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Project408LSOldSchoolOver-the-TopFlowingGrowingandKnowingImprovingEngineAirflowFlatCaddyMeetsCFDComputationalFluidDynamicsBlindMansBluffBlindHoleCylinderBoring2014CHEVROLETCRUZE2.0LCLEANTURBODIESEL2014CHEVROLETCRUZECLEANTURBODIESELPHOTOBYBRIANKERSEYFORCHEVROLETGENERALMOTORSCO.ANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONJULY-SEPTEMBER2013 2JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional4FROMTHEPUBLISHER6INDUSTRYNEWSWelcometonewAERAmemberscalendarofeventsnewsandviews10NEWSFROMTHEEDITORByJimRickoff142014CHEVROLETCRUZECLEANTURBODIESELByDaveHagen20PROJECT408LSByMikeMavrigian48THEIMPORTANCEOFCOMPRESSIONRATIOSANDHOWTOMEASURETHEMBySamLogan56FLOWINGKNOWINGANDGROWINGByHaroldBettes64BLINDMANSBLUFFByDaveMetchkoff68FLATCADDYMEETSCFDByDavidC.WoodyWoodruff72ONBOARDTESTINGTOCLEANUPSHIPPINGByMarkAdair76OILPUMPANDENGINEPRIMINGByMikeOsterhaus78TECHSKILLSCONFERENCERECAPBySteveFox80TECHSIDEByLakeSpeedJr.Viscocity82PROMOTEYOURBUSINESSONFACEBOOKBySteveFox84PRO-SISCORNERBySteveFoxEnteringCustomSpecs85PURCHASINGTIMEByDwayneDugas88AERAAUTOMOTIVEMACHINISTONLINETRAININGCylinderHeadandEngineMachinistCertificateProgram90TECHBULLETINS95MARKETPLACECONTENTSEngineProfessionalmagazineISSN1945-7634ispublishedquarterlybyAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERA.Copyright2013AERA.Subscriptionrates70peryearoutsidetheUnitedStates90singlecopy20.Publicationedito-rialandbusinessoffice500CoventryLaneSte180CrystalLakeIL60014.Editorial815-526-7600Advertising507-457-8975Circulation815-526-7600.Sendchangeofaddresstotheabove.TheopinionsbeliefsandviewpointsexpressedbythevariousauthorsinthismagazinearethoseoftheindividualauthorsandnotoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationwhichdisclaimsallresponsibilityforthem.VOLUME6NUMBER3PUBLISHERAERA-EngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014815-526-7600815-526-7601faxChairmanoftheBoardRonMcMorrisMapleRidgeBCCANADAFirstViceChairmanSteveSchoebenBloomingtonMNSecondViceChairmanRexCrumptonTulsaOKTreasurerDwayneDugasNewIberiaLAPresidentPaulHauglieEDITORJimRickoffjimrickoffgmail.comTECHNICALEDITORSDaveHagendaveaera.orgSteveFoxsteveaera.orgMikeCarusomikeaera.orgGaryLewisenginesmsn.comMikeEighmymikeeighmygmail.comCONTROLLERMelissaRizzimelissaaera.orgGRAPHICDESIGNMariaBeyerstedtmariamcreative.usADVERTISINGSALESJimRickoffjimrickoffgmail.comHalFowlerhalfowlersales.comPRODUCTIONJanJuhljanaera.orgCIRCULATIONKarenTenderingkarenaera.orgINTERNATIONALLIAISONYolandaCarranzayolandaaera.orgCHIEFTECHNOLOGYARCHITECTRichardRooksrichardaera.org20566468 httpwww.sbi-e-catalog.com2013S.B.InternationalInc.Allrightsreserved.OcengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP3 4JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalFROMTHEPUBLISHERBYPAULHAUGLIEAERAPRESIDENTHowareyoupromotingoradvertisingyourbusinesstodayAreyoubeingsocialYellowpagesSlightlyusefulbutmosteveryonehasacellphoneandisabletodoaninternetsearchordial411torundownaphonenumber.LocalnewspaperadsHonestlywhenwasthelasttimeyoupickedupanewspaperDoyoustillhaveatruelocalpaperTradeMagazinesEffectivebutaretheyinyourbudgetWhatabouttheinternetOrbetteryetwhataboutFacebookIknowtherearestillmanyofuswhodonthaveaFacebookpageIjustbeganonebackinOctoberandswearupanddownthatwewillneverhaveone.Thismaybetruebutyouareoverlookingoneoftodayseasiestandsimplestformsofmarketingandadvertising.Thinkofitthiswayadvertisinginyourlocalpaperisonlygoingtoreachthoseinyourimmediatearea.Advertisinginamagazinewillonlyreachthemagazinescirculation.Inbothscenariosyoureassumingthesubscriberswillopenitandreadit.Facebookprovidesimmediateupdatesimmediateaccesstoyourwebsiteorpageandaccesswheneverandwherever.AdditionallywhenuserscreateaFacebookprofiletheyfillinareasofinterestwhichwillautomaticallybegindirectingthemtoyourpageandviceversa.Whensettingupabusinessprofilemakesureyouidentifyyourbusinesswiththecategoryandsub-categorieswhichbestfitswhatyoudo.Thiswillallowotheruserstofindyoueasily.IfyoureamachineshopyoudontwanttogroupyourselfunderhousewaresrightAdditionallymakesurewhenyouputanameonyourpageyouusethenameofyourbusiness.Againthismakesitmucheasierforpeopletofindyourbusinesswhentheyaresearching.Nowitstimetogetcreativeaddyourbusinesslogosloganabriefdescriptionofyourcompanyandhowlongyouvebeeninbusinessetc.dontworryyouwontneedtohireagraphicdesignerortechnicalwriter.Thegreatthingaboutthisisyouthebusinessownerareabletositthereandputthisinformationinsoyouhavecompletecontroloverwhatisstated.Thiswaywhatisputoutthereisexactlythewayyouwantitandistruetowhatyourbusinessreallyis.Additionallyaddphotosofyourshopyouremployeesatworkshowoffsomeofthejobsthathavebeencompleted.Displayyourwares.Thismakesyourpagemoretangibletotheviewer.Meaningtheyareabletoseewhatitisyoudoandsomeoftheworkthatyouhavecompleted.Italsogivesyouachancetoshowoffyourfacility.Thebottomlineisthisdontbeafraidofacomputerortheinternet.Sayingthatyouwillneveruseacomputerisasgoodassayingyoureclosingyourbusinesstomorrow.ByusingatoolsuchasFacebookyouwillimmediatelyreachanaudienceyouprobablydidntknowwasoutthere.Aswithanythingyouonlygetoutofitwhatyouputintoitsodontcreateitandthenwalkaway.Keepafteritupdatewithdifferentpiecesofinformationonceaweekandmakeitfresh.HereareafewmembersthathavebeensuccessfullyusingFacebook.SimplytypetheirbusinessnameintothesearchboxDugasEngineServicePrecisionAutomotiveDieselValleySpeedMachineShopToquotearecentIBMcommercialHowsocialisyourbusinessClickawayIPriortobecomingpresidentofAERAPaulHauglieworkedforMellingEnginePartsasCanadianSalesManagerandPerformanceProductManagerforMellingSelectPerformance.Gettingconnectedandshamelessself-promotion 