincreasesurfacehardness.Thefinalanodizedpartssurfacewillreadilyallowthesurfacefinishtoberevealed.BythisImeanthatyoucanconsiderclearorcoloranodizingasanalmosttranslucentfinish.Ifyouwanthighglossthepartmustbepolishedpriortoanodizingorabrightdiptreatmentfollowinganodizing.IfCustomcoloranodizingisavailablefromaselectnumberofshops.Theseexhaustportplateswerecustomanodizedinavioletcolor.Sinceanodizingespeciallyforapartthatwaspreviouslyanodizedinadifferentcolorresultsinadullmattefinish.Ifglossisdesiredthepartmustbepolishedafterstrippingorbrightdippedbytheshopaftercoloranodizing. www.engineprofessional.com29 ENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANyouwantasatinorsemiglossfinishthepartcanbebuffedwithalightabrasivesuchasScotchbritepriortoanodizing.Ifyouwantamattefinishdontperformanypolishingorbuffing.Commonapplicationsforcolor-dyedanodizingincludealuminumpulleyscarburetorspacersbracketsANhoseandfittingssparkplugwiredividersmiscellaneousspacersboostpressureregulatorsandwastegatesetc.Aslongasthecomponentismadeofamachinedorformedaluminumalloyitcanbeanodized.Asnotedearliercastingsmaybeanodizedbutappearanceresultswillvarydependingonthemakeupofthecasting.Anotherpotentialissuetobeawareofismaterialuniformity.Ifyouplantohavepiecescoloranodizedallcomponentsmustbemadefromthesamematerialstock.Variancesinthealloymixcanandusuallydoresultincolorvariances.Forexampleifyoufabricateahandfulofitemsfromavarietyofaluminumstocksheetroundorsquaretubingetc.30JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalAnodizingprotectsthealloysurfacefromoxidationandcorrosion.Thecolordyeisaddedsimplyforthesakeofappearance. THELEADERINHEAVY-DUTYTOOLSANDSUPPLIESCALL1-800-527-7604www.regismanufacturing.comREGISMFG.POBox152900DallasTX75315-2900800-527-7604214-421-5171Fax800-535-8414214-565-1704DieselValveGuideDriversRemoversandInstallersApplicationspecificexpandedsizesincludingnewsizesforCumminsISXandDetroit60-series.CalltodaytorequestafreeREGIScatalogYellowMagnumValveSeatWheelsforSiouxandKwik-WayGrindandfinishheavy-dutydieselorhardseatsinjustonestepExtra-longSolidTaperedValveGuidePilotsExpandedsizestocoverDetroitCatandCumminsISX.TS-381TS-382RL-700DAValveSpringCompressorforHeavy-dutyApplicationsLarge11x1312frameincludesRL-22CoffsetjawsandRL-CCrecessedjawsforCatandCummins.RL-DETjawsforDetroitsoldseparately.PowderBlueMagnumValveRefacerWheelsIdealfordieselandtitaniumvalves.K-660DTfits7Sioux.K-760DTfits7Kwik-WayRottler.K-8260DTfits8IDLSunnen.www.engineprofessional.com31 ENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANdifferencesinthealloyformulacaneasilyresultinvaryingshadesofthedesiredcolor.Ifyouopttofabricateitemsfromaluminumstockallpiecesshouldbemadefromthesamestockpreferablywithallpiecescutmachinedfromasinglepieceofstock.Ifyougrabmiscellaneouspiecesofaluminumfromyourinventoryorfromalocalscrapmetalsupplierwithoutpayingattentiontothealloycontentandorgradeofaluminumevenwhenthebatchofitemsisanodizedatthesametimeusingthesamecolordyeyoumayverywellendupwithmis-matchedcolors.Forinstanceifallpiecesaretobeanodizedinabluecolorifthegradesofaluminumdiffersomepiecesmaybedarkerorlighterthanothers.Beawareofthispotentialconcern.IfdissimilaralloymaterialswillbeincloseproximitytoeachotherwheninstalledbeawarethatthecolorsmaynotperfectlymatchYoumayhavenoticedwhenbuyingcolor-anodizedANhardwarethatevenfromthesamemanufacturerbluesor32JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalPowdercoatinginvolvessprayingadrypaintpowderontoanelectrostatic-chargedcomponentfollowedbyheatcuringinaspecializedoven.Thestaticchargedrawsthepowdertothesurfaceduringapplication. EXPERIENCE.EXCELLENCE.APASSIONFORYOURBUSINESS.GlobalOEManufacturerComprehensiveCoverageStockPerformanceNO.1SUPPLIEROFTOTALVALVETRAINSOLUTIONS2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.www.elginind.comsaleselginind.comContactYourElginDistributorTodayorCall1-800-323-676412-47www.engineprofessional.com33 34JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalredsmaynotbeconsistent.Thisislikelybecausethepiecesmayhavebeenmachinedfromavarietyofbilletstock.Whileintegrityanddurabilityisntcompromisedthefinalcolorhuesmayvary.HYDROGRAPHICSThisprocessisstrictlycosmeticandservesnomechanicalorthermalfunction.Alsoreferredtoaswet-dipinkfilmtransferorinktransferprintingthisprocessinvolvestheapplicationofagraphicinkfilmthatwrapsontoasurfacetoprovideadesiredappearance.Relativetoenginebuildsapplicationscanincludevalvecoverstimingcoversoilpansintakemanifoldsandvariousbrackets.Literallythousandsoffilmgraphicsareavailableincludingthosethatprovidetheappearanceofcamouflageinvariouscolorsdesignsbluebackgroundswithwaterdropletsskullsbarbedwirecarbonfibermachineturningsdiamondplatemetalvariouswoodgrainsandmore.IfyoucanENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANHydrographicfilmsareavailableinadizzyingarrayofdesigns.Theintakemanifoldshownherewastreatedwithacarbonfiberfilm.Hydrographicsorwetfilmprintingprovidesonlyanappearancebenefit.Ahigh-tempratureclearcoatprotectsandsealstheinkfilm. www.engineprofessional.com35 ENGINECOATINGSOURCESSERVICESExamplesNOTEMAHLECleviteandFederal-Mogulofferspecificpartswithcoatingsalreadyappliedbutdonotoffergeneralcoatingservicestothepublic.ALSONOTESomecrankshaftandconnectingrodmakersnowofferoptionaloil-sheddingcoatingsfortheirrespectiveproducts.EXAMPLESOFANODIZINGSOURCESRefertoyourlocalphonedirectoryorperformaGoogle-searchforanodizingshopsinyourregion.ListedbelowarethreesampleanodizingshopsthatIveusedinthepastwithgreatresults.POWDERCOATINGANDHYDROGRAPHICSTheseservicesareavailablenationwideusuallywithshopsincloseproximitytoallcitiesandtowns.CheckyourlocaldirectoriesorGoogletofindashopinyourarea.Youshouldnthaveanytroublefindingagoodpowdercoaternearbybutfindingagoodhydrographicwetdipinktransfershopmaypresentmoreofachallenge.Ifyouhavetroublefindingawetdipshopcheckwithyourlocalgunandorarcherystoressincewetdipcamouflagetreatmentsarecommonforapplicationssuchasshotgunsbowsetc.Acompetentwetdipshopshouldhaveaccesstoawidevarietyofinkfilmssuchascarbonfiberdiamondplateetc.36JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINECOATINGSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANimagineitthegraphicfilmprobablyexists.Inbasictermsthegraphicisappliedasfollowstheparttobetreatediscleanedandprimedthenpaintedwithanappropriatebasecolorsincemostfilmsaresomewhattranslucentthebasecolorwillinfluencethefinalappearance.Forexampleifyouwantapairofvalvecoversdoneinorangecarbonfiberanorangebasecoatisapplied.Ifyouwantatraditionalcarbonfiberlookablackbasecoatisapplied.Thegraphicinkfilmisthenlaidonawatersurfaceinatemperature-regulatedtankdesignedfortheprocess.Waterbeginstobreakdownthebindersinthefilmandanactivatoristhensprayedontothefloatingfilmtofullybreakdownthebinderstoleaveafloatingoilslickofthegraphic.Thepartisthencarefullydippedthroughthefilmwiththefilmclingingtothepartssurfaces.Anyfilmthathasnowheretoattachfloatslooselyandisshakenoff.ThereisaskillinvolvedhereitsnotassimpleasdippinganEasteregg.Oncethepartisremovedfromthewateritisdriedandthenclearcoatedtoprotectthefilm.Forpartsthatwillexperienceheatsuchasintakemanifoldsvalvecoversetc.aspecialhigh-tempurethaneclearcoatisapplied.Againawetdiptreatmentisstrictlyforthesakeoflookswhereyoudesireacertaincustomgraphicappearance.IMikeMavrigianhaswrittenthousandsoftechnicalarticlesoverthepast30yearsforavarietyofautomotivepublications.InadditionMikehaswrittenmanybooksforHPBooks.ContacthimatBirchwoodAutomotiveGroupCrestonOH.Call330435-6347ore-mailmikebirchwoodautomotive.com.Websitewww.birchwoodautomotive.comCALICOCOATINGSP.O.Box901DenverNC28037888-236-6079www.calicocoatings.comCERAKOTECERAMICCOATINGS70506thSt.WhiteCityOR97503866-774-7628www.cerakotehightemp.comDARTMACHINERY353OliverSt.TroyMI48084248-362-1188www.dartheads.comDIAMONDPISTONS23003DiamondDr.ClintonTwpMI48035877-552-2112www.diamondracing.netFEDERAL-MOGULSEALEDPOWER26555NorthwesternHwySouthfieldMI48033800-325-8885www.federal-mogul.comJEPISTONS8MasonIrvineCA92618714-895-9594www.jepistons.comMAHLECLEVITEINC.1350EisenhowerPlaceAnnArborMI48108-3282800-338-8786www.mahleclevite.comPOLYDYNPolymerDynamics11211NeeshawDr.HoustonTX77065888-765-9396www.polydyn.comSWAINTECHCOATINGSP.O.Box33ScottsvilleNY14546585-889-2786www.swaintech.comTECHLINECOATINGSINC.26844AdamsAve.MurrietaCA92562972-775-6130www.techlinecoatings.comWISECOPISTONS7201IndustrialParkBlvd.MentorOH44060-5396800-321-1364www.wiseco.comMcNICHOLSPOLISHINGANODIZING12139WoodbineRedfordMI48239313-538-3470METFIN4thSt.atRailroadNorthWalesPA19454215-699-3505FORTWAYNEANODIZING2535WayneTraceFortWayneIN46803260-424-1030 www.engineprofessional.com37 38JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalChevroletCruzenamedDieselCaroftheYearDieselenthusiastsaroundtheworldhavedeterminedthe2014ChevroletCruzeDieselisthetopdieselcaroftheyearandChevroletisthetopdieselmanufacturerof2014.TheChevroletCruzeDieselwithamarket-leading46mpghighway5.11L100kmisclearlysettingthepacefordiesel-poweredcarsintheUnitedStatessaidJonathanSpiraeditorialdirectorofTheDieselDriver.Themessagefromourreadersisclear.DieselsarebackandChevroletisintheforefront.TheCruzefinishedwith59.3percentofthe11030votescast.CompetitorsincludedtheAudiA6A7A8Q5andQ7BMW328535andX5JeepGrandCherokeeMercedes-BenzE250GLK250ML350andGL350PorscheCayenneandVolkswagenBeetleandBeetleConvertibleGolfJettaJettaSportwagenPassatandTouareg.TheCruzeDieselisreallyshowingtheworldwhatdieselcandosaidCristiLandyChevroletseniormarketingmanager.Itcombinesfuelefficiencyandperformanceintoafun-to-drivevehiclethatreallyofferscompactcardriversanoptionthatspeakstotheirlifestyleandpersonality.Chevroletreceived45percentofthe11161votescastfortopdieselmanufacturer.TheballotincludedAudiBMWJeepMercedes-BenzPorscheandVolkswagen.Forthe2014modelyearChevroletbuiltonCruzesvaluewithanall-new2.0Lcleanturbo-diesel-poweredmodelthatachievesanEPA-estimated46mpghighwaybetterthananynon-hybridorgasolinepassengercarinAmerica.TheCruzeDieselcantravel717milesonasingletankorabout10hoursofhighwaydriving.TheengineisbuiltinKaiserslauternGermanyandthevehicleisassembledinLordstownOhio.EarlierthisyeartheCruze2.0LdieselenginewasrecognizedbyWardsAutoasoneofthe2014Wards10BestEngines.Availablefor25695the2014ChevroletCruzeCleanTurboDieseloffersthebesthighwayfueleconomyofanynon-hybridpassengercarinAmerica.IAERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenhasover41yearsofexperienceinourindustry.AsanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistDavespecializedincylinderheadworkandcompleteengineassemblyforthefirst17yearsofhiscareer.TheDieselDriveralsonamesbrandDieselManufactureroftheYearBYDAVEHAGENPHOTOSGENERALMOTORS2014ChevroletCruzeCleanTurboDieseldeliversefficientperformance. OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonpage94ofthisissueandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepwww.engineprofessional.com39 COMMONALUMINUMALLOYSAlloyCommentsA319A354C355A356357A206242Commonforheadsandblocks.Higherstrengthmoderatehigh-temperaturestrengthcommonforturbochargers.Slightlyharderthan356Coppercontentforelevatedtemperatureproperties.Generalusealloygoodperformancegoodvalue.Higheryieldstrengththan356withsomewhatlowerductility.Suitableforstructuralapplications2xthestrengthofA356at150C.Al-Cualloywithnickel.Workswellforair-andliquid-cooledcylinderheads.40APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalThereisanever-increasingneedforlight-weightinginon-highwayvehiclessuchasheavy-dutytrucks.AsofthisyearnewcommercialtrucksmustmeetgreenhousegasGHGemissionsandfueleconomystandardsandthosestandardswillbecomeevenmorestringentin2018.TomeetdieselemissionsrequirementstruckmanufacturershaveaddeddieselparticulatefiltersDPFsandselectivecat-alyticreductionSCRsystemswhichinaggregateaddhundredsofpoundstothevehiclesweight.Tomeetregulationstoreducestoppingdistancesmanufacturershavehadtoincreasethesizeofthebrakedrumswhichalsobringsaweightpenalty.ImprovedaerodynamicsdriveninpartbythefueleconomyandGHGstandardshaveaddedtovehicleefficiencyyetthosecomponentscanoftenweighhundredsofpounds.Idle-reductionprogramshavespurredtheadoptionofauxiliarypowerunitsAPUsbutbothbattery-basedanddiesel-poweredunitscanaddupto500lb.totruckweight.Conversionstonaturalgascandeliverareturnoninvestmentinaslit-tleastwoyearsyetthepackagecanadd2000lb.tothetruck.Finallytoattractandretaindriversasignificantconcernforfleetspremiuminteriorpackagescanadd100lb.ormore.Additallupandthepremiumfuel-effi-cienttruckcanweigh2390lb.morethanthestandardtruck.Thustherearemanyopportunitiesforlightweightingmanyofwhicharebasedonreplacingsteelandothermaterials.ForgedaluminumwheelscanbeusedinLighteningThingsUpForDieselsProperselectionanduseofaluminumalloyscanprovideweightsavingsfueleconomybenefitsforenginesheavy-dutytrucksBYANDREWHALONENAnironcylindersleevethathasbeencastwithinanaluminumhead.Aluminumalloystypicallyusedinenginedesignoverthepastfewdecades. SPECIALIZINGINREPLACEMENTPARTSFORBENDIXCARRIERCATERPILLARCUMMINSDETROITDIESELHINOISUZUMIDLANDNAVISTARTHERMO-KINGTRANE...yourFriendlyalternativeDieselenginepartsESCOINDUSTRIESINC.TOLLFREE1-800-372-6872FAX951-782-2136SALESESCOUSA.COMWWW.ESCOUSA.COMALLOTHERCOMPANYBRANDPRODUCTANDSERVICENAMESAREUSEDHEREINFORIDENTIFICATIONPURPOSESONLYANDMAYBETHETRADEMARKSSERVICEMARKSORTRADENAMESOFTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.THEREISNOAFFILIATIONORSPONSORSHIPBETWEENTHESECOMPANIESANDESCOUNLESSEXPRESSLYSTATED.CARRIERBENDIXAREPLASPECIALIZINGINTERPILLARCARRIERBENDIXARTSFORCEMENTREPLASPECIALIZINGINTHERMONMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINS-KINGRMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINSTERPILLARTRANE-KINGTHERMOiend...ourTRANE-KINGyalternativeDieselenginepartsyalternative...yourFDieselenginepartsyalternativeED.XPRETHESECOMPBETWEENSPONSORSHIPTHEREISNOTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.OFVICEMARKSORTRADEMARKSSERTHEBEAREUEDHEREINFRIDENTIFIBRANDPROOTHERCOMPALLANDESCOUNLESSANIESTHESECOMPINRAFFILITHEREISNOTRADENAMESVICEMARKSORANDYTIONPURPOSESONLVICENAMESANDSERBRANDPRODUCTwww.engineprofessional.com41 42JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalLIGHTENINGTHINGSUPFORDIESELSBYANDREWHALONENplaceofsteelwheels.Ironhubscanbereplacedwithcastaluminum.Otheroptionsincludeaforged-aluminumfifthwheelandsheet-moldedcompositebodypanelsalongwitha6x2axlearrange-ment.The6x2setupusingonefewerdriveaxlecansave400lb.Therearealsoconsiderableopportuni-tiestoreducetheweightoftheengineaswellusingrecentdevelopmentsinmetalsandprocessing.Dieselenginemanufacturershavebeenusingaluminumforalongtimeyetthematerialisnotascommonasitiswithgasolineengines.DeltaHawkamanufac-turerofdieselaviationengineshasbeenproducingengineswithcastaluminumblocksandheadsformorethanadecade.Mercedes-Benzbeganusingcastaluminumblocksindieselsin2005andtheenginesusedin2014Sprintervanshavecastalu-minumheadsandablockwithacompactgraphiteironcylindersleeve.Morerecentlythenew5LCumminsISV5.0dieselincorporatesanaluminumintakemanifoldaluminumpistonsandahigh-strengthaluminumalloycylinderheadseeMarch2014DieselProgressOctober-December2013EngineProfessional.Comparedtostandardcastironmate-rialsaluminumhasalowerdensity0.1lb.cu.in.incomparisonto0.26lb.cu.in.forgrayiron.Itiscorrosionresistantitrejectsheatatthreetimestherateofironandisrelativelyeasytomachineandrecycle.Fromamanufactur-ingperspectiveitcanalsobeeasiertocastcomplexcoolingwaterjacketsinalu-minum.Drawbacksofaluminumareareduc-tioninstiffnesswearresistanceandvibra-tiondampinganditislesstolerantofele-vatedtemperaturesthancastiron.Howeverthehigh-temperatureper-formancecapabilitiesofaluminumhavebeenimprovedwiththeadditionofscandi-umasexplainedintheAmericanFoundrySocietypaperDevelopmentofCastAlAlloysforElevatedTemperature250CAcylinderlinermadefromanaluminumsiliconcarbineAl-SiCgraphitecompositealsoknownasmetalmatrixcomposites.DontLetYourEnginesFLAT-LINEByUsingAnythingButGenuineMellingOilPumps.MellingwarnsallenginerebuilderstoavoidRiskyOilPumpsfoundinsomeenginekits.TheoilpumpistheHeartoftheengine.DontgambleonaHeartAttack.Withmorethan60yearsofprovenqualityanddurabilityMellingurgesyouandyourcustomerstodemandaNEWHeartGenuineMellingOilPumps2620SaradanDriveJacksonMichigan49204800-635-5464TEL517-787-5304FAXVisitusonlineatwww.melling.comALERT www.engineprofessional.com43 44JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalServicebyD.J.WeissG.A.GegelandK.S.Sadayappan.Aluminumscandiumalloysdemonstratemechanicalpropertiesat250C482Fthatare3.6timeshigherthanwroughtaluminumalloy2618and2.1timeshigherthancast354aluminum.Variationsofmetalalloysshowprom-isingresults.Byreducingthesiliconcon-tentofA356aluminumfromthenormal7to4thestrengthremainsthesameyettheelongationimprovesby75to100.Thisbodeswellforlonger-lastingintakemanifoldsandcylinderheads.The200Seriesaluminumalloysusetheadditionofcopperandotherelementstoimproveperformance206hassometitanium201hassilver224hastitaniumzirconiumandvanadium242hastitani-umnickelandchromium.Thesealloysimproveperformanceatelevatedtempera-tureswhencomparedtothecommonAl-SialloysandA206showsadramaticimprovementinlowcyclefatiguewhichisacriticaldesignparameterinenginedesign.WhileitiscommontohavesteelorironlinersintheblockEckIndustrieshasbeendevelopingaluminumcompositelin-ersmadewithsiliconcarbideandgraphitewithinanaluminummatrix.Thesiliconcarbideprovidesstiffnessandwearresist-anceandthegraphiteprovideslubricitytominimizetheamountofoilandconcernsofoilblow-by.Testingoncastaluminumcompressorswithironsleevesversusthecompressorswithcompositesleevesshowsa60to80Freductionincylindertem-peratureduetotheimprovedconductivityofanaluminumcompositesleeveoveranironsleeve.Theweightreductionissimilartothatofironconvertedtoaluminum.Aluminum-siliconcarbidecompositescommonlyknownasmetalmatrixcom-positesMMChavealsobeenconsideredforthemainbearingcapsonaluminumblocks.MMCsare20to50stifferthanaluminumandhavealowercoefficientofthermalexpansion.Therehavealsobeenconsiderableadvancementsinaluminumcastingtech-nologythatwillfurtherenablelightweightenginedesign.Themodelingandsimula-tiontechnologiesforenginedevelopmentareimprovingdaily.3-Dprintinghelpsengineersvisualizeandcommunicatenewdesignsandprovideameanstosignificant-lyreducethetimetoproduceworkingprototypes.Inthefoundrysimulationtoolsusedtorepresentmetalflowhaveimprovedconsiderablyaswell.AnalystsLIGHTENINGTHINGSUPFORDIESELSBYANDREWHALONENNaturalsolidificationsimulationcanbeusedtoshowproblematicareasofacastingatthedesignstage.Flowsimulationscanshowhowcertainmetalsbehavewhenbeingcast.Thisfiniteelementsimulationshowsthepredictedpropertiesofacastaluminumengineblock. www.engineprofessional.com45 canaccuratelypredictareasofporosityhighvelocityfilltemperatureandthemechanicalpropertiesinsomealloys.WorkingwithaconceptualdesignCADmodelanaturalsimulationmodelcanshowareasofconcernrelativetoporosity.Oncethetoolbuildbeginscastingengineersworkwithdesignengineerstounderstandtheareasthatneedthehighestmaterialpropertiesandareasthatcanbealignedwiththematerialfeedgatesandbackfillrisers.Whenthiscollaborationbeginsinthesimulationstagetheresultisahigherperformancecastingandamorerepeatablereliablemanufacturingprocess.Themanufacturersofmetalflowsimu-lationsoftwaretoolscollaboratewithfoundriestoensurethattheirmodelsrep-resentreal-worldresults.NotallmaterialsflowthesameespeciallyconsideringtheAl-SialloysandtheAl-Cualloys.Thelat-terlikeA206deliverconsiderablehigherstrengthfatigueelevatedtemperatureper-formanceyetwiththelackofsilicontheflowandsolidificationareconsiderablydifferentthanthecommoncastA356alu-minum.Asthesimulationtoolsimproveengi-neerscanusethemtopredictpropertieswithinthecasting.Escalatingdemandsforperformancefueleconomyandemissionsreductionwillcontinuetopushmanufacturerstoconsid-erdifferentalternativestoreduceweightintheirproducts.Designengineersworkingwiththeirfoundrypartnerscanworktodeveloplightweightenginesthatwillkeepthedieselengineattheforefrontoftheinnovationcurve.IAndrewHalonenisasalesengineerforEckIndustriesInc.analuminumcastingspecialistbasedinManitowocWis.EditorsNoteThisarticleisreprintedwithpermissionfromDieselProgress.Formoreinformationpleasecall262-754-4100orvisitwww.dieselprogress.com.46JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalLIGHTENINGTHINGSUPFORDIESELSBYANDREWHALONEN3200ArrowheadDriveCarsonCityNV89706TEL800227-8360FAX775883-9497Visitusonlineatwww.dura-bondbearing.comKILLERBEEValveSeatLineQualityCamshaftBearingsSince1947VALVESEATTECHNOLOGYHASCHANGEDApplicationPartActualODIDIDTopTaperDepthSeatAngleApplicationysler4.0LChrysler4.0LChr1.19972419CExhaustysler4.0L1.47272420Intakeysler4.0LPartApplication45.3221.0760.96045.3101.3721.250neGeneralMotors6.2LLS3GeneralMotors6.2LLS3ysler5.7LEagleChrysler5.7LEagleChrysler4.7LCorsairChrysler4.7LCorsairChr1.63272444CExhaustGeneralMotors6.2LLS32.19472443CIntakeGeneralMotors6.2LLS31.60272432CExhaustysler5.7LEagle2.18672431Intakeysler5.7LEagle1.50272405CExhaustysler4.7LCorsair2.00172401Intakeysler4.7LCorsair45.4131.34045.4131.90053.7.2761.5041.32253.2.3382.0071.82057.8.2551.4081.21949.2641.9061.730 www.engineprofessional.com47 48JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalHydrodynamiclubricationEnginebearingsoperatemostlyinahydrodynamicregimeoflubricationinwhichthebearingsurfaceisseparatedfromthejournalsurfacebypressurizedoil.Aloadedrotatingjournalisalwaysdisplacedfromtheconcentricpositionformingaconverginggapwedgebetweenthebearingandthejournalsurfaces.Thepresenceofthisoilwedgeisindispensabletothenormaloperationofahydrodynamicbearing.Ifthejournalandthebearingareperfectlyconcentricthewedgeisnotformedandtheoilisnotpressurized.Adifferencebetweenthebearingandthejournaldiametersallowsthejournaltoshiftfromtheconcentricpositionandformawedge.Thusthewedgeparametersaredeterminedbythedifferencebetweenthediameters.Thisiscalledoilclearanceorbearingclearance.Clearanceisthebasicgeometricparameterofenginebearings.Thereisanotherwaytocreateaconverginggapanoilwedgeabearinghavingalemonshapeduetothevaryingthicknessofthebearingwallhavingitsmaximalvalueatthecenterlineandgraduallydecreasingtowardsthepartingline.Thedifferencebetweenthemaximumandminimumwallthicknessbearingeccentricityisaddedtotheeccentricitythatiscausedbythedisplacementofthejournalfromtheconcentricposition.Suchincreasedtotaleccentricityenablesamorestablehydrodynamicregime.Withregardstothehydrodynamicconditionsabearingwitheccentricityisequivalenttoabearingwithanincreaseddiameteroranincreasedoilclearance.Theoilwedgeofabearingwitheccentricityisthesameasthewedgeformedbyabearingwithanincreaseddiametereffectivebearingdiameter.Howeversincetheactualbearingdiameterisnotchangedtheadverseeffectofnoiseandvibrationfromexcessivebearingclearanceisprevented.WhatistheoptimalclearanceHighperformanceenginesoperatemostlyatahighrotationspeedandproduceincreasedloadsthatareappliedtothebearings.Bothcharacteristicsaffectthehydrodynamicregimeoflubrication.Higherbearingloadsresultinadecreaseofminimumoilfilmthickness.Whenitsvaluedropsbeloweitherthejournalsurfaceroughnessorthevalueofthegeometricdistortionsthehydrodynamiclubricationchangestoamixedlubricationregime.Thisischaracterizedbymetal-to-metalcontact.Inordertopreventorreducemetal-to-metalcontacttheclearanceshouldbedesignedtoproducethemaximumpossiblelevelofminimumoilfilmthickness.Suchclearancecouldbeconsideredasoptimal--unlesstheengineoperationconditionsloadrotationspeedchangeinthesameenginewithinarelativelywiderange.Thereforetheclearancevalueprovidingthemaximumlevelofminimumoilfilmthicknesswouldchangecorrespondingly.Additionallysometimesthemaximumvalueofminimumoilfilmthicknessmaybereachedwhenthevaluesofotherhydrodynamicparameterssuchasoiltemperatureoilleakagefloworoilpressuredistributionbecomeunacceptable.Allthesefactorsshouldbetakenintoaccountinthedesignofoptimalclearance.OptimizationofclearancedesignforhighperformanceenginebearingsBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICH12 www.engineprofessional.com49CalculationsofoptimalclearanceKingEngineBearingshasdevelopedasoftwarethatsimulatesenginebearingperformanceundervariousconditions.ThesoftwarecalledENSIMisanadvancedenginesimulationmodule.Itiscapableofcalculatingthethermodynamicdynamichydrodynamicandmechanicalparametersofbearingoperation.ENSIMisusedfordesigningnewbearingsandformodifyingthebearingsofexistingengines.ForthepurposesofthisthemepaperstudycalculationsoftheparametersofhydrodynamiclubricationweremadeforhighperformancebearingsworkingunderthefollowingconditionsBearingdiameter2Bearinglength1Oiltype5W50syntheticOilinlettemperature175FEccentricitye0ande0.0004Bearingloads5100psiand12000psiRotationspeeds2000RPM4500RPMand8000RPMThemainobjectiveofthecalculationswastodeterminetheoptimalvaluesofclearanceforvariousoperationalconditions.Suchoptimalclearanceshouldprovidethemaximumpossiblelevelofminimumoilfilmthickness.Theresultsofthecalculationsoftheeffectofclearanceonthemin.oilfilmthicknessarepresentedinFigures1and2.Itisseeninthegraphsthatmin.oilfilmthicknesshasmaximumvalueswhicharedifferentatdifferentloadsandrotationspeeds.Whentheclearanceincreasesfromlowvaluestheresultingvalueofmin.oilfilmthicknessalsoincreases.Thisisduetotheformationofalargersupportingoilwedgewhichismandatoryforstablehydrodynamiclubrication.Howeverafurtherincreaseofclearanceleadstoadecreaseofmin.oilfilmthickness.Thiseffectiscausedbyalocalizationoftheoilpressuretoasmallerareaofthebearingsurface.Thenon-homogeneityoftheoilpressuredistributionischaracterizedbytheratioPmaxPavWherePavtheaverageloadappliedtothebearingsurface5100psior12000psiinourcalculationsPmaxthepeakvalueoftheoilpressureAnexampleoftheoilpressuredistributionisshowninFigure3.Besidesadecreaseofmin.oilfilmthicknessthenon-homogeneousoilpressuredistributioncausedbyexcessiveclearancemayresultinfatigueofthebearingmaterialintheareaofpeakpressure.Thisphenomenonisknownasknocking.TheeffectofclearanceontheoilpressuredistributionispresentedinFigures4and5.Asseeninthegraphsclearanceexceeding0.003mayresultinsubstantialnon-homogeneityoftheoilpressuredistribution.continued345 50JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalENGINEBEARINGSBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICHAnothereffectoflargeclearanceisincreasedoilleakageoutofthebearing.Oilleakagehasanimportantpositiveroleitremovestheheatgeneratedbythebearingthuspreventingoverheatingoftheoil.Howevertoolargeaflowofoilleakagemaycauseadropofoilpressureandevenoilstarvationwhichterminateshydrodynamiclubrication.Oilleakagefromabearingwithexcessiveclearancemaybereducedbychangingtoahigherviscosityoil.TheinfluenceofclearanceonoilflowisseeninFigure6.Nowconsidertheeffectoftightclearancesonthehydrodynamicparameters.Theadvantagesofsmallclearancesarelowvaluesofoilpeakpressureandlowoilleakage.Howevertherearecleardrawbacks.Firstofallmin.oilfilmthicknessattightclearancesmaybetoolowFigures1and2.Thesecondadversefactorisrelatedtopossibledistortionsofthebearinghousingandcrankshaftinhighperformanceenginesworkingathighloadsandhighrotationspeeds.Thedistortionsaremuchmoredangerousinbearingswithsmallclearances.Thethirddisadvantageoftightclearanceisexcessiveheatingoftheoil.Thefrictionenergygeneratedbythebearingathighrotationspeedsmayheattheoiltoatemperatureaboveitsmaximumlimite.g.500Fforsyntheticoil.ThegraphinFigure7illustratestheeffectofclearanceonoiltemperaturerisedeltaT.Thusoptimalclearanceimpliesabalancedcombinationofthehydrodynamicparametersmin.oilfilmthicknessoilpressuredistributionoiltemperatureriseandoilleakageflow.TheproductiontechnologydevelopedbyKingcombineshighlyaccuratemachiningplatingandcomputerizedwallthicknessmonitoring.ThetechnologyisknownasBullsEyeTolerance.Itensuresleastthicknessvariationshell-to-shellandprovidestheoptimalvalueofthebearingsclearance.Aswasnotedatthebeginningofthisarticleclearanceisnottheonlybearingparameterdeterminingthevalueofmin.oilfilmthickness.Theeffectofbearingeccentricityisverysimilartothatofclearance.Thevalueofeccentricityistakenintoaccountinhydrodynamiccalculations.Figure8presentstheresultsofcalculationsofclearancesprovidingthemaximumvaluesofmin.oilfilmthicknessfordifferenteccentricitiese0ande0.0004.Anincreaseofbearingeccentricityshiftstheoptimalclearancetolowervalues.Thisreducesthelikelihoodofknockingandlocalized678 ENGINEBEARINGSBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICH52JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionaloverloading.Howevertherealsituationismorecomplicatedthanthetheoreticalcalculations.Asamatteroffacttheactualeccentricityofhighperformancebearingsduringtheiroperationislowerthanthedifferencebetweenthemaximumandminimumwallthickness.Theeccentricityisreducedbydistortionsofthebearinghousingduetohighloadsandhighrotationspeeds.UsingKingsENSIMsoftwareweareabletodeterminetheoptimaleccentricityvalueforaspecificperformancerequirement.ThisoptimalvalueinourXPandHPraceseriesiscalledEccentriX.ConclusionsandrecommendationThereisavalueofclearanceatwhichminimumoilfilmthicknessreachesthemaximumvalue.Looseclearanceresultsinlowertemperaturerisebutingreateroilleakageriskofoilstarvationandinhigheroilpressurepeakriskofmaterialfatigue.Tightclearanceresultsinsmalloilleakagelowoilpressurepeakbutingreateroiltemperatureriseandingreatersensitivitytogeometricdistortionsofthehousingandthecrankshaft.Thevalueofclearancerequiredforformationofthemaximumvalueofminimumoilfilmthicknessislowerinbearingshavinggreatereccentricity.Theoptimalrangeofclearanceis0.0015-0.003forabearingwith2diameter.Looserclearancesaremoresuitableforhighlyloadedenginesworkingathighrotationspeedsandwiththickeroils.Tighterclearancesprovideabettercombinationofhydrodynamicparametersinlessloadedenginesworkingatlowerrotationspeedsandusingthinneroils.IDr.DmitriKopeliovichisregardedasoneoftheforemostauthoritiesonenginebearingresearchanddevelopment.HeearnedhisPh.D.inmaterialsengineeringandservesasresearchanddevelopmentmanageratKingEngineBearings.AsthemanagerandteamleaderofKingsadvancedmaterialsresearchanddevelopmentunitDr.KopeliovichisknownastheEngineBearingDoctorforhisextensiveinvestigationsintothecauseandpreventionofprematureenginebearingfailure.ToaskDr.Kopeliovichaquestionvisitwww.kingbearings.comandclickonAskDr.Dmitri.SAVINGCYLINDERSFORNEARLY70YEARSCONNECTINGRODSWeofferthehighestqualityconnectingrodsforavarietyofapplications.SERVICEPARTSBOLTSOliverservicepartsaremanufacturedtomeetourexactingspecificationsmakingthemidealforreconditioningeffortsandthereplacementofsinglerodsbushingssleevesandbolts.-38716DIAMETERBOLTSUPGRADEOPTIONSAVAILABLESALESOLIVERRACINGPARTS.COM231237-4515WWW.OLIVERRACINGPARTS.COMCRAFTSMANSHIPPRECISIONDURABILITYSTRENGTH SUPERIORLoadCapacityPerformanceNEWAdvancedFeatures24StrongerOverlayAchieving18.1HV17GreaterFatigueResistanceUniqueGeometricDesignMaximizesSurfaceLoadAreaBullsEyeWallToleranceEnsuresPerfectOilClearanceinEverySetFormoreabouttheNEWFeaturesofKingXPHPvisitwww.KingRaceBearings.com1-800-772-3670PerfectclearanceineverysetBullsEyeToleranceImprovedoilingressElliptiXGreaterloadsurfaceU-GrooveSuperiorloadcapacitypMaxBlackwww.engineprofessional.com53 54JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalForabusinesstothriveitmustbeabletonegotiatetheinevitableeconomicpeaksandvalleys.AworldleaderinmanufacturingengineblocksforracingandhighperformanceenthusiastsaswellasreplacementblocksforavarietyofDetroitV-8enginesDartMachineryusesitsmasteryofpeaksandvalleysspecificallyinhoningcylinderborestoproducecustomresultswithnear-mass-productionefficiency.Advancedhoningprovidesakeydifferentiatorformaintainingacompetitiveadvantageandachievinggreaterefficienciesandflexibilityinprocessinganever-changingmixofblockssaysDickMaskinDartfounderandpresident.AnewSV-20honingsystemfromSunnenenableshigh-precisionhighly-flexiblehoningofawiderangeofblockdesignsandmetallurgiesinasinglecontinuousprocesswithouttheneedforstonechangehereports.American-madeinSt.LouisthismachinereplacesamoreexpensiveEuropean-builthoningsystemthatjustwasntagoodfitforourproductionnotflexibleenoughsaysMaskin.MaskinstartedDartin1981inatwo-cargarageinOakParkaDetroitsuburbandhasgrownitintothemanufacturingleaderinracingandhigh-performanceengineblocksheadsandothercomponents.ThecompanydoesitsparttokeepDetroitMotorCitywithbothatechnologycenterandmanufacturingfacilitylocatedinthemetroarea.Today95Dartemployeesmakeabout8000blocksand16000headsayearfordragracingcircletrackracingroadracingandhigh-performancecustomcarsaswellasmarineandindustrialpowerapplications.WeproducecustominvolumestatesMaskin.BlocksaremanufacturedtocustomerorderintypeandmaterialborespacingcamlocationboltpatterndeckheightlifterlocationAdvancedHoningDartmastersthepeaksandvalleysofcustomengineblockproductionwithadvancedflexiblehoningsystemBYRAYKEMBLEAChevroletperformancesmallblockbeinghonedinthenewSV-20machine. 2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.1-800-323-6764www.elginind.comsaleselginind.com1InperformancestockCOVERAGETheressimplynobetterchoicethanELGIN.AftermarketVALVETRAINmanufacturer1AftermarketROCKERARMmanufacturer1OEaftermarketPUSHRODmanufacturer1wwwl--ginind.comsaleseginind.comwww.engineprofessional.com55 56JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalADVANCEDHONINGBYRAYKEMBLEoilpanboltpatternmetricorU.S.dimensionsjustinfinitevariationandspecializationhesays.DartmakesblocksinvariousgradesofironcasttoCGIandinaluminumwithiron-sleevedcylinderboresincludingblocksmachinedfromforgedandheat-treatedaluminumbillets.Themanufacturingfacilityoperatesthreeshifts6or7daysaweekdependingonproductionvolumewith26largeMakinoCNCmachiningcenterschurningoutblocksheadsandmanifolds.CustomerscanchoosebetweensevendifferentbaseblockdesignscoveringbigblockandsmallblocksizesallevolvedfromNHRAprostockV-8experience.ThatswhereallthetechnologycomesfromsaysMaskinwhoseownenginecreationsachieveddrag-racingsfirst300mphquarter-milerunandfour-secondFunnyCarelapsedtime.ApplyingthatcreativitytohoningDartcombinestwoadvancedtechnologiesdiamondhoningabrasivesdrivenwithaprogrammablespindlefollowedbyprofilometerstomeasurethepeaksandvalleysofcylindersurfacefinishestoreplicatebestblockfinishesandringSunnenstwo-stagediamondabrasivehoningtooldoesroughingandfinishingwith220-and500-gritabrasivewithoutpauseforstonechange.TheadvancedcontrolsystemontheSV-20allowsDarttoachieveawiderangeoffinisheswiththesetwoabrasives.TechnicianBobDimitrijevichinstallsDartonironsleevesincastaluminumblockwhileabilletaluminumracingblockawaitsinstallation.Aluminumblockboresarehonedforsizeandgeometrybeforelinerinstallation. www.engineprofessional.com57 58JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalseal.ExperiencedracershavealwayshadtheirfavoriteblocksonesthatranbetterthanothersnotesMaskin.Wevelearnedthroughexperiencethatitwasnottheblockthatmadethedifferencebuthowyourhoningprocessworkedforthatexactblockwhilesimilarblocksmightproducemuchlesshorsepower.Onceyouunderstandthefinishyouneedfromhoningandweknowthesenumbersnowthankstoprofilometersyoucanmakethebadblocksgoodtoo.WeusehoningtoachievetheidealRvkvalleydepthaverageRpkpeakheightaverageRkcoreroughnessdepthandcrosshatchtofinishablockforagivenapplication.Knowingthedesiredresultthehoningprocesscanbetweakedtoachievetheresultinanyblockhesays.Ifyougofroma200brinnelblockofcastirontoamuchtougherCGIcompactedgraphiteironblockyouneedtoknowhowtoachieveyourfinishnumbersinthedifferentmaterialssaysMaskin.Finishesalsomustaccountforthetypeoffuelburnedintheenginewhichcouldbealcoholornaturalgas.TheSV-20honingsystemgivesDarttheflexibilitytoefficientlyprocessanyengineblockinanymaterialandhardness.ThereisnotypicalproductionrunforusnotesMaskin.Wecanputanewblockinthemachineoncetheprogramiswrittenandnomachinecanmakeacylinderrounderorstraighterhestates.Thefinishisallbasedonprogramming.Ifyouknowwhereyouwanttogoyoucangetthere.Computercontrolhastakenmuchoftheblackartoutofhoninghenotes.MachineslikethisproduceafinishandsizethatpreviouslyrequiredaverytalentedmachinistsaysMaskin.Ifyouhavetohonedifferentblockswithdifferentmaterialcontentlikewedothenewerequipmentissignificantlybetter.Anadvancedtrue-linearstrokingsystemwith3.36hp2.5kWservodrivekeepsthehoningtoolconcentricwiththeborethroughoutthefullstrokelengthtoproduceaconsistentdiameterfromtoptobottomofthebore.Thismachinecanhoneboreswithinsidediametersfrom0.75to8inches19-200mm.Themachinesworkenvelopeof36x40915mmx1015mmfront-loadingdesignandweightcapacityupto1500lb680kgcombineforexceptionalprocessingversatility.Dartsbusinessalsoneedsgoodcycletimeandthehigh-torque5.5hpspindleADVANCEDHONINGBYRAYKEMBLEDefinitionsProfilometeraninstrumentusedtomeasureasurfacesprofileinordertoquantifyroughness.AcontactProfilometerrecordsasurfaceprofilebymovingadiamondstylusacrossaspecifieddistancewithaspecifiedcontactforce.RkTheaveragecoreroughnessdepthbasedontheRpkandRvkmeasurements.RpkThemeanheightofpeaksprotrudingfromtheroughnesscoreprofile.RvkThemeandepthofthevalleysprotrudingfromtheroughnesscoreprofile.RzThemeanhighestpeak-to-valleymeasurementtakenfromfivesamples.Dartproducesabout8000engineblocksayearinvariousgradesofcastironandaluminumaswellasmachinedfromforgedbilletaluminum.Thecompanypridesitselfonproducingblocksinhighvolumewithwidevariationofconfigurations.MaskinonhoningpeaksandvalleysHoningisallaboutsealingtheringstothecylinderwallstressesDickMaskin.Thekeyisvalleydepth.Toodeepandyouhavetoomuchoilinitslowingtheenginedownwithfriction.Toolittlevalleyandtheringscanhydroplaneacrossthevalleysandyouloseseal.Thenyouhavetorunthickeroil.Unlessoilcanresideinthevalleysitsitsonthecylinderwallandmustbethicknottobetornoffbytherings.Wethinkvalleysneedtobeinthemidtohigh30microinches.000030toreallysealaraceenginestronglyanddeeperinthemidtohigh40sforamoreconventionalengine.Forsomeblocksusingtodayssteelringswehoneforpeaksof12-15microinches.000012-15orsmoother.Whenweturntheshortblockovermanuallywithawrenchtheringswillknockthepeaksdownto5orlessbeforeweeverstarttheenginebutthevalleysremain.Wemaynotalwaystakethepeaksoffduringhoning.Ifyouball-honeorsandpaperthinkingyoullaccomplishthisyoullsimplyreducevalleydepthandtheenginewontrunasgood.Inourexperienceifyougosmootheronhoningpeaksandvalleysthefinishwontlastaslong.Startingwitharougherfinishtheblockisgoingtowearinandbesealedupsotightitwillsurpriseyou.I Callusoremailusatsalesuempistons.comforapersonalresponseabouthowUEMpistonscanmakeyourbuildsmoreprofitableandsuccessful.TOLLFREE800.648.7970Checkoutthefullselectionwww.uempistons.comWhetheryourebuildingasmallblockabigblockoravintageflathead-UEMhasyourpiston.AsNorthAmericaslargestpistonmanufacturerourtechnologyprocessesandequipmentfeaturethelatestdesignsforOEreplacementorhigh-performancepistonsforeverytypeofengineyouarebuilding.Wehavebeenmanufacturingaftermarketpistonsforautomotivelighttruckpopularimportandheavydutyapplicationssince1922.Whygoanywhereelsewww.engineprofessional.com59 60JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalonthenewmachinedelivers.Withanewblockyoucantake6-8thousandthsoutinlessthanaminutehereports.Two-stagediamondtoolingwith220-and500-gritabrasiveperformsroughandfinishhoningwithoutpauseforstonechange.ThiscombinationofstonesallowsDarttogetalmostanysurfacefinishhesays.Otherproductivityenhancementshenotesareautomaticsizelockdwellandreal-timeboreprofiledisplay.ThePLC-controlledSV-20utilizesan8-inchindustrialcolortouchscreenwithhandwheeltojogforfastsetupandeasyoperatortraining.Thecomputercontrolensuresautomaticconsistentbore-to-boregeometryandfinishwithoutconstantadjustmentbytheoperator.Thecontrolautomaticallycalculatesrequiredspindlestrokerspeedsbasedontheoperatorsdesiredcrosshatchangleoritwilldisplayacrosshatchanglebasedontheoperatorsinputsforthespindlestrokerspeeds.Variablespeedcontrolallowsamuchwiderrangeofprocessingoptionsandconsistentcrosshatchpatternwithautomaticswitchingfromroughingtofinishingatonepushofabutton.DartusesotherSunnenmachinessuchasaCH-100linehoneinitsproductionnotesMaskin.AndwhiletheSV-20hastakenovermostday-to-dayhoningworkanoldermachinemaystillfinduseforcertainapplications.WehavemanySunnenhoneheadsgoingwaybackandinspecialsituationsourbestmachinistscandothingswiththemwecallcheating.Formorethan30yearsDarthasstayedontheleadingedgeofV-8performance-blockdesignandmanufacture.Withthisnewtechnologyitishoningthatedgethroughsuperiorpiston-sealingprecisionandmanufacturingefficiencies.IFormoreinformationontheSV-20verticalhoningmachinepleasecontactSunnenProductsCompany7910ManchesterRd.St.LouisMO63143.Tel1-800-325-3670fax314-781-2268oremailsalessunnen.com.ADVANCEDHONINGBYRAYKEMBLEAringcompressoreliminatespre-compressionoftheringsandasquareinstallationinthebore.MachinistDennisStoneusesanolderSunnenSV-3tolinehoneverticallyandautomatically.ASunnenCH-100fixturesablockformanualhoningofthecamtunnel. www.engineprofessional.com61 62JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalUltrasoniccleaninghasbeenusedasanindustrialcleaningprocessformanyyears.Someshopownershavepurchasedoratleastrememberearlystyleultrasoniccleaningmachineswhichwereadesignfromtheindustrialenvironment.Technologyhasreallyimprovedrecentlyonhowultrasonicworks.Todaywereusingmoreultrasonicpowermountingthetransducersonthesideofthetanksversesthebottomagitationandbettergogreencleaningchemicals.SoifwethinkofanUltrasoniccleanerasapowerenhancerjustlikeaSuperchargerNOSorTurboitactuallymakesthechemicalsbeingusedworkbetterandfaster.Thecleaningpowercomesfromthecavitationproducedbytheultrasonicgeneratorandtransducersthatattackthepartswherewecannottouchseeorfeel.Ivebeenintheautomotiveindustryfor30yearsmyfatherandIownedanautomotivemachineshopandduringtheearly80sand90scastironwas90ofwhatwecleaned.Weusedahottankwithcausticaspraywashercarburetorcleaneralongwithaglassbeadmachinetocleanwhateverweneededcleaned.Thisprocesswasverytimeconsumingandtheappearanceofourproductwasonlyfair.Toimproveonthatwepurchaseda30000thermalcleaningsystemwithreservationthatitcouldreallypayforitselfandWowwhatanimprovement.Reducingourlaborcostbyatleasthalfandourcastironpartslookedfantasticandallowedustochargemoreforthefinishedproduct.ThebottomlinewasmorerevenuebetterproductathalfthelaborcostThatwasawinningcombinationthateveryoneshouldenjoyandprofitfrom.Inthelate1990sIbecameamanufacturersrepresentativeforsomeoftheleadingmanufacturersintheindustry.TravelingmyterritorytherewasonecommonproblemineveryshopthatIvisitedandthatwastimespentcleaningtheenginecomponents.Weallunderstandthatcleaningtimeeatsintoprofitsandmygoalfromthereonwastoimprovetheultrasoniccleaningprocess.Myexperiencefrommyownshopandsellinganotherindustrial-styleultrasoniccleanergavemeidealsformyredesignedautomotiveindustrialultrasoniccleaningmachines.Todaysmarkethasreallychangedaswereseeingmostlyaluminumenginecomponentswithsmalloilgalleysblindholesandhiddencavitieswhicharejusthardtoclean.Oneofthelargestcausesforenginefailuresisdirt.Spraywashersreallycannotcleanthesmalloilgalleysorthehiddencavities.Thosewhohaveusedbrakecleanandsolventtanksstillstruggletogetthejobdone.Usingshotorglassbeadmachinesareasurerecipeforsomefutureenginefailures.UltrasoniccleaningUltrasonicCleaningTurnCleaningintoProfitsBYPHILESZ www.engineprofessional.com63isaprecisionpartscleanerthatsavestimereducesoreliminateshazardoussolventsisemployee-environmentallyfriendlyandisagreatinsurancepolicyfortheshopownerandcustomer.Itisawinningcleaningcombinationforprofitandproductinsurance.Justthinkofanultrasoniccleanerasahighpoweredstereosystemwithhotwaterandultrasonicsoap.TheGeneratoramplifierproducesthepowerforthetransducersspeakers.Thiscombinationcreatesthecavitationorsoundwaveinsideanultrasoniccleaningtank.Soimaginemountingthespeakersofyourcaronthebottomofthefloorboardandallthedirtthatfallsfromyourshoesandotherthingslandsonthespeakers.Thisdirtaccumulationwilldistortthesoundcomingfromthespeakersjustlikeinultrasonictankswherethetransducersaremountedonthebottomofthetank.Anylifttableorbottomrackwouldinterferewiththesoundwavesjustliketheseatsinyourcarwouldblockthesoundwave.Thecontinuousvibrationfromthetransducersmountedonthebottomofthetankwillusuallycauseerosionholesinthebottomofthetankafteraperiodoftimefrommetalobjectsthathavefallenintothetank.Thepartsareusuallyclosetothetransducersnotallowingthetransducertoworkatitspotential.Toremedythistrysuspendingtheparts2or3inchesfromthebottomofthetankandseethedifferenceinperformance.Nowthinkaboutyourspeakersagainwhenmountedinthefrontandbackofyourcartheyprovidemuchbetterefficiencyandsound.Wenowhavetwodirectlinesofattackonthepartswithnointerferencefromdirtlifttablesorbottomrackscreatingabetterenvironmentforprecisionultrasoniccleaning.Wehavecreatedsurroundsoundinsidetheultrasoniccleaningtank.UsingthecorrectchemicalandtemperatureisalsoanimportantpartofUltrasonicCleaning.Wehaveresearchedmanymanybrandsofcleaningdetergentsanduseadetergentthatisspecificallydesignedforultrasoniccleaningofcastironandaluminumfortheautomotiveindustry.Thecorrectdetergentenhancesthecavitationintheultrasonicbath.Thetemperatureoftheultrasonicbathisverycritical.Detergentsnormallylikehighertemperaturesbuttheultrasoniccavitation 64JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalULTRASONICCLEANINGBYPHILESZwillstarttofadedramaticallyafter165degrees.Wevehavefoundthebestresultswithtemperaturesbetween150and160degrees.Theseresultshavebeenobservedwhileusingacavitationmetersowecanseewhatthechangesactuallymakejustlikeyourengine-dyno.WhencleaningenginepartsItellcustomersthattheywillbeamazedatwhatultrasoniccleaningwilldoforthembuttheywillbedisappointedsometimesofwhatitwillnotclean.Justlikeanyothercleaningprocessweuseitforwhatitcandoforus.Sometimesitwillcleanallofthecarbonoffbutmostofthetimeitwillclean90ofthecarbonoff.Ifthepartshaveheavysoilsmostlikelywillnottakethatoffeither.Mostultrasoniccleaningmanufactureswillclaimultrasoniccleanerswillcleanallcarbonfrompistonscylindersheadsandmakethepartslooklikenew.ThatisnotalwaysatruestatementandifyouownanultrasonicmachineyoullunderstandexactlywhatIamtalkingabout.UltrasoniccleaninghaslimitationsjustUltrasoniccanbeusedformanyapplicationsincludingplasticpartsbearingsboltsrubberpartsinternalpartstransmissionpartsandfinalcleaningallenginepartsforfinalassembly. NewvehiclecomplexityFindingtraininggoodemployeesCompetingwithbigboxstoresAWAKEATNIGHTWHATKEEPSYOUREGISTERNOWATAAPEXSHOW.COMAERAAAPEXeduNOVEMBER3-62014EXHIBITSNOVEMBER4-6SANDSEXPOLASVEGASNEVADAwww.engineprofessional.com65 66JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalULTRASONICCLEANINGBYPHILESZlikeanyothermachineinyourshop.Thatburnedonrealgooeycarbonheavycarbongreaseandanysubstancethatissoftanultrasoniccleanercanalsostruggletoclean.WehavefoundsomesimplesolutionsPre-cleanthepartsinaspraywasherfor5minutesorlessgettingtheheavysoilsofftheparts.Thenafterdoingsoultrasoniccleanfor5minutesandinspectthepart.Ifthereareheavysoilsleftonthepartwecanscratch80ofheavysoiloffandultrasoniccleanforanother5minutesorpre-soakthepartsintheUltrasonictankforacouplehoursorevenovernightallowingthedetergenttoloosentheheavysoilup.Importantwedonotrecommendrunninglongerthan15minutecycletimeswithultrasoniccleaningthiscancauseetchingontheparts.Etchingsarethoselittlesquigglymarksleftonthemilledsurfacesofthepart.ThebestkeptsecretUltrasoniccanbeusedformanyapplicationsincludingplasticpartsbearingsboltsrubberpartsinternalpartstransmissionpartsandfinalcleaningallenginepartsforfinalassembly.Thehonedcylinderwallswillhaveimpregnateddebrisfromhoningultrasonicprecisioncleaningwillliftthatdebrisfromthecrosshatchesinsuringtheringsealthathasbeencreatedinthehoningprocess.TonyBishoffistheownerofBESRacingEnginesinGuilfordIndiana.Heisafour-timeEngineMasterChampionandenginebuilderofrecord-settingandclasschampionshipracingenginesforseveralsanctions.HepurchasedanUltraSonicLLCUltra3222Fforfinalcleaningthecomponentsoftheirwinningracingengines.TonystatesWehaveseenbigimprovementsinhowthecylinderwallsofourblocksarecleanedandhaveprofited2hoursoflaborincleaningtimeforacompleteenginerebuild.Ultrasoniccleaninghasgivenusacleanerfinalproduct.UltrasonicPrecisionCleaningaddsavaluableassettoyourshopsavingvaluablehoursinlabor.Averymoderateidealof1hourinshoplaborperday75.00perhourisequivalentto375perweek19500peryearinadditionalchargeablelabor.Cleaninghasjustbecameaprofitcenterofcleanerpartsanothersteptowardsinsuranceofnoenginefailuresandcreatesnewformsofrevenue.IForanyadditionalquestionspleasecallPhilEszatUltraSonicLLC513-702-2399orvisitwww.ultrasonicllc.com. LiftTablewithAGITATIONTouchScreenPLCControlsDualFiltrationSystemOpposingHorizontalTransducersUltraSoniccleanfromTWOdirectionsStainlessSteelConstructionInsulatedTankandLidAutomaticCyclesLOWERLABORCOSTINCREASEPROFITSEMPLOYEEFRIENDLYReducereplacehazardoussolventsOptionsOilSkimerAutoWaterRe-FillUltra3800FLTMainScreenManualOperationScreenULTRA3800FLTCustomUnitsandPLCMulti-StageSystemsAvailablewww.engineprofessional.com67 68JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalBeforewecouldhavesleevesweneededadevelopedmetallurgicalindustrytopro-videuswiththeproperkindofirontoactasawearsurfaceinsidetheenginecylin-der.AsmightbeexpectedtheIronAgewasbornthousandsofyearsagoashumansdiscoveredtheearthscrustisabundantwithironoreandputittouseasironutensilsweaponsshoesforclovenanimalsandthelike.CastingandforgingbeganintheSeventeenhundredswithironuseinfarmimplementswaterwheelsandstartedtomatureasmetalsmithsdiscoveredtheuseofblastfurnacessmeltingandhowtoprocesschemicaladditionstotheirontoimproveitsuseandprovideformoreapplications.Bythe1800scastingwasstartingtomaturewhenthecreationofpigirontheessentialingredientofironwasper-fectedinpureformwithoutimpurities.Eventodaypurepigironisthefounda-tionofgoodcastorductileiron.Ascastcylindersleevesstillaremadetodayforvariousapplicationsbutmostlyinourindustrythesleevesaremanufac-turedusingacentrifugalprocesssome-timesreferredtoasspincastingCentrifugalcastingisaageoldprocesshavingbeguninEuropeduringthe1800s.Thistypeofcastingisusedinjewelryandvarioustypesofsteelandpipes.CentrifugalcastingforsleevescameofageintheUSAduringthe1950sasmoreenginerebuildingandrestorationsdemandedcylinderlinermaterialbeasgoodastheparentcastironblocksoftheday.Inthe1960stheOEMmarketbegantheintroductionofaluminumengineblockswhichultimatelyrequiredthelargescaleinvestmentincylindersleeveproduc-tiontosupportthenewhigherquantityofaluminumblocks.Todaywehavemanychoicesofsleevematerialfromaluminumsteelcompositemetalmatrixcastironandductileiron.Inenginestherealsochoicesofborematerialsfromcoatedaluminumstosprayedoniron.WhateverthesurfacewithintheenginecylinderitMUSTbeawearsurfaceabletowithstandhightemperatureslongservicedutyandresistancetoingesteddebrisorcontainmentsintheoil.Thedescriptionofthemostseverserviceisprobabledieselenginesfortrucksandoffroadearthmov-ingequipment.Sleeveswithintheseenginesareveryhighgradeironsandinductionhardenedtoover400Bhn.Conventionalenginesleevingbeganwiththeneedtorepaircastironengineblockswithcrackedcylinderwalls.Theprocesswasstraightforwardaboringbarwasmountedontheblockalargerholewasmadeaslongastheincreasedboredidnotbreakintothewaterjacketandasleevewith18316orwallrepairsleevewasforciblyinsertedintothenewlyboredholewithasubstantialinterferencefit.Thesleevedholewasthenre-boredandCylinderSleevesBYDAVIDCLINTONAredhotcylindersleevebeingproducedonitswayoutofmoldingdieaftermetalisformedintorawcasting. www.engineprofessional.com69honedbacktopistonsize.ThistypeofenginerepairhasmostlydisappearedastheresultoftheOEMstotalconversiontoaluminumenginesandtheemergenceoftheaftermarketblockmanufacturingbusi-ness.Thistransformationinthesleevesup-plymarkethascausedallthesleevemanu-facturestorefocusoncoremarketssuchasPerformanceaftermarketsupplytospe-cialtymarketsracingandenginespecialtyshops.Inthegoodolddayswhenwepoundedsleevesintotheblockslittlecon-cernwasgiventocylinderseal.Duringthe50sand60sengineswereequippedwithbreathertubestoevacuatecrankcasepressure.Theresultwasaconstantblackoilfilminthecenteroftheroadwaysandcausedmotorcycliststoavoidthecenterofroadsliketheplague.LateroncamePCVvalvescausingtheenginestoingestthecrankcaseparticulateandconsumeitintheintakesystem.Nooneevergavethoughttotherootcauseofthisphenome-nonlackofcylindersealing.Backthenonequartofoilconsumedperthousandmileswasconsideredokay.TodaycylindersealistheKINGofallenginebuildingfromtheOEMstoNHRAdragracing.Panpressureisthetelltalesignofcylinderleakdown.0leakdownishard-lyattainablebutaslittleasisroutineinsomeenginebuilddisciplines.TheOEMshavegonetomuchtighterclear-ancesonbearingspistontowallandtheindustryasawholehasbeenadoptingrazorthinpistonringcrosssectionstoincreasesealingreducefrictionandpro-videforlessrotatingmass.OilviscositieshavethinnedtothepointthattheOEMsarenowspecifying0weightoilwhateverthatis.SofinallywegettoSLEEVESAretheystillneededandrelevantintodaysengineworldAbsolutelyThesleeveisthebasisofthemarriageinthecylinderbetweenthecylinderwallthepistonringsthepistonandthefilmofoilonthesur-facewhichistheglueofthesealingprocess.Thebeginningofasleeveslifestartswiththechemistryandthedesiredmateri-al.Conventionallywewillconcentrateoncastironorductileironandthevariousgradesofeach.Allothertypesofsleevemateriali.e.steelaluminumrequirespe-cialtreatmentssurfacecoatingsorspecialhardeningtocreateasurfacehardnessacceptabletoactasacylindersleeve.Presumingcentrifugalcastingtheprocessbeginswiththefoundrymenpre-heatingthefurnaceandladles.Basedontheselectionofthematerialtypepigironisthefirstinthefurnaceandwhenitbecomesmoltentheremainingchemicalsareaddedinamannerandformulawhichwillassureanoutcomeofchemicalper-centagesthatwhencheckedafterthepour-ingandcoolingwillreflectwhatisneces-sarytoassureahomogenousandstablemetalproduct.AsaforinstanceCastIronwilltypicallyendupwithCarbon3to3.5Mn.45to.90Si.12P.12max.ThiswouldequalapproximatelyASTM-A48Class30castiron.Thismate-Afterthecylindersleevehasbeenproducedinthedieitisthenmachinedtotheproperoutsidediameterduringtherawcastmachiningprocess.Somesleevesaremachinedforupperflangediametersaswellasupperboreandlowerborediameters. 70JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalrialwouldspecoutat30.000psiTensilehardness196-249Bhnandgenerallybegraphiteinmicrostructure.Thismaterialwillalsobeverybrittlebutprovideagoodcylinderwallwearsurfaceeasytoborehoneandstraightforwardbreakin.TheSAEsocietythroughtheASTMguidesgenerallywillspecifymechanicalpropertieschemicalcontentandmicrostructurewhichdeterminestensileandyieldpropertiesofeachmaterial.Soifyouweresearchingforclass60castirontheASTMstandardwouldprovideyouadoc-umenttoanalyzeallthedata.Inmostmaterialspecificationsespeciallyalu-minumorsteelyoucanreceiveaprintedcertificationofthematerialspecsthelotnumberfoundrydateetc.Inthecastingworldthisdocumentationmayprovidethesamedatabutwithoutcertification.Thismakesthefoundryprocesscriticaltoassureadenseconsistentmicrostructurewithoutporosityocclusionsorhardspots.Thisisthechallengeforallfoundriesbecauseunlikestealthecastpartdoesnotnecessarilyrevealallthesethingsuntiltheend.IlikencastingwithafurnaceladleandtechnicianschemistsaslikemyMombak-inganapplepiethechemicalsmustbeaddedinapreciseorderlyfashionatpar-ticulartimesandproperlymixedtoattainthematerialspecsthefoundryislookingfor.Thetemperatureofthepourmustbemaintainedpreciselyandthemixturemustcontinuallybedegaussedmixedtoassurechemicalbalance.Nowinthecaseofductileironnodu-larironweaddmuchmorecomplexityofthemixingpouringandaddtheterminoculation.InoculationisthefinaladdedatpeaktemperaturewithMagnesium.Thissingleeventconvertsthemoltenmaterialtoanodularstructureunlikecastironwhichisaflakestructure.Ductileironwasborninthe1940switharesearchprojectatInternationalNickelCo.byKeithMills.Manyfirmsweresearchingforwaystoreplacesteelwithasuitablystrongproductbutwhichwouldbelessexpensive.Becausecastironisbrittlethesearchforastrongcastmate-rialwithductilitybegan.Duringtheearly1940timeframetherewasrationingandshortagesofalloysthoughttobeusedincastirontoimprovetheductilityfactor.BywarsendtwocrucialelementsbecameavailableCrChromiumandNinickelThedevelopmentofferrosiliconMgFeSimadethecastingofductileironeasierandmorepredictable.In1949thefirstASTMspecforductileironwasissuedasASTMA339-51TthiswaslaterreplacedwiththespecwehavetodayASTMA536whichdepictsthevar-iousgradesandmechanicalpropertiesofductileiron.WhatisDuctileIronWellbasicallyitisacastformofironwithsteellikeprop-erties.Ductilitymeansthereisadistortionfactorwithoutbreakingsotheoppositeofbrittle.Thisisexpressedinthemechanicalpropertiesaselongationandlistedasaofdistortionbeforebreakage.Thisvaluerangesfrom2-8typically.Thereisalsoasubstantialincreaseinhardnessfromcastironallthewayupto330Bhnwithoutheattreating.ThenwehavethestrengthfactorexpressedasTensileyieldinPSIusuallyrangingfrom60000to100000pounds.FordwasprobablythefirstOEMtouseascaststackmoldingofductileironforrockerarmsin1949andin1951con-vertedto100crankshaftproductionofductileiron.OneoftheuniquenessoftheASTMductileironspecisthatunlikeothermate-rialsnochemistryiscalledout.Thisbasi-callygivesfreereintothefoundriestoinventtheirownrecipes.OurfirmDartonSleeveshasresearchedthechemistryforyearsandthiswasdrivenbyaninquiryfromOrendaAerospaceinCanadawhowassearchingforaneconomicalductilesleeveforaV8engineprojectdestinedtobecomeacertifiedaircraftengine.Dartonwasselectedasthevendorandtherequire-mentwasforasleevetowithstand1500hoursofuse75horsepowerandnotwearoutThisenginewascertifiedbytheCanadianDOTandtheFAAin2001.Thisprocesswasalongordealwithalotofchallengesbutwefinallysucceededandwesuppliedthefirst100partswhichweredestinedforroboticallycontrolledenginesintestcellswhichran24hoursaCYLINDERSLEEVESBYDAVIDCLINTON dayforweeks.Attheconclusionofthetestsallenginecomponentswereevaluatedforwearthesleevesonlyworeonly.002NowIknowwhatyourethinkingmyChevyran150000milesandwasstillgoingstrongThedifferenceisaveragedrivingisaccomplishedatabout20-25peakpoweroutputsoyourChevywasbasicallyloafingfor150000miles.Allofthiswasmadepossiblebychemistryandfoundryprocedures.TodaythischemistryisthebasisofourtopgradeofductileironDDI-2007AwesupplytoallofourTopFuelandFunnyCarcustomers.Thismaterialis140000psitensilestrength80000psiyield4-5elongationand300Bhnhardness.Alsothismate-rialisthedensestcommercialmaterialavailableat500nodulespersquaremm.Averageductileusuallyisintherangeof200nodulespersquaremm.Moreofthisdataisavailableatwww.dartonsleeves.com.Dartonisapioneerinthesleevebusinesshavinginventedin2004andcommercializingaradicalconceptforsleevingenginescalledMIDformodularintegrateddeck.TheconceptwasbornoutoftheenginebuildersdesireusingOEMenginestoincreaseboresizeandstillstaywithintheconfinesofborespacingtwodiametri-callyopposedconcepts.Soonerorlaterincreasingboresizeusuallyyieldsweakblockstructurewiththinwallsleevessometimesat.060wallthickness.Thisjustwontworktocontaincombustionthecylinderneedsstructureandwallreadmass.Remembersleeveswillnotmakeupformissingmassandcylinderdistortionandleakdownwillsurelyfollow.TheMIDproducteffectivelyre-engineeredtheblockbyprovidingintegralandSiamesestructuretoeliminateboredistortionandprovidedforasolutionbyengineer-ingtheproductasawetsleevesotheyareeasilyreplacedinthefield.JustrecentlyDartMachineryintro-ducedtheMIDproductasanoptionintheirnewLSNextaluminumblockandtheAluminumSBC.Dartoncurrentlyhasabout50differentapplicationsfortheMID.Visitourwebsiteforallthedetails.Sleevesarenotjustpiecesofpipeaskanyfoundryorcastingfacilityaboutthechallengesintheprocessandtheywillusuallytellyouabouttheoneguywhomakesalltherecipesandconsistencycometruetheprocessistrulyartful.RodneyDangerfieldsaiditbestallhewantedwasalittlerespectjustlikeussleeveguys.IengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP71DavidClintonisthepresidentCEOandfounderofDartonSleevesinCarlsbadCA.Formoreinformationcall760-603-9895orvisitwww.dartonsleeves.com. 72JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalResidualstressesarelocked-instresseswithinametalobjecteventhoughtheobjectisfreeofexternalforcesorthermalgradients.Thesestressesaretheresultofoneregionofthemetalbeingconstrainedfromexpandingorcontractingbyadjacentregions.Theyariseduetothermaltreat-mentormechanicaltreatmentasanelasticresponseofthematerialtoanon-uniformdistributionofplasticstraine.g.perma-nentdeformation.Thestresscanbetensileorcompressive.Infactbothtensileandcompressiveresidualstresscanexistatthesametimewithinametalobject.Inheat-treatedpartsresidualstressesmaybecausedbytemperaturevariationsthroughoutthemetalortemperaturevari-ationsincombinationwithaphasetrans-formation.Thetemperaturevariationsthatoccurduringcoolingfromanelevatedtemperatureresultinlocalizedvariationoftheamountofthermalcontractionthatoccurswhenametalcools.Aphasetrans-formationisachangeinthemetallurgicalphasespresentinanalloy.Thermalcontractiondevelopsnon-uni-formstressduetodifferentratesofcoolingexperiencedbythesurfaceandinteriorofthemetal.Duringcoolingfromele-vatedtempera-turestheouterportionofacom-ponentcoolsfirstandthatportionofthemetalcontractscompressingthehotterinnermetal.Astheinnerportionsofthecomponentcoolthemetaltriestocontractbutisconstrainedbythealreadycooledouterportion.Consequentlytheinnerportionwillhavearesidualtensilestressandtheouterportionofthecomponentwillbeundercompres-sivestress.Residualstressesthatarisewhenametallurgicalphasetransformationoccursareduetovolumedifferencesbetweenthenewandinitialmetallurgicalphases.Thevolumedifferenceresultsinmaterialexpansionorcontraction.Duringcoolingfromanelevatedtemperaturetheouterportionsofthemetalcoolfirstandunder-gothephasetransformationfirst.Ifthevolumeofthenewphaseislargerthantheinitialphasethenthetransformedvolumeofmetalwillincrease.Astheinteriorofthemetalcoolsitwillalsotrytoincreaseinvol-ume.Howeverthevolumechangeofthemetalinteriorwillbeconstrainedbythecoolerouterlayeroftransformedmetal.Consequentlythecenterportionofthecomponentwillbeundercompressionandtheoutersur-facewillbeundertension.Theoppositeoccurswhenthevolumeofthenewphaseislessthanthevolumeoftheinitialphase.Thecenterportionofthecomponentwillbeundertensionandtheportionofthemetalatandnearthesur-facewillbeundercompression.Forexampleduringquenchhardeningofsteelaustenitetransformstomartensitewiththemartensitehavingavolumethatisabout4greaterthanaustenite.Duringthequenchthesteelatthesurfacetrans-formstomartensitefirstsinceitcoolsthefastest.Asthemetalattheinteriorcontin-uestocoolittransformstomartensite.Howeveritsvolumeexpansionisrestrict-edbythehardenedsurfacelayer.Thisrestraintcausestheinteriortobeundercompressionandtheoutersurfaceundertension.Insomeconditionsthevolumetricchangescanproduceresidualstresseslargeenoughtocauseplasticdeformationlead-ingtocomponentwarpingordistortion.Withseverequenchingthequenchingstressescanbesolargethattheycausecracking.Residualstressesalsoarisewhenplasticdeformationisnon-uniformthroughouttheentirecross-sectionofanitembeingdeformed.Forexampleconsiderametalitemwhosesurfacehasbeenplasticallydeformedintensionbybending.Regionsadjacenttotheplasticdeformationwillhavebeenonlyelasticallydeformed.Afterremovingtheexternalforcetheregionswhichhavebeenplasticallydeformedpre-venttheadjacentregionsfromundergoingcompleteelasticrecoverytothecompletelynon-deformedcondition.Theseregionsareleftinresidualtensionandtheregionswhichwereplasticallydeformedareinastateofresidualcompression.Ingeneralthesignoftheresidualstressproducedbynon-uniformdeforma-tionwillbeoppositethesignoftheplasticdeformationwhichproducedtheresidualstress.Finallytheresidualstressesinametalcanbelargeenoughtocancausedistor-tionorcracking.Alsothepresenceofsur-facetensileresidualstressescancontributetofatigueandstresscorrosioncracking.Socontrollingthetypeandmagnitudeofresidualstressisimportantforcertainapplications.Thiscanbeachievedthroughcontrolofheattreatingprocessesselectionofalloysthatallowslowercoolingratescomponentdesignandstressreliefheattreatment.Finallynotallresidualstressesareharmful.Somemanufacturingprocessessuchasshotpeeningandlightcoldrollingareusedtointentionallyinduceacompres-siveresidualstressatthesurfaceofacom-ponentforthepurposeofimprovingresist-ancetofatigueandstresscorrosioncrack-ing.MoreinformationaboutcontrollingresidualstressinthroughhardenedsteelisinourMetallurgyofSteelHeatTreatingandSteelThroughHardeningcourses.Visitwww.imetllc.comfordetails.I5MINUTEMETALLURGYLESSONBYMICHAELPFEIFERMichaelPfeiferpresidentofIndustrialMetallurgistsLLChasover20yearsexperienceasanengineerforproductdevelopmentandmanufacturing.HeholdsaPh.D.inMaterialsScienceandEngineeringfromNorthwesternUniversityandisaProfessionalEngineerlicensedinIllinois.ResidualStressinMetals FindenginespecsfastandeasyPRO-SISENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWAREGIVESYOUACCESSTONEARLY7000ENGINESPECIFICATIONSWITHJUSTACLICKOFYOURMOUSEPLUSYOUCANADDYOUROWNCUSTOMENGINEINFORMATIONTOTHEPRO-SISDATABASE.SOBYTHETIMEITTAKESYOUTOFINDTHEMANUALWITHPRO-SISYOUVEALREADYFOUNDYOURSPECSANDAREBACKTOWORK...THATSAMONEY-MAKINGDIFFERENCEAERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepNEARLY7000ENGINESPECSFROM120MANUFACTURERSCOVERINGLIGHT-DUTYAGRICULTURALINDUSTRIALANDIMPORTENGINESQUICKLYIDENTIFYCYLINDERBLOCKSHEADSCRANKSHAFTSCAMSHAFTSANDCONNECTINGRODSBYCASTINGNUMBERREMANUFACTURINGSPECSFORBLOCKSHEADSCRANKSHAFTSCAMSHAFTSANDCONNECTINGRODSOVER2700AERATECHNICALBULLETINSINTEXTFORMATVISITOURWEBSITEFORMOREINFORMATIONWWW.AERA.ORGPRO-SISwww.engineprofessional.com73 74JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalCONFERENCERECAPBYSTEVEFOXAERAhelditsnexttwotechandskillsconferencesatSunnenProductsinMayandEPWIinJune.Bothoftheseconfer-enceswerewellattendedandalltheatten-deeshadagreattime.InMayAERAheadeddowntoSt.LouistovisitSunnenProductsforthesec-ondTechSkillsConferenceof2014.WehadfivewonderfulpresentationsalongwithatourofSunnenthateveryonewastalkingabout.BobDolderofSunnenstartedthedayspresentationstalkingaboutenginepartshoningwhatsnextafterthecylindersarehoned.Bobtalkedaboutenginepartsthatshouldbehonedsuchascamhousingboresmainhousingboresbalanceshaftsharmonicbalancersandmanyothers.Healsoleteveryoneknowaboutthepropercrosshatchforyourapplicationandhowtointerpretdifferentkindsofsurfacefinishvalues.Bobfinishedupansweringsomequestionsthattheaudiencehadandcon-tinuedtoanswerquestionsthroughouttheday.NextontheagendawasDavidKildooofSerdiCorporation.DavidstopicwasIntroducingthehighestqualityvalveseatjobinautomaticCNCprocess.Serdispatentedtripleaircushioncenteringwhichisknownforitshighqualityvalveseatrun-outoncylinderheadswasthefocusofDavidspresentationandhowitnowisincorporatedintoSerdisCNCMachiningCenters.Davidwasabletoanswersomequestionsthatthegrouphadwhichevery-onewasgratefulfor.JustbeforelunchDaveHagenofAERAtalkedtothegroupaboutAERAandwhoweareandwhatwehavetooffertomachineshops.HealsodiscussedPRO-SISAERAsenginespecsoftwareandwhattheprogramoffersspecificationscast-ingnumberstechnicalbulletinsanddia-grams.FromthepresentationAERAwasabletosignupafewnewmembers.AfterlunchandtourofSunnenwhicheveryoneenjoyedournextpresentationwasfromCentroidandduetotravelissuesthepresentationhadtobedoneovertheinternet.IhavetotellyouwithsuchshortnoticeofthisandeveryoneatSunnengettingthingssetupforthispresen-tationoverthewebitturnedouttobegreatJohnCrowerandLeeJohnstonofCentroiddidagreatjobpresentingtothegrouphowCNCCAD-CAMandrelatedtechnologiescantransformthemachineshop.Attheendofthepresentationseventhoughtheywerenotinpersontoanswerquestionswehadtheabilitytotypeinquestionsandtheyansweredwhattheycouldinthetimethatwasleft.FinishingupthedaywasDaveClintonofDartonSleeves.Davespresentationwasonmoderndaysleevesandthetechnologybehindthem.Davediscussedthetechnolo-gyoftodayssleevesalongwiththemateri-alsusedandhowtoproperlyfinishthesleeveonceinstalledinthecylinderblock.FormoreinformationoncylindersleevespleasereadDavesarticleinthisissueonpage68.EPWIhostedthenextconferenceinTooeleUtahnearSaltLakeCityatMillerMotorsportsParkinmid-June.Thefacilitywasagreatvenueforthiseventandactual-lythegentlemanthatownsMillerMotorsportsParkLarryH.MillerstartedhiscareerworkinginanAERAshop.TheEPWIconferencestartedwithlong-timeAERAsupporterBillMcKnightfromMAHLEtalkingaboutunderstandingpis-tonrings.BilltalkedaboutthedifferenttypesofpistonringdesignsincludingradialfacedandtaperfacedringstorsionaltwistofringsandNapierstylerings.Alsodis-cussedwereringdimensionsandhowtheyhavechangedandtheseminarconcludedwithandunderstandingpistonringendgaps.SunnenandEPWIconferencesproducelargeturnoutsSavetheDateOCTOBER3ROUSHYATESANDMAHLECharlotteNCCONFERENCEHOSTINGOPPORTUNITIESIfyouareinterestedinhostingaconferencenextyearpleasecontactJimRickoffat815-526-7343oremailjimaera.org. NextontheschedulewasDavidPageofFASTFuelAirSparkTechnologyandhisseminarwasout-standingashetalkedabouttodayscamshaftsandFuelinjectionhowtheyworktogether.Daviddidagreatjobofexplainingwhatthecamshafthastodowiththefueldeliverysystemandhowtheyworktogether.HealsoexplainedhowmanifoldvacuumisveryimportantwhenitcomestopickingthecorrectcamshaftforanEFIapplication.AfterthispresentationeveryonewasabletowalkaroundthemuseumthatwasonthepropertyofMillerMotorsportsPark.ThereweresomeclassicFordCobracarsondisplayandwegotacoupleofshotsofthose.AfterlunchDaveHagenofAERAwasupagainandpresentedtothegroupthePRO-SISprogramandwasabletoanswersomequestionsregardingit.OnceDavewasfinishedRonSledgeofKingEngineBearingstalkedabouthighperformancerac-ingbearings.Ronhasbeeninthebearingbusinessformostofhiscareerandwithhisknowledgehewasabletohelpattendeesunderstandtheinsandoutsoftechnologyinthedesignanddevelopmentprocessofenginebearings.FinishinguptheseminarschedulewasLakeSpeedJr.ofDrivenRacingOils.Laketalkedaboutethanolandoxygenatedfuelsandtheeffectsoncarburetors.ForthoseofusthatknowalittlebitaboutethanolLakeexplainedwhitedeathtothegroupthiscanbefoundincarburetorsthatrunethanol.Heedu-catedthegrouponwhattheeffectofthisiswhenitcomestofuelpumpandfuelcellsandalsoexplainedhowtopreventthisfromhappening.ThenextTechSkillsConferencewillbehostededbyMAHLEatRoushYatesRacingnearCharlotteNorthCarolinaonOctober3.Ifyouarelookingforenginerelatedtechnicalpresentationsyouwillwanttoplanonattendingthisconference.Moreinforma-tioncanbefoundontheAERAwebsitewww.aera.orgconferences-events.IAERATechnicalSpecialistSteveFoxhasover25yearsexperienceintheenginebuildingindustrywith10ofthoseyearsspentworkinginthemachineshop.SteveisanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistaswellasalongtimememberofthedragracingcircuit.TheownerofMillerMotorsportsParkwasaCobraguysofittinglytheLarryH.MillermuseumatMillerMotorsportsParkfeaturesafantasticdisplayofseveralFordCobras.AttendeeslistentooneofthefivetechnicalsessionsheldattheTechSkillsConferenceonJune20hostedbyEPWIatMillerMotorsportsParknearSaltLakeCity.TheTechSkillsConferenceonMay16hostedbySunneninSt.LouisfeaturedfivetechnicalpresentationsaswellasatourofSunnen.www.engineprofessional.com75 76JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalTECHSIDEBYLAKESPEEDJR.SincethebeginningoftheAPIengineoillicensingsystemeachandeverynewspeci-ficationhasbeenconsideredbackwardscompatible.Thisisafancywayofsayingthenewestoilisasgoodorbetterthanthepreviousoil.TheexactstatementmadeonAPIsMotorOilMatters.comwebsiteisasfol-lowsForautomotivegasolineenginesthelatestILSACstandardorAPIServiceCategoryincludestheperformanceproper-tiesofeachearliercategoryandcanbeusedtoserviceolderengineswhereearliercategoryoilswererecommended.Sincetheoutbreakoffailedflat-tappetcamshaftsadecadeagothisbackwardscompatibilityhasbeencalledintoques-tionbyenginebuilderscamshaftmanufac-turersandconsumers.WithinthelastyearanasteriskhasappearedonthestatementofbackwardscompatibilityonthePetroleumQualityInstitutewebsitewww.pqiamerica.comthatsaysthecur-rentAPISNandSMoilspecsmaynotbesuitableforsomeflattappetengines.Thatasteriskmarksasignificantshiftinthinking.ThestakeholdersintheAPIthecarOEMsandoilcompaniesareslightlyacknowledgingthatoneoilspecifi-cationcannotcovertherequirementsofallgasolineengineseverbuiltthatsoundslikearidiculousideawhenyouputitdowninblackandwhite.Overthislastdecadeofcompromisedcompatibilitythesesameenginebuilderscamshaftmanufacturersandautomotiveenthusiastshaveallreceivedaneducationonmotoroilthatmostofthemdidnotaskfor.ThewordZinctookonnewmeaninginautomotivecircles.ApparentlyZincwasmorethanjustaningredientinyourmulti-vitaminandifyourmotoroilwasdeficientintheproperquantityandtypeofZincyourcamshaftwouldendupdeficientofafewlobes.InresponsespecialZincadditivesandspeciallyformulatedhighzincoilsappearedonthemarketinresponsetothesituation.Howevermostautomotiveenthusiastsandenginebuildershavebeenburnedinthepastbysnakeoilsthatpromisethemoonbutdelivermudintheeyesothemarketwasslowtoaccepttheseproducts.Eventodaymanyenthusiastsstilldoubttheideathatnewoilsarebadforoldengines.MaybetheannouncementbyPorschethisAprilwillchangeallofthisandsignalthedeathknellforbackwardscompati-bility.WhatannouncementbyPorscheyouaskWellthefamousbrandjustannouncedtheirownlineofclassicmotoroilsdesignedfortheneedsofolderengines.ThetextfromthePorschewebsitereadslikeacopyofwhatJoeGibbsDrivensaidwhentheyreleasedtheirHotRodmotoroilseightyearsagothefirstcompa-nytomarketspeciallyformulatedbreak-inoilsandhighzincoilsdesignedspecificallyforolderengines.HereisasamplefromwhatPorschehasreleasedThisengineoilhasbeendevelopedbyexpertswiththespecificaimofmeetingthedemandsofair-cooledengines.Thethermalloadishigherthaninwater-cooledunitswhichmeansthattheengineoilhastoworkhardertocooltheenginedown.Thetraditionallyhighpoweroutputperlitreoftheenginesalsoresultsinhighcompressionandhighpressures.Acom-pactandlightweightenginedesignmeansthattheconnectingrodswillbeshortinrelationtothepistonstrokewhichinturnmeanshighlateralpistonforcesandcorre-spondinglyhighdemandsonthelubricat-ingfilmstabilityoftheoil.Inshorttheolderflatenginesinparticularcantjustuseanyoldoil.Modernoilsusehighlyefficientdeter-gentdispersantagentstothoroughlycleantheengineandreliablyremovedirtwhichcanbetoomuchofagoodthingforaclassicPorscheengine.Itistruethataddi-tionaldepositsshouldbepreventedandoil-solublecontaminantssuchassootwateranddustkeptsuspendeduntiltheyaredrainedoffthroughtheoilfilterorremovedduringthenextoilchangebutatthesametimeitisimportantthatthedepositswhichhavebuiltupoverdecadesarenotsuddenlydissolvedandthatsealsarenotcorroded.SincenoteveryclassicPorscheisineverydayusetheengineoilalsohadtomeetotherdemandsclassicvehiclesareoftenleftstationaryforlongperiodsoftimeandonlymovedintermittentlyandforshortjourneyswhichmeansthatcon-densationcanformintheoiliftheenginedoesnotheatupfully.Aggressivecombus-tionresiduescancauseacidificationoftheoilfillresultinginthecorrosionofenginecomponents.Thealloysmetalsandseal-ingmaterialswhichwereusedatthetimeareatparticularrisk.PorschethereforepaidparticularattentiontothisaspectwhendevelopingitsPorscheClassicMotoroil.Thespecialformulationincorpo-ratesahighalkalinereservewhichneu-tralisesanyacidsthatmayform.Additionalcorrosioninhibitorsalsopro-tectvulnerablecomponentsevenduringlongerstationaryperiods.DoesanyofthatsoundfamiliarHopefullytheannouncementbyPorschecreatesawarenessthatspecialtyoilsarenotsnakeoils.Infactoilsdesignedspecificallyforthehardwareandtheapplicationarebetterthanagenericone-size-fits-allAPIspecification.Thesoonerthisideaisembracedthesoonerenginebuilderspartsmanufacturersandenthusiastscanstopworryingaboutthechemistryofmotoroilandjustgobacktousingoil.ThenZinccanjustbethestuffinyourmulti-vitaminandthestuffthatkeepsyourcamhappy.ITheendofbackwardscompatibilityLakeSpeedJr.fromDrivenRacingOilisthesonofLakeSpeedSr.whoracedinNASCARfrom1980to1998.Formoreinformationcallat704239-4401ore-maillspeeddrivenracingoil.com.Findmoretechnicaldataatwww.drivenracingoil.com. www.memorialmachine.comForover40yearsithasbeenourgoaltoprovidethehighestqualityenginecomponentrepairavailable.OurTulsaplantat43000sq.ft.isoneofthelargestmostmodernintheindustry.PlusourOklahomaCityplantwith23000sq.ft.givesustheabilitytolimitcriticaldowntime.IEngineBlocksWehavethelargestandmostmodernengineblockrebuilddepartmentsintheindustry.Wehave8CNCboringmachinesandhavethecapacityofmachining3600CaterpillarandATWaukeshaengineblocks.MemorialMachinealsohasaroboticmetalsprayingsystemtoreclaimdamagedmainboresandworntopdecks.ICylinderHeadsOurcylinderheadrepairservicemakesuseofthelateststate-of-the-artmachinesavailablespecificallydesignedtoproducethefinestqualityofwork.Allheadsarebuiltwiththehighestqualitypartsavailablematchedtoexactspecificationsforbothlandfillandnaturalgasapplications.AllheadsarebuiltwithNewPartsnotrefurbishedorreuseandsalvageguidelines.IConnectingRodsandAccessoriesWehavethemostuptodateconnectingroddepartmentintheindustry.Wehavedevelopedprocessestorebuildnearlyalltypesofhighspeedconnectingrodsincludingmanywithserratedcaps.CompleteReconditioningServiceavailableforwaterpumpsoilpumpsrockerarmassembliesfuelvalvesandmanyotheraccessoriesforhighspeedengines.WespecializeinthefollowingenginesWaukesha704270441179817AT-25AT-27WhiteSuperior6G-8258G-82512G-82516G-825Caterpillar379398399Caterpillar3508351235163520Caterpillar36063608361236166303S.40thW.Ave.TulsaOK74132Toll-free800-437-7986Phone918-446-1828Fax918-446-1504SpecializinginRebuildingNaturalGasandLandfillGasEngineComponentswww.engineprofessional.com77 78JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com79 80JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalAbouttheProgramEachprogramisanonlineself-pacedcoursewithuptooneyeartocomplete.GaryLewisbookAutomotiveMachiningEngineRepairwillbeincludedwiththe150registrationfee.Everythingatechnicianwillneediscontainedintheprogramwithvideoclipsandsupplementalreadingsatkeylocationswithintheprogram.Thebookwillbeusedasasyllabuswhennotonline.Eachchapterwillbefollowedbyamultiplechoicetest.TherewillbeafinalexamforeachcertificationCylinderHeadandorEngineMachinist.AERAoffersacomprehensiveonlinetrainingprogramnotjustatestleadingtodiploma-qualitycertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.Technicianswhosuccessfullyearneithercertificatewillholdproofthattheyhaveaprofessionalunderstandingofautomotivemachiningfundamentalsmeasuringtoolsshopsafetyfastenersenginetheoryenginediagnosisenginedisassemblycomponentcleaninginspectioncrackdetectionandrepaircomponentreconditioningandcylinderheadandblockresurfacing.Theinformationinthisprogramispresentedfromtheviewofenginemachineshopoperations.Basicproceduresareselectedfromthosewithwideindustryacceptanceandrepresentwell-balancedandcompetentstateoftheartpractice.GaryLewisInstructorandAuthorFormoreinformationcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202oremailkarenaera.org.CylinderHeadandMachinistCertificateProgram www.engineprofessional.com81AERAONLINETRAININGREGISTRATIONFORMNAMECOMPANYNAMEAERAIDNUMBERCOMPANYADDRESSCITYSTATEZIPPHONEE-MAILADDRESSREQUIREDSIGNEDBYFEES150perpersonINCLUDESGaryLewisbookI2-4PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................125perpersonI5-9PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................100perpersonI10PEOPLEfromthesameshop..................................................................75perpersonEachpersonregisteredwillreceiveaGaryLewisbook.PleaselistadditionalnamesbelowTOTALAMOUNTENCLOSEDICHECKPLEASEMAKEPAYABLETOAERA.CREDITCARDIVISAIMASTERCARDIDISCOVERIAMERICANEXPRESSCARDNUMBEREXPIRATIONMMYY3-DIGITCSSCARDHOLDERNAMECARDHOLDERSIGNATUREIfpayingbycreditcardpleasefaxcompletedregistrationformtoAERAtoll-freefax888-329-2372OrmailyourcompletedformwithpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.CallAERAtoll-freeifyouhaveanyquestions888-326-2372ordirectat815-526-7600. TB2644CrankcaseAssemblyCautionfor1999-2011Subaru2.5LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationconcerningthepropercrankcaseassemblyfor1999-2011Subaru2.5Lengines.ThisinformationappliestoboththeSOHCandDOHCengines.Extremecaremustbeusedwhileassemblingthecrankshaftwithinthecrankcaseoftheseenginestopreventoilleaksandpossibleenginebearingdamage.Ithasbeenreportedthatdependingonthesourceofinformationtheproperbolttorquemaynotbesuppliedorused.Theseenginesuseeighteenboltstoconnectthetwocrankcasehalvestogetherwiththecrankshaftsandwichedin-betweenthetwohalves.Themountingboltsattachfrombothsidesoftheblockandthetorquesequencefromside-to-sideiscritical.Itshouldalsobenotedthatthisengineshouldbeassembledonacleanbench-topandnotinstalledtoarotatingengineassemblystand.Followthestepsandillustrationsbelowtoproperlyinstallthecrankshaftintothecylindercase.NOTERemoveoilinthematingsurfaceofbearingandcylinderblockbeforeinstallation.Alsoapplyacoatofengineoiltocrankshaftpins.SeeFigure1below.1.Positioncrankshaftonthe2and4cylinderblockhalf.2.Applyfluidpackingtothematingsurfaceof1and3cylinderblockhalfandpositionitoverthe2and4cylinderblockasshowninFigure2.FluidpackingPartnumber004403007THREEBOND1215orequivalent.NOTEDonotallowfluidpackingtojutintoO-ringgroovesoilpassagesbearinggroovesetc.3.Tightenthelefthandside10mmcylinderblockconnectingboltsA-DinalphabeticalsequenceshowninFigure3.Tighteningtorque15Nm1.5kgf-m11ft.lbs.4.Tightentherighthandside10mmcylinderblockconnectingboltsE-JinalphabeticalsequenceshowninFigure4.Tighteningtorque15Nm1.5kgf-m11ft.lbs.5.TightenboltsA-Donleftsideofthecylinderblockandadditional90inalphabeticalsequenceasshowninFigure3.6.TightenboltsE-Jonrightsideofcylinderblockanadditional90inalphabeticalsequenceshowninFigure4.7.Tightenthe8mmand6mmcylinderblockconnectingboltsinalphabeticalsequenceshowninFigure5.TighteningtorqueA-G25Nm2.5kgf-m18.1ft.lbs.H4Nm0.65kgf-m4.7ft.lbs.82JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionaltechTB2644Figure1.ExplodedViewofCrankcaseAssemblyandBolts1CrankshaftBearing2Crankshaft3CylinderBlock4RearOilSealTB2644Figure2.FluidPackingApplicationAreas