52.964-264133333215-9070705290707070-529.7.7.64226401364.064-64..064-36810083825681008382862215GM6.5truckvan.........................................995eaCummins3.94BTOEM....................................950eaCummins5.96BT.............................................995eaCummins8.36CT...........................................1795eaCaterpillar3306DI..........................................2780eaCummins4BT....................................................575eaCummins6CT8.3..............................................780eaCummins6BT5.9..............................................695eaCaterpillar3306.................................................998eaCummins3.9.....................................................158eaCummins5.9.....................................................138eaCummins8.3.....................................................188eaGM6.5TruckVan..................198eaChevy350Vortec......................228eaChrysler318360........................228eaChrysler3.9................................180eaCaterpillar3306PC8N1187......730eaCaterpillar3306DI8N6796.......730eaCaterpillar3406DINEW..........1580eaCaterpillar3406PCNEW.........1580eaCaterpillar3304PCDI...............580eaJeep4.0331..........................375eaFord4.0EarlyLate...................138eaCummins5.9OEM..................5980eaCummins3.94BTOEM...........3980eaCummins8.36CTOEM...........6980eaCummins5.93.96BT4BT...........68eaCummins8.36CT.......................86eaGM6.5NEW.................................55eaCummins3.9................................98eaCummins5.9..............................108eaCummins8.3..............................138eaCummins3.9UpperKitOEM......88setCummins3.9LowerKitOEM.....88setCummins5.9UpperKitOEM......98setCummins5.9LowerKitOEM.....95setCummins8.3UpperKitOEM....128setCummins8.3LowerKitOEM...108set5 AERAwelcomesnewmembersACTIVECarquestIndioCAChampionEnginesMilpitasCACJRomboldEngineBuilderBeaverFallsPAChaseAutoPartsPhiladelphiaPACompleteMachineShopServiceHesperiaCAElPinoAutoPartsGarlandTXEngineWorksHendersonNVEversMachineCoEugeneMOGaribayRectificacionesSAdeCVGuadalajaraJalMEXICOGoucherAGServiceTexhomaOKKeesEngineServicesMercerPALucitosMachineShopTulsaOKOrloAutoPartsOrrvilleOHPeifferRepairHarperIAPerformanceMachinePunxsutawneyPAProHeadAutomachineOrlandoFLTamsEngineWarrenPATJMachineShopSequinWATekmecoIndustrialCenterviewMOTonyBaroneMachineShopTraffordPAUmeaMotorRenoveringABUmeaSWEDENZFabSantaClaraCAASSOCIATEBrockSupplyCompanyTempeAZOliverRacingPartsGrandRapidsMIPioneerIncMeridianMSFordwinsInternationalEngineoftheYearforsecondyearFordMotorCompanysultra-fuelefficientandspirited1.0-litreEcoBoostpetrolenginewasnamed2013InternationalEngineoftheYearmarkingthesecondstraightyearFordsacclaimedthree-cylinderenginehascapturedtheaward.Theturbo-chargeddirect-injectionthree-cylinderengineachievedthehighestscoreinthe15-yearhistoryoftheawards.Apanelof87automotivejournalistsfrom35countriesaroundtheworldjudgedtheawardsondrivabilityperformanceeconomyrefinementandthesuccessfulapplicationofadvancedenginetechnology.Fordisoneofthreecarmakerstorecordback-to-backvictoriesinthe15-yearhistoryoftheawards.TheFord1.0-litreEcoBoostalsohaswontheInternationalPaulPietschAward2013fortechnologicalinnovationatGermanmagazineAutoMotorundSportBestCarsAwardsandtheDewarTrophyfromtheRoyalAutomobileClubinGreatBritainaBreakthroughAwardfromPopularMechanicsmagazineintheU.S.FordalsoconfirmedplanstodoubleproductionoftheengineatitsCologneGermanyEnginePlanttomorethan1000enginesadayfrommid-Augusttomeetdemand.IAERAcongratulatesthosewhohavecompletedtheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramAsofJune122013207peoplehaveenrolledintheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramforCylinderHeadandEngineMachinistcertificates.Foracompletelistofgraduatesgotowww.aera.orgaera-universitycertificates.DaveSarnapicturedaboverightanautomotivetechnologyinstructoratFoxValleyTechnicalCollegeinAppletonWIrecentlycompletedtheAERAonlinetrainingprogram.Hispassionhasalwaysbeenenginerepairandengineperformance.AfterreturninghomefromadeploymentwiththeU.S.ArmyinAfghanistanhewasapproachedtotakeovertheenginerepairportionatthecollege.DavesunkhisteethintothechallengeandalongwithotherstaffmemberscreatedaverycredibleGENIIILSprogramthatincludedstateoftheartmachiningequipmentcompletewithadynamometer.IndividualslikeDaveleadthewayformanyotherdedicatedenginemachinistsinterestedinprovingwhattheyknow.IfinterestedinaddingtoyourresumeofengineexperiencecallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenTenderingore-mailkarenaera.org.Shecanansweryourquestionsandwhenreadyregisteryoutobegintheprogram.Formoreinformationseepage88.IIindustrynewscalendarJULY10-12PAACEAUTOMECHANIKAMEXICOMexicoCityMEXICOwww.paaceautomechanika.comSEPTEMBER18-19AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyAERAandPERAatAERMfg.Inc.CarrolltonTXSEPTEMBER27AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyRottlerMfg.KentWAOCTOBER9AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyPartsWarehouseSupplyKansasCityMOOCTOBER26AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbySunnenandDartatMacombCommunityCollegeWarrenMINOVEMBER5-7AAPEXSHOWSandsExpoCenterLasVegasNVwww.aapexshow.comNOVEMBER5-8SEMASHOWLasVegasConventionCenterLasVegasNVwww.semashow.comDECEMBER12-14PRISHOWIndianapolisConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.performanceracing.com6JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP7 