TB2645RevisedValveTimingInformationfor2005-09Toyota3.5L2GR-FEEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingrevisedvalvetiminginformationfor2005-09Toyota3.5L2GR-FEengines.Thisinformationupdatestheexistingservicemanualinformationwithenhanceddiagramsforbetterclarification.Usethisinformationanytimethecamshafttimingchainsarebeingremovedandinstalledontheaffectedvehiclesinthechartshownbelow.Thisservicebulletinprovidesinformationregardingvalvetiminginspectionandserviceguidelines.SeeFigure1.TB2645Figure1.1RHBankIntakeCamshaftTimingGear2RHBankExhaustCamshaftTimingGear3RHBankNo.2TimingChain4Crankshaft5IdlerGear6TimingChain7LHBankNo.2TimingChain8LHBankExhaustCamshaftTimingGear9LHBankIntakeCamshaftTimingGearwww.engineprofessional.com83YearsModels2005-09Avalon2007-09Camry2008-09Highlander2006-09RAV42007-09SiennaTB2644Figure3.LeftSideMainBearingBoltTorqueSequenceTB2644Figure4.RightSideMainBearingBoltTorqueSequenceTB2644Figure5.Perimeter86mmBoltscontinued 84JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionaltechTB2645continuedRevisedValveTimingInformationfor2005-09Toyota3.5L2GR-FEEnginesInspectionSettheNo.1cylindertoTDCcompression.Setthetimingmarkto0onthetimingchaincoverbyrotatingthecrankshaftclockwiseasindicatedinFigure2andtheredarrows.ThetiminggearidentificationmarksaresomewhatconfusingbutarebestexplainedbythechartbelowFigure2.VerifythetimingmarksonthecamshafttiminggearsareingeneralalignmentwiththetimingmarksofthecamshaftbearingcapNOTEWhentheengineiscorrectlytimedthetimingmarkswillNOTperfectlyalignasshowninFigures3-6.Ifthetimingmarksappearvastlyoutofalignmentturnthecrankshaftonerevolution360clockwiseandnotethepositionofthetimingmarks.TB2645Figure2.TIMINGMARKIDENTIFICATIONCylinderIntakeExhaustBlankGearMarkGearMarkRHBankSmallSingleBank1MarkLineLHBankLargeDoubleBank2MarkLineTB2645Figure3.RHBankExhaustCamshaftTimingGear.1BearingCapTimingMark2GearTimingMark.TB2645Figure4.RHBankIntakeCamshaftTimingGear.1BearingCapTimingMark2GearTimingMark.TB2645Figure5.LHBankIntakeCamshaftTimingGear.1BearingCapTimingMark2GearTimingMark.TB2645Figure6.LHBankExhaustCamshaftTimingGear.1BearingCapTimingMark2GearTimingMark. ComponentRemovalGuidelinesIfenginedisassemblyisrequiredthatinvolvesremovingthecamshaftsortiminggearssetthe1cylindertoTDCcompressionwipeawayanyoilandmarkthefollowingitemsinrelationtoeachotherpriortodisassemblyTheyincludethetiminggearstimingchainandtimingchainnumber2.NOTEThisrelationshipMUSTbemaintained.TheintakegearistimedinrelationtothecrankshaftviathetimingchaintheexhaustgearistimedinrelationtotheintakegearviatheNo.2timingchain.SeeFigure7above.IfNEWcamshafttiminggearsortheNo.2timingchainarebeinginstalledthetwoyellowlinksontheNo.2timingchaincanbeusedtoensurecorrectrelationshipbetweentheintaketiminggearandtheexhausttiminggear.SeeFigure8below.A.Alignthepaintmarkonthetimingchainwiththeintakegeartimingmarktoensuretheintakegeariscorrectlytimedtothecrankshaft.B.AlignthetwoyellowlinksontheNo.2timingchaintothetimingmarksonthenewcamshaftgearstoensuretheexhaustgeariscorrectlytimedtotheintakegear.www.engineprofessional.com85TB2645Figure7.1YellowLinkTB2645Figure8.RHBankandLHBank.1RHBank2LHBank3YellowLink4GearTimingMark5TimingChainPaintMark.TB2646CamshaftRemovalInstallationProcedureOn2013-2015Ford1.6LEcoboostEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationforcamshaftremovalandinstallationon2013-2015Ford1.6LEcoboostengines.Theseproceduresshouldbereferencedanytimecamshaftserviceisbeingperformed.Itismostimportanttonotethatcamcaplocationsshouldbenotedandmarkedbeforedisassembly.Itisalsoimportanttodiscardandalwaysreplacethecamshaftcapbolts.Usingthepropercamshaftcapboltremovalsequenceisimportanttopreventcapbreakageorcamdamage.EachboltshouldbeloosenedonlytwoturnsattimeinthesequenceshownbelowinFigure1.Valvelashismeasuredwiththecamsboltedinandmakingandrecordingmeasurementsbeforedisassemblymaysavetimelaterduringtheadjustmentprocedures.Beforeinstallingthecamshaftscheckandadjustasrequiredwithdifferentthicknesslashadjusters.Refertothechartbelowtocomparemeasurementswithspecifications.ValveLashColdIntake.007.009.170.230mmExhaust.012.015.310.370mmTB2646Figure1.CamshaftCapBoltRemovalSequenceDiscardBoltscontinued TB2646continuedCamshaftRemovalInstallationProcedureOn2013-2015Ford1.6LEcoboostEnginesFollowthestepslistedbelowtoinstallthecamshaftsVERYIMPORTANTPLEASENOTEFailuretofollowthecamshafttighteningprocedurecanresultindamagetothecamshafts.Makesurethatthecamshaftsandcamshaftbearingcapsareinstalledintheiroriginallocationsordamagetotheenginemayoccur.Makesurethatthecomponentsareinstalledtothepositionnotedbeforeremoval.MakesurethatonlyNewboltsareinstalled.ApplycleanengineoiltothebearingsurfacesofthecamshaftscamshaftbearingcapsandtheVCTbridgebeforeinstallation.1.BeforeinstallingnewboltslightlyoilthethreadswithengineoilFordSpec5W20-SyntheticBlendWSS-M2C945-A2.TightentheboltsevenlyinsequencehalfaturnatatimeuntilthecamshaftbearingcapsandtheVCTbridgehavebeenseatedagainstthecylinderhead.3.Tightenboltsinsequence1through16to62INLBS7Nm4.Tightenboltsinsequence17through20to88.5INLBS10Nm5.Tightenboltsinsequence1through16anadditional456.Tightenboltsinsequence17and18anadditional707.Tightenboltsinsequence19and20anadditional53TB2646Figure2.CamshaftCapBoltTorqueSequenceTB2647CylinderBoreAppearanceOn2009-2014GM1.61.8LVINEGHEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingthecylinderboreappearanceon2009-14GM1.61.8LVINEGHengines.Apparentlytechnicianshavereplacedengineblocksunnecessarilyontheseenginesbasedentirelyontheappearanceoftheircylinderbores.Modelsaffected2009-2014ChevroletAveo2011-2014ChevroletCruze2012-2014ChevroletSonic2009-2011HoldenBarina2009-2010PontiacG3WaveEquippedwith1.6Lor1.8LEngineRPOsLXVLWEorLUWAfterexaminingmanyreturnedcylinderblocksforwarrantyGMSPOhasdeterminedtheymayhavebeenreplacedneedlesslyandthecylinderboresappearancecanbeconsiderednormal.ReplacementoftheseblocksisnotnecessaryifthecylinderwallappearanceresemblesthatofFigures1and2.Thesemarksareconsiderednormalandareleftasaresultofamanufacturinglaserhoningprocess.DONOTreplacethecylinderblockorengineforthesenormalhoningmarks.TB2647Figure1.NormalCylinderWallAppearance.TB2647Figure2.NormalCylinderWallAppearance.86JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionaltech www.engineprofessional.com87TB2648MainBearingBedplateInstallationOn1996-2008Chrysler2.4LVINsBDGSXEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingthemainbearingbedplateinstallationon1996-2008Chrysler2.4LVINBDGSXengines.Ifthebedplateisnotinstalledontheenginecorrectlymainbearingfailurecouldoccurwithintheengine.Wheninstallingthebedplatetothecylinderblockmakesurethatthereisnooilonthebedplate-matingsurface.Oilwilladverselyaffecttheabilityofthesealertosealthebedplatetothecylinderblock.Positiontheblockwiththeheadgasketsurfacedownrestingonablockofwoodoneachendandthenfollowtheprocedurelistedbelow1.Installthemainbearingsintothecylinderblockwiththeoilholesalignedwiththeoilholesintheblock.Usingcleanengineoillubricatethemainbearingsandthecrankshaftjournalsandcarefullypositionthecrankshaftintotheblock.TB2648Figure1.2.Applya.059-.078beadofanaerobicsealerMoparTorqueCureGasketMakerorequivalenttocylinderblockshowninFigure1.NOTEOnlyuseanaerobicsealerPart4773257orequivalentordamagemayoccurtotheengine.DONOTFORGETTOINSTALLTHEORINGSEALINGtheBLOCKOILGALLERY.3.Installthelowerbearingshellsintothebedplateensuringthatthebearingtabsareseatedintothebedplate.Thencarefullyinstallbedplateontocylinderblock.4.Cleanandoilmainbearingboltswipeoffanyexcessoilbeforeinstallingthemintothecylinderblock.Installmainbearingbolts111720usefingersandtightenasshowninFigure2.Tightentheseboltstogetheralternatelyuntilthebedplatecontactsthecylinderblockuniformly.5.Toensurecorrectthrustbearingalignmentperformthefollowingsteps6.Step1Rotatecrankshaftuntilnumber4pistonisatTDC.7.Step2Movecrankshaftrearwardtolimitsoftravel.8.Step3Thenmovecrankshaftforwardtolimitsoftravel.9.Step4WedgeanappropriatetoolbetweentherearofthecylinderblockNOTBEDPLATEandtherearcrankshaftcounterweight.Thiswillholdthecrankshaftinitsfurthestforwardposition.TB2648Figure2.10.Step5Installandtightenbolts1-10insequenceasshowninFigure2to30FTLBS41Nm.11.Step6Removewedgetoolusedtoholdcrankshaft.12.Tightenbolts1-10insequenceasshowninFigure2to30FTLBS41Nmagain.13.Installtherestofthemainbearingboltsandtightenbolts11-20insequenceto250INLBS28.25NmfollowingthesequenceshowninFigure2.14.Tightenbolts1-10againto55FTLBS75NminsequenceshowninFigure2.15.Tightenbolts11-20insequenceagainto250INLBS28.25Nm16.Measureandverifycrankshaftendplayiswiththe0035-.0094.090-.240MM.015MAXspecification.17.Afterthemainbearingbedplateisinstalledcheckthecrankshaftturningtorque.Whileturningthecrankshaftthetorqueshouldnotexceed50INLBS5.650Nm.NOTEWheninstallconnectingrodbearingsandcapsDONOTREUSEConnectingRodBolts.TorqueconnectingNEWrodboltsto20FTLBS27Nmplus14turn.AERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlineAERAmailsEngineProfessionalmagazinequarterly.ThetechnicalbulletinsinEnglishandSpanishcanbefoundonourwebsiteatwww.engineprofessional.com.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorifyouneedtechnicalsupportsendane-mailtoinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.www.engineprofessional.com 88JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionaltechTB2649AudiVolkswagenCylinderHeadDeckResurfacingInformationTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingsurfacingofcylinderheadsforAudiVolkswagenengines.Whenmachinistconsiderresurfacingthesecylinderheadsthereseemstobeconfusiononwhetherornotitcanbedone.Onthedecksideofthecylinderheadtherearetwoprotrudingribsrailsontheouterpartoftheheadoneontheintakesideandoneontheexhaustsideseefiguresbelow.Theseribsrailsseemtobeanywherefrom.050-.060thickandsitabovethedeckofthecylinderhead.WhatAERAbelievesthattheseribsrailsareusedforislocatingthecylinderheadontothedeckoftheblockduringOEproductionoftheengine.AERAmembershaveresurfacedthecylinderheadssuccessfullyremovingtheribsrailsandhavenothadanyissueswiththecylinderheads.TB2649Figures12.Raisedribrail.TB2650ValveLashAdjustmenton2001-2014Nissan3.5LVQ35DEEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingvalvelashadjustmentfor2001-2014NissanVQ35DEengines.TheseDOHCengineusesuniquemechanicalliftersadjustersfortheirintakeandexhaustlocations.Therearetwenty-ninedifferentliftersadjusterscurrentlyavailablefromtheNissandealershipnetworks.NOTEThespecifiedvalvelifterthicknessisthedimensionatnormaltemperatures.Ignoredimensionaldifferencescausedbytemperature.Usespecificationsforhotengineconditiontoconfirmorcheckvalveclearancesonthevehicle.Usetheequationbelowtocalculatethereplacementvalvelifterthickness.Valvelifterthicknesscalculationequationtt1C1-C2tthicknessofthereplacementliftert1thicknessoftheremovedlifterC1measuredvalveclearanceC2standardvalveclearanceTheclearanceshouldbemeasuredbyplacingaflatfeelergaugewiththecamshaftstorquedintheproperpositionsandthecheckinglocationcamlobepointingupandawayfromthelifter.Measureandrecordall16locationsanddeterminewhichlocationsneedadjustmentbyreferringtothechartbelow.Thecamshaftswillhavetobemarkedfortheirspecificlocationandremovedtoallowaccesstoeachlifter.Theliftersareofdifferentthicknessesandshouldbemeasuredwitha0-10-25.4MMmicrometerasshowninthelifterchartandillustrationinFigure2shownright.TheuniquepartnumberisetchedinsideofeachliftertohelpdeterminewhatthicknessaNEWliftershouldbe.Besuretomeasureallusedliftersaswearmaybepresentasshowninthediagrambelow.Newliftersareavailablewiththepartnumberplusthethicknessmeasurement.Asanexamplethe806stampingshowninFigureoneindicatesamillimetermeasurementof8.06MM.3173anddifferentliftersadjustersareofferedin.002mm.0008increments.ToobtainthecorrectlifterusePart13231JA10Awiththenumericnumberdesiredafterthepartnumbersuchas13231JA10A806.TB2650Figure1..31738.06MMThicknessLifterThecamshaftsmustbereinstalledintheirpreviousnotedlocationsandthecamcapstorquedinthesequenceshownbelowinthestepsindicatedhere.Recheckyourlashmeasurementstoverifyallarewithinspecifications.Step1Tightenbolts7-10innumericorderto1.96Nm0.2kg-m17inchlbs.Step2Tightenbolts1-6innumericorderto1.96Nm0.2kg-m17inchlbs.Step3Tightenallboltsinnumericorderto5.88Nm0.6kg-m52inchlbs.Step4Tightenonlybolts1-6innumericorderto10.4Nm1.1kg-m92inchlbs.ValveLashAdjustmentValuesVQ35DEEngineTemperatureColdEngineTemperatureHotReference176F80CIntake.010-.013.260-.340MM.012-.016.304-.419MMExhaust.011-.015.290-.370MM.012-.017.308-.432MM