ElginreceivesJASPERServiceAwardElginIndustrieshasonceagainbeenhonoredasoneoftheleadingsupplierstoJASPEREnginesTransmissionsreceivingthe2013JASPERServiceAwardduringarecentceremonyinJasperInd.JASPEREnginesTransmissionsisNorthAmericaslargestremanufacturerofgasolineanddieselpowertrainanddrivetraincomponents.ElginhassuppliedinternalenginecomponentstoJASPERformorethan60yearsandhasheldPreferredPartnerstatuswiththecompanyfor12years.JASPERreliesonElginforabroadrangeofadvancedvalvetrainproductsincludingpushrodsrockerarmsliftersandvalvespringswithamajorityofthesepartsbeingdesignedandmanufacturedinElginsstate-of-the-artfacilitiesinElginIll.TheJASPERServiceAwardispresentedtomanufacturerswhoprovideexceptionalserviceineachofseveralcriticalbusinessareasincludingproductqualityfillrateaccuracyinbillingandcreditprocessesandoverallresponsiveness.Weareapproachingour95thyearofoperationandqualityandcustomerserviceareeverybitasimportanttodayastheywerewhenwefirstopenedourdoorssaidElginIndustriesPresidentBillSkok.With60yearsofmutualgrowthandsuccessElginandJASPERhavedefinedthequalitiesofstrongbusinesspartnership.WeareveryproudtoservethisgreatcompanyanditsthousandsofcustomersacrossNorthAmerica.InadditiontoservingJASPERandotherleadingaftermarketbusinessesElginIndustriesisaTierOnesupplieroforiginalequipmentengineandchassiscomponentstoorganizationssuchasChryslerDeereCompanyFordGeneralMotorsHarley-DavidsonMackandNavistar.Thecompanyisaleadingall-makesall-modelssupplierofreplacementautomotiveandheavy-dutypartstodistributorsthroughouttheworld.ElginhasearneddozensofqualityawardsandhasreceiveditscertificatesofregistrationtotheISOTS169492009QualityManagementSystemandISO140012004EnvironmentalManagementSystem.ItalsohasreceiveditsFordQ1QualityCertification.IMellingDura-BondconsolidateSalesandMarketingeffortsMellingDura-BondannounceaconsolidationoftheirsalesandmarketingeffortsundertheleadershipofCharlesJ.BarnettcurrentVicePresidentofSalesandMarketingatDura-BondBearingCompany.BarnetthasbeenalongtermemployeeatDura-BondasPresidentpriortotheMellingpurchaseseveralyearsago.HealsohadacareerwithAC-DelcoGeneralMotorsandGeneralSalesManagerforPaccarPartspriortoworkingatDura-Bond.MellingandDura-Bondhavebeenrecognizedasleadersintheautomotivepartsbusinesssincethemid1940s.IIindustrynews3200ArrowheadDr.CarsonCityNevada89706TEL800.227.8360FAX775.883.9497BESURETOVISITUSONLINEATWWW.DURABONDBEARING.COMVALVESEATTECHNOLOGYHASCHANGEDModernenginesputmuchhigherlevelsofthermalandmechanicalstressonvalveseatinserts.TohandlethemoresevereconditionswithinthisnewgenerationofenginestheOEMisequippingthemwithhightechsinteredvalveseats.Thenormalcastchromeandotheralloyironseatswillnotadequatelywithstandthedemandsofthisnewengineenvironment.Dura-Bondspatentedmaterialandprocessingofthesepowdermetalvalveseatsofferexcellentmachinabilityalongwithlowwearandhighheatresistance.Theseinsertshavefinelydispersedtungstencarbideresidinginamatrixoftemperedtoolsteelandspecialalloyironparticlestoprovideallthepropertiesanapplicationrequires.Specialcompositionsandprocessinghavebeendevelopedtoperforminthemostextremedutyapplications.Completein-housecapabilitiesfromdevelopmentandtoolingtotestingreducesleadtimeandcost.IfyourrequirementsrangefromprototypestohighvolumeletDura-BondBearingCompanybepartofthesolution.8JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional 10JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalHiTeamItsthattimeofyearagainwhenwewelcomeinanewChairmanoftheBoardhereatAERA.OurassociationsfiscalyearrunsJuly1stthroughJune30th.SoasyourereadingthiswehaveanewleaderhereatAERA.Trulyourassociationhasbeenblessedthroughtheyearswithgreatboardleadership.Theboardhelpsgivethisorganizationdirectionandsupportsstafftoprovideservicesandprogramstoourmembersworldwide.Wewoulddefinitelynotbeasstrongaswearewithoutthegreatleaderswevebeenfortunateenoughtohave.FillingtheshoesofpastChairmanDwayneDugaswillnotbeaneasytask.Howeverwehaveagreatguywithalifelongpassionforthisindustrywhoiswillingtosharehistimeenergyandknowledgetohelpthisorganizationcontinueitssuccess.WeareexcitedtointroduceyoutoRonMcMorristhenewAERAChairmanoftheBoard.CanyougiveusalittlebackgroundinformationonyourselfRonHowdidyougetyourstartinourindustryHowlonghaveyoubeenatLordcoIwasbornandraisedinthesuburbsofVancouverBritishColumbiaCanadaandhavebeeninvolvedintheautomotiveaftermarketmyentireworkingcareer.Mypassionfortheindustrystartedasateenworkingonandrestoringcarswithmyfather.IstartedworkingatLordcoPartsalocalautopartsandmachineshopinmyhometownofMapleRidgeBCfreshoutofschool.AfterworkinginpartsforafewmonthsIfoundmyselfspendingmoreandmoretimehangingoutinthemachineshop.Theloveofenginesledmetoautomotivemachining.IstartedasanapprenticeshortlyafterandhavebeenintheenginegamewithLordcoforover30years.TellusaboutLordcoWhenwasitfoundedHowmanystoresandshopsdoyouhaveLordcoPartswasfoundedin1974bypartnersRoyLordandEdCoateshencethenameLordco.Thecompanystartedwithonestore.Aftertwoyearsthecompanyopeneditssecondbranchwithitsfirstmachineshop.In1981thepartnershipsplitandEdCoatestookoverthereins.Thecompanyhasenjoyedsteadygrowthinnearly40yearsofbusinessandnowhas104outletsincluding6distributioncentersand4machineshopoperations.Lordcoproudlyremainsafamily-ownedbusinessandisthelargestindependentjobberinCanadaemployingover1800people.WhattypeofworkdoyouperformatLordcoImanagetheenginedivisionoverseeingmachineshopoperationsandenginepartssales.DoyouspecializeinaspecifictypeofmachineworkatyourshopsWeprimarilydocustomwork.Werefullyequippedforallautomotiveandlightindustrialmachiningincludingbalancingcrankshaftgrindingandperformancework.Wefindourselvesdoingmoreandmorefinishmachiningandfittingonnewaftermarketblocksandheads.Thistypeofworkaddslaborinbalancingandengineassembly.Wealsohaveaseparatecylinderheadshopspecializingincastingrepairandremanufacturedheadssoldthroughoutthepartsstores.ItismyunderstandingthatLordcodoesalotofhardpartsdistribution.HowhavepartsdistributionbusinesseschangedovertheyearsWhatchallengesdotheyfacetodayLordcohasalwaysbeenintheenginepartsgamebutrecognizedavoidinWesternCanadaabout10yearsback.Atthattimewedecidedtofillthatvoidbymakingabigcommitmenttoinventoryandhiringasalesforce.Thishashelpedourownshopsimmenselyandalsogiveslocalinventorytoothermachineshopsinourtradingarea.Thelargestchallengetodayisthehugeinventoriesrequiredtoservicetheindustry.SomanydifferentenginestheamountofcomponentsandcostofpartslikeMLSgasketsandtimingcomponentsmakekeepingtherightinventoryanongoingchallenge.TypicallyhowlargeofageographicalareadoyoucoverIsithardtogofaroutsideofthePacificNorthregionWecoverallofWesternCanadaeventhoughweareonlylocatedinBritishColumbia.LordcocoversBCwithourownfleetofdeliverytrucksanduseNEWSFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFIntroducingAERAsnewChairmanoftheBoardRonMcMorrisfromLordcoPartsMapleRidgeBritishColumbiaCanadaNewAERAChairmanRonMcMorris engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP11 12JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalNEWSFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFcommoncarrierstohandleAlbertaandSaskatchewan.WhatarethebiggestchallengesyourshopsfacetodayIbelievewesharethesamechallengesaseveryoneintheindustrytoday.Wereallequippedtohandlethesimpleenginesofthepastbutreallyneedtogearupwithinformationandequipmenttohandletheenginesoftoday.TheinformationprovidedbyAERAsPRO-SISsoftwareisinvaluableintodaysshops.Theotherbigissueisagingpersonnelintheindustry.Ibelieveitisimperativethatshopsutilizetheknowledgeofsenioremployeesandpassitdowntothenextgenerationtokeepthisindustryhealthy.Weallneedtoworktogetherintheindustrytopromoteandrecruityoungtalent.DoyouseeyourbusinessgrowinginthenextfiveyearsIdontseemachineshopbusinessgrowingIseeitchanging.Thepriceperjobisincreasingbecauseofexpensivepartsandamountoflaborinvolvedineachjob.Whenworkingonnewenginetechnologyproductinformationisamustandthiscomeswithacost.Ifshopshavetheabilitytokeepupwithtechnologyintrainingandproperequipmentthereisnoreasonnottobeprofitableinthedaysahead.HowandwhydidyoudecidetobecomeinvolvedinAERALordcohasbeenamemberaslongasIcanremember.IpersonallybecameinvolvedwithAERAwhenpastChairmanRobMunronominatedmetotheboardsevenyearsback.IalwaysrecognizedthevalueinAERAandaftergettingfurtherinvolvedasaboardmemberIreallyrealizedthestrengthandcommitmentofAERAtothemembership.IstronglyencouragepeopletotakethetimetoreallyexploreandlearnmoreaboutAERAandrealizethatweasmembershaveastrengththatmostindustriesarelackingtoday.HowhasAERAhelpedyourshopsandstoresTheshopsarehelpeddailybythePRO-SISsoftware.Thisinformationhasalwaysbeenagreattoolintheshopandwithmodernengineswesimplycouldnotoperatewithoutit.Thestoresandtheenginepartsdivisionusetheinformationprovidedtohelpidentifyenginestosupplycorrectparts.WealsouseAERATechBulletinstohelpsolvepartswarrantyissues.WhichversionofPRO-SISdoyourshopsuseandwhyWecurrentlyuseall3versions.ItsbeenalittletoughgettingawayfromoriginalPRO-SISduetofamiliaritybutwearemigratingtowardWEBPRO-SIS.Assoonaseveryonegetscomfortablewiththewebversionwellallbefurtheraheadsimplybecauseofaddedinformationandconstantupdates.DoyouhaveanyadviceforothershopsinourindustryKeepup-to-datewithinformation.Chargeenoughtoallowyourbusinesstore-investinequipmentpersonnelandtrainingforthefuture.Lookforyouthtobringintothetradethroughvocationalschoolshighschoolsmotorsportsoranyothermethod.WereallyneedtobeproactiveinthisareaorwewillbewithouttalentinthetradebeforeweknowitIJimRickoffistheEditorofEngineProfessionalmagazineandAERAsmarketingconsultant.Ifyouhaveanyquestionscommentsorconcernscall507-457-8975ore-mailjimrickoffgmail.com.SavetheDateSEPTEMBER18-19AERAANDPERAAERMfg.Inc.CarrolltonTXSEPTEMBER27ROTTLERMFG.KentWAOCTOBER9PARTSWAREHOUSESUPPLYKansasCityMOOCTOBER26SUNNENANDDARTMacombCommunityCollegeWarrenMICONFERENCEHOSTINGOPPORTUNITIESIfyouareinterestedinhostingaconferencenextyearpleasecontactJimRickoffat507-457-8975oremailjimrickoffgmail.com. 14JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalChevroletisenteringtheCanadianandU.S.dieselcarmarketsthissummerwitha2.0Lturbo-dieselversionofitshottest-sellingsedantheCruzefeaturingthecleanestdieselpassengercarengineGeneralMotorshaseverproduced.Cleandieselsgenerateatleast90percentlessNitrogenOxideNOxandparticulateemissionswhencomparedtoprevious-generationdiesels.BuiltinLordstownOhiothe2014CruzeCleanTurboDieseldeliversacombinationofsegment-leadingfeaturesandefficiency.BasedonGMtestingtheCruzeCleanTurboDieselisexpectedtogetaslowas4.6L100kmhighwayfuelconsumptionestimated42mpghighwaywithspiritedperformanceandthedurabilitydieselownersvaluearoundtheglobe.TheCruzecleanturbodieselistheperfectadditiontoanalreadyextensiveChevroletproductportfoliohereinCanadasaidMarcComeauvicepresidentofsalesservicemarketingforChevroletinCanada.Thesenewproductsandtechnologiesmeetthediverseneedsofourcustomersfromcoast-to-coastwhetheritsdrivingacrosstowngasfreeinaChevyVoltorcross-countryinacleanturbodiesel.Thecompactsedansnew2.0Lturbo-dieselengineproducesanestimated148horsepower110kWand258lb.-fttorque350Nmwith0-96kmhperformanceof8.6secondswhichisbetterthantheVolkswagenJettaTDIautomaticandcompetitivewithGermandieselcarsthatdominatetheNorthAmericanmarket.CruzeCleanTurboDieselsemissionswillmeetU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencysEPAstringentTier2Bin5emissionsstandards.Ourglobalengineeringexpertisewasleveragedtodevelopaworld-classlow-emissionsenginetoofferCanadianandU.S.customersacarthatsbothfuntodriveandpracticalatthepumpsaidComeau.TheCruzeCleanTurboDieseliswellpositionedhereinCanadaandplaysanimportantroleinChevroletsfour-cylinderlineupandwebelieveitsperformancetorqueandfuelefficiencywillquicklywinoverdieseldevoteesandcompactcarbuyers.OtherstandardfeaturesincludeChevroletsinfotainmentsystemMyLinkandafive-year100000mile160935kilometerpowertrainwarranty.CruzeCleanTurboDieselisthemostsophisticatedpassengercardieselengineGMhaseverproducedsaidJensWarthaGMglobalprogrammanagerandchiefengineerfortheCruzesdieselengine.WemergedEuropeandieselexpertisewiththerealworlddrivingpreferencesofNorthAmericanconsumers.GMhassoldnearlytwomillionChevroletCruzemodelsgloballysinceitwaslaunchedinmid-2010.GMproducedmorethanhalfamillionsmalldiesel-enginecarsacrossEuropeAsiaAfricaandSouthAmericalastyearincludingCruze.InEuropeapproximately40percentofCruzemodelsarediesel-powered.DIESELENGINEDETAILSCruzes2.0Lturbo-dieselisbasedonprovenarchitecturealreadyusedinEuropeanmodels.CollaboratingwithItalianandGermanengineeringgroupsGMsdieselexpertsintheUnitedStatesadaptedtheenginetoaccommodatemorestringentdieselemissionstandardsandawiderrangeofdrivingconditionsincludingcolderclimatesandhigheraltitudesfortheUnitedStatesandCanada.ENGINETRANSMISSIONTypeTurboDieselDisplacementcuincc2.0L1191956Bore83.00mmStroke90.04mmCompressionratio16.51FueldeliveryDirectinjectionHorsepower1481104000est.hpkWrpmTorque2583502000est.lb.-ft.NmrpmRecommendedfuelDieselTransmissionSix-speedautomaticThisCruzeCleanTurboDieselrepresentsaneweraindieselperformanceforNorthAmericancarssaidJensWarthaGMchiefengineer.WeveadaptedaprovenenginefromEuropetheworldsdieselcapitalandmarrieditwiththeemissions-reducingtechnologythatwasperfectedintheUnitedStatesandCanada.ItsagreatexampleofhowChevroletsglobalresourcesworkharmoniouslytoproducetherightproductattherighttimeandfortherightmarket.Peaktorqueisachievedatalow2000rpmforasustainedfeelingofpowerondemandatalmostallspeedsparticularlywhenpassingorenteringafreewayonramp.Theenginehasanover-boostfeaturecapableofincreasingtorquetoanestimated280lb.-ft.380Nmforstrongeraccelerationperiodsofabout10seconds.Withthebenefitofcontinuousrefinementinothermarketsthe2.0Lturbo-dieselcomestotheUnitedStatesandCanadawithperformancethatwillimpresssaidMikeSiegristassistantchiefengineer.Itispowerfulefficientandclean.ItwillchangeperceptionsofwhatadieselcarcanbewhilegivingcustomersanotherfuelefficientchoiceintheCruzelineup.2014ChevroletCruzeCleanTurboDieselComingtoCanadaandtheUSABYDAVEHAGENPHOTOSGENERALMOTORS engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP15CruzemodelsintheUnitedStatesandCanadacurrentlyoffera1.4Lturboa1.4LEcomodeland1.8Lnaturallyaspiratedgasolineengines.The2.0Lturbo-dieselengineprovidesimprovedfuelefficiencythanacomparablysizedgasolineenginethroughgreaterthermalefficiencyahighercompressionratioandanun-throttledcombustionprocess.Itfeaturesanironcylinderblockandaforgedsteelcrankshafteachdesignedtostanduptothegreatercylinderpressurescommensuratewithaturbo-dieselengine.Alightweightaluminumcylinderheadandaluminumintakemanifoldcontributetotheenginescomparativelylowweightof408pounds185kghelpingtheCruzeCleanTurboDieseldeliverabalancedridewithoutstandinghandlingcharacteristics.AdditionalhighlightsincludeDualoverheadcamshaftswithfourvalvespercylinderandmaintenance-freehydrauliclifterswithlow-frictionroller-fingerfollowersQuietbelt-drivencamsvalvetrainwithhigh-strengthbeltmaterialandtensionerratedfor100000milesHigh-strengthaluminumpistonswithreinforcedtopringandintegralcombustionbowldesignCentraldirectinjectionwiththeinjectorpositionedinthemiddleofthecylinderwiththebowlinthepistonservingasthecombustionchamber.Thisenablesahigh16.51compressionratiothatenhancespowerandcombustionefficiencyVariable-swirlintakemanifolddesignwhichoptimizesairchargemixturemotioninthecylindersforamore-efficientcombustionthatenhancesperformance2014ChevroletCruzeCleanTurboDieseldeliversefficientperformance. 16JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional2014CHEVROLETCRUZECLEANTURBODIESELBYDAVEHAGENandreducesemissionsCommon-railfuelsystemwithPiezofuelinjectorsthatcreatemultipleinjectionspercombustionforgreaterperformancecombustionefficiencyandquietnessVariable-nozzleturbochargerthatbroadenstheenginestorquecurveparticularlyatlowrpmandsupportsgreaterhigh-rpmhorsepower.ItismountedclosetotheexhaustoutletoftheengineforquickerspoolupoftheturbineandfasterlightoffoftheexhaustcatalystIntercoolingsystemproducesacoolerdenserairchargeforgreaterpowerPistonoiljetsthathelpreducefrictionandoptimizepistontemperatureforgreaterperformanceandefficiencyTurbochargerbearingsareoil-lubricatedandcooledviaanoilcoolerVariable-displacementoilpumphelpssavefuelbyoptimizingtheoilpressurewhichreducesfrictionVacuumpumpdesignedforlowerenginefrictionCeramicglowplugswhichprovidegreatercold-startperformanceoverconventionalmetalglowplugsanengineoilheaterisofferedforcoldclimatesB20bio-dieselcompatibility.Quietsmoothperformanceisenabledbyanumberoffeaturesonandaroundtheengine.Therearealsosound-absorbingfeaturesaddedtotheCruzespecifictothedieselmodelincludingauniquedashmathoodblanketandmore.Apreciseexhaustgasrecirculationcontrolsystemfeaturesahigh-capacitycoolerandbypassfeaturethatenabletheenginetomeetUnitedStatesandCanadastoughdieselemissionsregulations.Thereisalsoanexhaustafter-treatmentsystemissimilartowhatisusedonChevroletsheavy-dutytrucksandvansequippedwiththeDuramaxdieselincludingadieselparticulatefilterandureainjectionthathelpsmakethe2.0LthecleanestdieselpassengercarengineeverfromGM.Anapproximately4.5-gallon17literstankintheCruzeCleanTurboDieselholdsenoughdieselemissionsfluidtoprovideatleast16000kilometers10000milesofdrivingbetweenrefills.Thesystemisalsodesignedforservicingtocoincidewithoilchangesforgreaterconvenience.Dieselcarsaleswhichaccountforalittlemorethan3percentofU.S.salestodayaretrendingupandjumped35percentinthefirstquarterof2012comparedtothesameperiodin2011.Dieselcarsalesgrewmorethan27percentlastyearaccordingtotheDieselTechnologyForum.BaumandAssociatespredictsdieseltoaccountfor6percentofcarsalesby2015.Thisall-new2014ChevroletCruzeCleanTurboDieselusesaturbochargingfeaturecalledoverboostbutstillgetsthebesthighwayfueleconomyofanynon-hybridpassengercarinAmerica.CruzeDieselsturbocharged2.0Lenginedeliversasegment-leadingSAE-certified151horsepower113kWand264lb-ftoftorque358Nmbutoverboostcanincreasetorqueto280lb-ft380Nmforabout10secondsofstrongeracceleration.Thats SPECIALIZINGINREPLACEMENTPARTSFORBENDIXCARRIERCATERPILLARCUMMINSDETROITDIESELHINOISUZUMIDLANDNAVISTARTHERMO-KINGTRANE...yourFriendlyalternativeDieselenginepartsESCOINDUSTRIESINC.TOLLFREE1-800-372-6872FAX951-782-2136SALESESCOUSA.COMWWW.ESCOUSA.COMALLOTHERCOMPANYBRANDPRODUCTANDSERVICENAMESAREUSEDHEREINFORIDENTIFICATIONPURPOSESONLYANDMAYBETHETRADEMARKSSERVICEMARKSORTRADENAMESOFTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.THEREISNOAFFILIATIONORSPONSORSHIPBETWEENTHESECOMPANIESANDESCOUNLESSEXPRESSLYSTATED.CARRIERBENDIXREPLASPECIALIZINGINTERPILLARCARRIERBENDIXARTSFORCEMENTREPLASPECIALIZINGINTHERMONMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINS-KINGRMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINSTERPILLARTRANE-KINGTHERMOiend...ourTRANE-KINGyalternativeDieselenginepartsyalternative...yourFDieselenginepartsyalternativeED.XPRETHESECOMPBETWEENSPONSORSHIPTHEREISNOTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.OFVICEMARKSORTRADEMARKSSERTHEBEBRANDPROANYOTHERCOMPALLANDESCOUNLESSANIESTHESECOMPINRAFFILITHEREISNOTRADENAMESVICEMARKSORANDYTIONPURPOSESONLVICENAMESANDSERBRANDPRODUCT PREDICTIVEENGINEERINGEXTREMETESTINGTodaysnewhighoutputturbo-chargedenginescreateunprecedentedheatandstress.ButnewFel-Prohightemperaturealloymaterialsarebeingdesignedtohandlethoseextremesandtomeetthesealingneedsofprofessionaltechniciansbothtodayandtomorrow.HIGHTEMPERATUREALLOYHTA18JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionaltheequivalenttorquedeliveredbythe1972CamaroZ28sheavier5.7LV8.UnlikethemusclecareraCruzeDieselmarriesthatquickbursttoasegment-leadingEPA-estimated46mpghighwayanddemonstratedrangeof717milesononetankoffuel.OverboostprovidesincreasedperformancewhenthedriverdemandsitlikewhenpassingonthehighwaysaidMikeSiegristGM2.0Ldieselassistantchiefengineer.Whenthedriverleansonthethrottletheturbochargerincreasestheairandfuelintakeoverandabovewhattheengineneedsfornormaltorquedemand.SotakingthemuscleanalogyonestepfurtheroverboostistoCruzeDieselasoxidationistoathleteswhentheirmusclesuseoxygentobreakdowncarbohydratesfatandproteintoproduceenergy.Themoreoxygentheytakeinthebettertheirperformance.CruzeDieselcansprintfrom0to60inabout8.6secondshalfasecondfasterthanitschiefcompetitorthe2013VolkswagenJetta2.0LTDI.Cruzes2.0Lturbo-dieselprovidesgreaterfueleconomythanacomparablysizedgasolineenginethroughgreaterthermalefficiencyahighercompressionratioandanun-throttledcombustionprocess.Turbochargingisanincreasinglypopularchoicewithautomakersandcarbuyers.AccordingtoLMCAutomotiveaproviderofautomotiveforecaststurbo-chargedpassengervehicleproductioninNorthAmericaisexpectedtodoubleby2018from14percentin2013to29percentmainlyduetoincreaseddieselproductionaswellasfour-cylinderturbogasenginesreplacingV6engines.IAERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenhasover41yearsofexperienceinourindustry.AsanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistDavespecializedincylinderheadworkandcompleteengineassemblyforthefirst17yearsofhiscareer. 