www.engineprofessional.com89TB2651ClarificationoftheExhaustValveLashSettingonCertainCaterpillarC13TruckEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowingconcerningexhaustvalvelashsettingsoncertainCaterpillarC13dieselengines.Thisinformationshouldbereferencedanytimethecylinderheadisbeingreplacedorregularmaintenanceisbeingperformed.Therehasbeenconfusionamongtechnicianswhileworkingontheseengineswhentheproperserviceinformationisnotreferenced.EnginesaffectedC13SNKCB1-UpLEE1-UpTheexhaustvalvelashsettingsonallC13On-Highwaytruckenginesarenotthesame.TheserialnumberrangeLEE1-Uphasavalvelashsettingof.030.003.762.0762mm.TheCaterpillarpublicationTestingandAdjustingPartRENR9808iscorrectasandliststhosespecifications.TheserialnumberrangeKCB1-Uphasavalvelashsettingof.025.003.635.0762mm.TheCaterpillarpublicationTestingandAdjustingSENR9703iscorrectandliststhosespecifications.Referencingthecorrectserviceandfollowingthoseguidelineswillhelppreventfutureengineproblems.TB2650Figure2.AvailableLifterChartTB2650Figure3.CamshaftCapBoltTorqueSequenceStampedMark788C790C792C794C796C798C800C802C804C806C808C801C812C814C816C818C820C822C824C826C828C830C832C834C836C838C840C842C844CThicknessmmin7.880.31027.900.31107.920.31187.940.31267.960.31347.980.31428.000.31508.020.31578.040.31658.060.31738.080.31818.100.31898.120.31978.140.32058.160.32138.180.32208.200.32288.220.32368.240.32448.260.32528.280.32608.300.32688.320.32768.340.32838.360.32918.380.32998.400.33078.420.33158.440.3323 HowToRebuildandModifyFordY-BlockEnginesByCharlesMorrisInformationChapter1engineevolution2pullingtheengine3preparingtorebuildanengine4enginedisassembly5inspectionandcleaning6machiningandpartsselection7assembly8highperformanceFord-Y-blockenginebuild9engineinstallationstartupandbreak-in10epilogue11appendixplusasourceguidesoyoucanfindanythingyouseeinthebook.Plentyofgoodphotosusedtoexplainwhatheisdoingandwhattolookoutforasyouworkalong.SuggestionVerygladIhaveabooklikethistoreviewforyou.BecauseofthenumberofphonecallswereceivehereatAERAaboutFordY-BlocksweknowtherearemanybeingbuiltaroundthecountryfromtotallystockreplacementT-Birdenginestopassengercarstrucksandmanymarineengines.Iwouldsuggesttoalwayssonictesttheblocksforcylinderwallthickness.Ifyourenginedoesnothaveamechanicaladvancedistributorfindonefortheengine.Fordstartedusingmechanicaladvancedistributorsin1957alongwithavacuumadvance.Thiswilladdbetterdrivabilityplusadjustabilityfortodaygasoline.WheretoBuyPrintedin2014byCarTechSADesignSA257ISBNID978-1-61325-061-7.Call800551-4754orvisitwww.cartechbooks.com.LSSwapsByJeffersonBryantSubjectLSSwapbookisaboutwhatishappeningoutinthegaragesandrepairshopsjustdownthestreetfromyouandallaroundtheworldanywhereyoufindthinkers.Whysettleforaso-soperformancevehiclewhenyoucanrepoweritreflectingchangesintodaysmarketplace.Thereisplentytolearnfromwithinthepagesofthisbook.InformationChapter1whatdoyouneedtoknowaboutLS-engines2engineanddriveline3oilpans4accessorydrivesandcoolingsystems5transmissionandclutch6wiringharnessandwiring7enginemanagementsystemstuningandcontrollers8fuelsystems9exhaustsystemsplusasourceguidesoyoucanfindanythingyouseeinthebook.SuggestionUsetheinformationsuppliedinthisbooktomakeyourselfmoneyTherearepeopleallaroundthecountrythatareinstallingtheLSenginesintocarstrucksboatsdunebuggiesandsandrails.Usingtheinformationinthisbookyoucanmakeitafunjobtodotheswap.Thisbookwillreducethetimethatyouspendoninstallingwhiledoingapayjob.LesstimespentmeansmoremoneyinyourpocketIfyouarebuildingforyourselfitmeanslesstimeinthegarageandmoretimewiththefamily.JeffverynicejobonthebookthanksfromallofusguyswhoneedtoknowmoreWheretoBuyPrintedin2014byCarTechSADesignSA156ISBNID978-1-61325-093-8.Call800551-4754orvisitwww.cartechbooks.com.ChevyBigBlockEnginePartsInterchangeBookByJohnBaechtelInformationChapter1formidableforerunners2cylinderblockcompatibility3gaskets4rotatingassembly5cylinderheads6inductionsystem7camshafts8distributorsandignitionsystems9lubricationandcoolingsystems10exhaustmanifolds11flywheelsandflexplates12partssources13aftermarketreplacementpartsplusasourceguidesoyoucanfindanythingyouseeinthebook.SuggestionIfyouaregoingtodoanyworkonBigBlockChevysyouneedtoknowwhichoneyouareworkingonandyoualsoneedtomakesurethatyoucanuseallthepartsthatyouhaveonhand.Usingthisbookwillhelpyoufindwhatyouneedtoknow.Itjustmightkeepyououtoftroublebecauseyoudidnotknowaboutachangeindesign.Swappingpartsandknowingwhattheylooklikeiswherethisbookcomesinhandy.Ithasmanyclearpictures278andsomechartsofalltheenginesparts.JustlikeeveryotherbookthatJohnhaswrittenhehasonceagainsuppliedmuchneededinformation.WheretoBuyPrintedin2014byCarTechSADesignSA254ISBNID978-1-61325-050-1.Call800551-4754orvisitwww.cartechbooks.com.90JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalONTHESAMEPAGEBYMIKECARUSOAERATechSpecialistMikeCarusohasover50yearsofenginerebuildingandhigh-performanceexperience.AnASE-certifiedMasterMachinistMikecametoAERAfromFEL-PROshigh-performanceRDandtechlinewhereheworkedfor11years. PEGGYGREENCall507-457-0755or866-457-8975peggybigrivergmail.comRepresentinganumberofqualitylinestobringyouthebestvalueforallyourshopsupplyneeds.HOMEOFREGISNORTH35517SkyviewDriveWinonaMN55987HOMEOFREGISNORTHCallwww.engineprofessional.com91ENGINEREBUILDINGEQUIPMENTSUPPLIESServingtheEngineRebuildingIndustryforover25Yearswww.rtsalesinc.com1625NorthMilfordRdHighlandMI48357Phone248-887-0422Fax248-887-0150MARKETPLACEGrayMarineParts.comWeofferavastarrayoforiginalGrayMarineenginesenginepartsaccessoriesandsomuchmore.Ifyouhavebeensearchinghighandlowforahard-to-ndpartthensearchnomoreCallusandwellnditforyouCall630-485-5007salesgraymarineparts.com 92JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessionalMARKETPLACEAttentionAERAMembersAdvertiseyourbusinesscardwithEngineProfessionalmagazineandcapitalizeonthefastestgrowinghardcoreenginepublicationintheaftermarketMarketplaceBusinessCardAdOrderFormNameCompanyAERAIDAddressCityStateZIPPhoneFaxE-mailRate____________xofinsertions______Total__________________NOTEPleasemailpaymenttoKarenatAERAseeaddressbelow.E-mailelectronicartworkJPGorPDFtomariamcreative.usIVisaIMasterCardIDiscoverIAmericanExpressIfyoudonothaveanelectronicfilemailbusinesscardalongwithpayment.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIExpirationDateMMYY________________3-digitCSC________PrintCardholderNameCardholderSignatureFaxtoll-free1-888-329-2372OrmailwithyourpaymenttoEngineProfessionalMagazineAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.QuestionsPleasecontactKarenatAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600karenaera.org.HalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comorJimRickoff507-457-8975jimrickoffgmail.comE-mailartworktomariamcreative.usBusinessCardAd3.5x21xRate2004xRate170Alladsrunfullcoloratnoextracharge.ToadvertiseinthissectionyoumustbeanAERAmember.Fordetailsonhowtojoinvisitwww.aera.org.Fourtimesayearover15000copiesofEngineProfessionalaresenttoanauditedlistofengineprofessionals.MARKETPLACEisforAERAmembersonly.ItwillbefeaturedineveryissueofEngineProfessionalmagazine. OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonthenextpageandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.www.engineprofessional.com93AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraep 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ADVERTISERINDEXAAPEXShow...............................................................65AccessIndustries...........................................................5ACL..............................................................................21AERA....................................................3980-8193-94CIFIC..............................................................................9Cloyes..........................................................................29CTPCostexTractorParts...................insidebackcoverCWTIndustries...............................................................1DNJEngineComponents...................outsidebackcoverDrivenRacingOil............................................................8Dura-Bond...................................................................46Elgin.......................................................................3355EndurancePowerProducts.........................................45EnginePartsGroupInc................................................22Enginequest.................................................................39ESCOIndustries...........................................................41FarrisEquipment..........................................................26FederalMogulFel-Pro....................................232527Fluidampr.....................................................................16FowlerSalesService.................................................66Goodson......................................................................20Hastings................................................insidefrontcoverJamison.......................................................................17JoeBakerEquipmentSales.........................................64KingEngineBearings...................................................53L.A.Sleeve....................................................................52MAHLEClevite...............................................................7Maxiforce.....................................................................47Melling..........................................................................42MemorialMachine........................................................77NPR.............................................................................37OliverRacingParts.......................................................52PEP........................................................................3032PRO-SIS......................................................................73QualCast......................................................................34QualityPowerProducts................................................35Regis............................................................................31Rottler..........................................................................96S.B.International............................................................3SafetyAutoParts.........................................................57SEMAShow.................................................................11SilverSeal....................................................................15Sunnen........................................................................61Topline....................................................................78-79Tracto-PartsCenter......................................................43UltrasonicLLC............................................................67UnitedEngineandMachine.........................................59U.S.ToolandMfg.Co..................................................14Vibratech......................................................................71ADVERTISINGOPPORTUNITIESGetyouradvertisingmessagedirectlyintotheshopswhoarebuild-ingrebuildingandinstallingenginesprofessionallybyadvertisinginEngineProfessionalmagazine.Engineprofessionalsworldwidewillreceivethisfull-colorpublicationfourtimesperyear.Eachissuewillbefilledwithhighlytechnicalandapplication-drivenarticlesfromourstaffofwritersaswellasfeaturecontributionsfromindustryprofessionals.Formoreinformationdownloadamediakitfromourwebsiteatwww.aera.orgeporcontactouradsalesstaff.AdSalesHalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comJimRickoff815-526-7343jimaera.orgForadpaymentcirculationmembershipinformationCallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600.www.engineprofessional.com95MonthlyPaymentOptionsAERAnowoffersmonthlyinstallmentpaymentoptionsforyourannualAERAmembershipandPRO-SISsupportfees.CreditcardDirectwithdrawlfrombankaccountTherewillbenoadditionalfeesifyouelecttopaymonthly.ExampleAsmall1-3manshoppaysanannualrateof370or30.83permonthfor12monthscreditcardordirectwithdrawlfrombankaccount.FormoreinformationcallKarenat888-326-2372ore-mailkarenaera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.org THECUTTINGEDGEBlockFrameBoringSurfacingLineBoringandGeneralCNCMachiningRottlerF100MachiningCentersHeavyDutyDesign.CuttingEdgeSoftware.OEMEngineRemanufturingcaOEMEngineRemanufturinglLatheengineeringneedssincemetthemovhaancdvsaertltRosandOEMrderebuilrecisionmainprerManuftltRoOEMEngineRemanuf23.e19engineeringneedssincstdemandingemetthemoeddesignsandequipmentancerturcaemanufsandOEMrorengineoolsfchinetecisionmaaellobaturingisaglcaerManufturingcaOEMEngineRemanufeddesignsandequipments.erorenginederaturingts.oundparrchiningoflmaefblarytRothewithlLaaticerVdditionofatheaelwithvetherloanotchineseMasPurpoesMulti-akerttltRolLaaticerts.egarchiningoflrthewithdditionofaelwithchinesesMulti-thelLacontactrottlermfg.com.facebook.comrottlermfgwww.youtube.comrottlermfgwwwottlerTHECUTcontactrottlermfg.comrottlermfg.facebook.comrottlermfg.youtube.comrottlermfgmfg.comottlerTINGEDGETHECUT1-800-452-0534125387270502UentW8029South200thStreet96JULY-SEPT2014engineprofessional