2013Federal-MogulCorporation.Allrightsreserved.ExclusiveMLSaftermarketdesignLaserWeldStopperTechnologySeethefutureofsealingrstatwww.felpro-only.comPREDICTIVEENGINEERINGONLYFEL-PROofferssealingsolutionsdevelopedbyexperiencedengineerswhoworkcloselywithnotedenginebuildersandprofessionalraceteamspredictingtheextremeoperatingdemandsofeachnewenginegenerationanddevelopingthetechnologytosealthem.Lookaheadandyoullsee.OnthewidestvarietyofevolvingengineplatformsFel-Proisthefutureofsealing.Fel-Proexclusivemicrosealhightempcoatingresiststheheatofturbocharging.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP19 20JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalInthislatestLSplatformbuildIdecidedtogooffthedeependintermsofold-schoolover-the-topparticularlyintermsofappearance.ThisbuildfeaturesaGMLSplatformboredandstrokedto408CIDwitha4.030boreand4.000strokecombination.AfewofthenotableelementsincludeadaptingGen1smallblockChevyvalvecoverstoLSheadsandaconversiontocarburetion.Thistimewereusingatunnelramintakefittedwithdual4-barrelcarbs.MycorecylinderblockwassalvagedfromaLQ96.0Lengine.TheLQ9isaLS-platformthatfeaturesacastironblockasopposedtoanaluminumblock.Theentirecorewaspurchasedforamere400.Theonlyitemsmaintainedfromthecoreweretheblockandtherearenginecover.Allremainingcomponentsarenew.Themajorityofpiecesweresourcedfromtheperformanceaftermarket.TheonlyGMpartspurchasedincludethefront-mountedcamshaftpositionsensorcrankshaftpositionsensorwatertemperaturesensoroilpressuresensorrear-mountedplasticoilreliefbarbellthreadedblockplugsandplasticliftertrays.Theironblockversionwasselectedbasedontwofactorstherelativelylowcostofanenginecoreandtheabilitytoeasilyaccommodateacylinderoverbore.Oncethecorewastorndowntoabareblocktheblockwashot-tankedandjetwashedandinspectedforcracks.Luckilyalthoughtheoriginalcrankwasroachedtheblockcheckedoutfinewithnocracksandnoevidenceofeverhavingbeenre-machined.Theoriginalcylinderboresweresoniccheckedforwallthicknesstoestablishintegrity.Doingsorevealedaminimumof0.244whichwillsafelyallowustooverboretoafinishedhonesizeof4.0305.Wallthicknessmustbecheckedbeforeinvestinganytimeinmachining.ThisisduetopotentialvariationreportedinwallthicknessthatcommonlyresultsfromcoreshiftonLSblocks.PriortoblockmachiningIspentwaytoomanyhourssmoothingouttheblockexteriorinanefforttopreparetheblockforpaint.Usingdiegrindersde-burringbitsScotchBritepadsandabrasivewheelstheblockwasdressedbyremovingallfactorycastingflashingshighspotspitsunevensurfacesetc.ORIGINALLQ9SPECS6.0L364CIDBORE4.000STROKE3.622RODLENGTH6.098PISTONCD1.331BLOCKDECKHEIGHT9.240FINISHEDSPECS408CIDBORE4.0305STROKE4.000RODLENGTH6.125PISTONCD1.115BLOCKDECKHEIGHT9.230BLOCKMACHININGOurblockwasmachinedatGressmanPowersportsinFremontOhio.Gressmansisoneofmyfavoriteshops.TheblockwasboredanddeckedonScottGressmansRMCCNCmachinewhichnotonlygetsthejobdoneinahurrybutprovidesextremeprecisionandrepeatability.PriortomountingtheblockintheCNCmachinethemaincapsweredressedandinstalled.NOTEScottcarefullyfiledallmaincapedgesatborematingsurfacesandfrontrearsidesofthecenter3thrustbearingsurfacesbeforeinstallingthecaps.Thefactoryleavessharpburrsontheseedgesthatcaneasilycreatebearinginterference.Especiallyonthethrustbearinglocationsthesesharpedgescancausethethrustbearingtoexpandslightlydiminishingthrustclearance.UsingasetofARPmainstudsthecapswereinstalledandclampedusing50ft-lbontheinboardstudnuts60ft-lbonoutboardnutsand20ft-lbforthe8mmsidebolts.WiththeblockmountedtotheCNCmachinethedigitalprobeobtainedreferencepointsincludingmainandcamborelocationscylinderborelocationsanddecksurfaces.Ourdecksshouldhavehadaheightof9.240butthefactoryspecisrarelyaccomplishedinOEmassproduction.Ourdecksinitiallymeasuredfrom9.2324to9.2386duringamulti-locationprobecheckontheCNC.Therightbankdeckwasabitlowerthantheleftdecksobothwerecuttoafinishedheightof9.230inordertomakethembothsquareandofequaldistancefromthecrankshaftcenterline.Basedonour4.000stroke6.125rodsand1.115pistoncompressionheightthiswillresultinthepistonsstickingoutofthedecksby0.010compensatedforbyusing0.050headgaskets.Thecylinderboresalthoughspecdat4.000initiallymeasured3.9988to3.9997andwereatadoff-centerascomparedtoblueprintspecs.ScottprogrammedtheCNCcuttertoopentheboresuptoaroughdiameterof4.025andcorrectedborecenterlinesintheprocessahthebeautyofCNCmachining.FollowingtheboringprocessallcylindertopedgeswerethenchamferedonCNC.OncetheblockwasaccurizedthecylinderswerethenhonedonScottsRottlerHP5honingmachine.DeckplatesalongwithcrushedMLSheadgasketswereinstalledtothedecksusingtheARPheadstudkitsnuggingallnutsto80ft-lbs.Thecylinderswerehonedinthreestepshoned-to-size4.0305using275-325diamondstoneswithmotorloadofPROJECT408LSbuildtextandphotosbYMIKEMAVRIGIAN engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP21Our408LSfeaturesa4.0305boreand4.000strokealongwithtunnelramanddual600cfmcarbs. 25fourstrokeswith500stonesat20motorloadandfourstrokeswithplateaubrushesat20motorload.Themainhousingboreinitiallymeasuredafairlytight2.750soScottalign-honedthemainsto2.7512.Thiswouldtheoreticallyprovideabout0.002ofmainbearingclearancewhichwouldbecloselycheckedduringtestfitting.RELOCATINGTHECAMSENSORDependingontheversionofLSblockthecamshaftpositionsensormaybelocatedattherearorfrontoftheblock.Earlierversionsfeaturethecamsensoratthetoprearoftheblock.ThecamsensorentersaholeinthebossjustbehindthetopcoverwithitsO-ringsealinginaholethatcanbeseenfromtherearabovetherearenginecover.Theblockcastingisopenatthispointandthelowermountingholeforthesensorisclearlyvisible.LaterLSplatformsfeaturethecamsensorinthefrontenginecover.Typicallytherearcamsensorlocationisfeaturedonengineswherethecrankshaftreluctorwheelhas24teethwhileengineswith58-toothreluctorwheelsfeaturethecamsensormountedinthefrontcover.SinceIoptedtogowitha58-toothwheelonourCalliesCompstarcrankIdecidedtorelocatethecamsensorfromthereartothefront.Onarear-mountcamsensorthesensorpicksupitscampositionsignalfromasmallreluctorringontherearofthecamjustaheadofthecamsrearjournal.AllcamsmadeforLSapplicationswillfeaturethisreluctor.Whenthecamsensorislocatedatthefrontthesignalreferenceforcampositionisprovidedbyreluctorbossesonthecamshaftsprocket.SinceIdecidedtolocatethecamsensorupfrontIneededtoplugtheOEcamsensorholeintherear.Notethattheupperholeflushwiththegasketsurfaceofthetopcoverdoesnotneedtobepluggedsinceitsmerelyopentoairunderneathasviewablefromtherear.ThebottomholewheretheOEcamsensorsealsintheblockistheholethatmustbepluggedtoavoidanastyoilleak.LuckilythediameterofthelowerholewillneatlyaccommodateaNPTthread.ItappedthisholeattheoutsetsothatIwouldntforgetoncetheblockwascleanandpainted.DuringfinalassemblyIinstalledaNPTplugfeaturingafemalehexwiththreadsealerapplied.Leavingthetopholeopenpriortoinstallationofthetopvalleycoverprovidesaconvenientaccessforahexwrench.Thisholewastappedbeforeblockmachiningprimarilytoavoidforgettingthisstep.PAINTINGTHEBLOCKWithallblockmachiningcompletedoncewereturnedtheblocktomyshopwetediouslypreppedandpaintedtheblockexterior.ThisisataskthatIalwaysdreadsimplyduetothehoursandfinickyworkinvolved.OfcourseIcouldsimplygrabarattlecanofenginepaintandspraythedarnedthingbutIalwaysseemtogetcarriedaway.AsmentionedearlierpriortoblockmachiningIspentacoupleofdayssmoothingtheblockexteriorusingacombinationofdiegrinderswithde-burringbitstaperedandroundsandingbitsbarrelsandersmini-beltsandersanddie-grinder-drivenScotch-Britepadsinordertoremoveanyfactorycastingflashingsbumpsandirregularities.Oncetheblockmachiningwasperformedandcarefullywashedtheblockwasmeticulouslymaskedofffollowedbyanapplicationofheavy-buildepoxyprimertoaidinfillinganylowspots.Theprimerwasthenhandsandedstartingwith180-gritfollowedby240-gritandfinally400-gritpapernofingernailsleft.TheLSblocksfeatureTONSofnooksandcranniessothisisntafunjobbyanystretch.AlthoughnotperfectImanagedtoachieveapointatwhichIdecidedthatitwasgoodenoughsometimesyousimplyhavetoslapyourselfandfacereality.Theresultitdefinitelylooksbetterthanitdidatthestartatalevelthatthefactoryneverwouldhaveconsideredmessingwith.Oncetheblockoutersurfacesweresandedtheblockwasonceagainthoroughlywashedrinsedandagainmasked.ThecleaningprepwasfollowedbyanapplicationofDupontbasecoatatastyorangeredthatsimulatesanoldChevyorange-redtoppedoffwithaDuponturethaneclearcoat.Inadditiontotheblockwealsoappliedthesamefinishtothevalleycoverfrontcoverandrearcover.BythewayoneofthereasonsthatIprefernottousespray-canenginepaintisthecommonformulasavailabletodaythat22JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANLEFTOurprojectbeganwithagreasy-grimy-roached-outLQ9ironblockcore.BELOWOurcleanblockisreadiedformountingtotheCNCmachineatGressmanPowersports. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP23WithamainboreindexingbarmountedtotheblocktheblockispositionedontheCNCcradle.ScottGressmanopenstheCNCsoftwareforLSblockdimensions.TheCNCmachinesdigitalprobereferencescamandcrankcenterlines.Thedigitalprobebeginstoobtainreferencepointsforallborescomparingthisdatatoestablishedblueprintspecs.Ourroughborediameterwascutto4.025.Honingwasaccomplishedinthreestepstoafinalborediameterof4.0305using275-325diamondstonesfollowedbyplateaubrushing. 24JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANfeatureceramicresinscitingtheDuplicolorlineasanexample.Whileitspraysfineitssometimesreallytoughtodoanyfollow-upsortouch-ups.Whilethecaninstructionstellyoutoapplywithinanhourandifyouwaitlongeryoucanonlyre-applyaftera7-daycuringperioditsbeenmyexperiencethatthissimplyisntso.InthepastIvewaitedaslongasamonthafterthefirstcoat.ItseemsassoonasIattempttoapplyanothercoatoverallorspot-touchupsthesecondcoatsometimesimmediatelyliftedandwrinkled.Ijustdonttrustthestuffintermsofre-coating.Ifyouplantosimplyapplyonecoatandleaveitaloneitsfine.Buttherecoatingdemonsaresimplytoothreateningforme.OncetheblockwaspaintedbasecoatandclearcoatIremovedallmaskingandallplugsthatprotectedthreadedholes.AfterwaitingtwodaysIthenfinal-washedtheblockusingHOTsoapywaterhotwaterandDawndishwashingliquidusingmysetofGoodsonborebrushestocleanthecamboresoilgalleyslifterboresandcylinderbores.IfollowedthisbyrinsingwithhotwaterfollowedbyafinalrinsewithCOLDwaterthisreducesslowsdownsurfacerustingatbaresurfaces.UsingcompressedairIblewtheblockdrypayingspecialattentiontoallthreadedholesallboresandalloilgalleys.AftercarefullyapplyingathinoiltothedeckslifterborescamborescylindersandmainsaddlestopreventsurfaceoxidizingpriortofinalassemblyImovedtheblockintomycleanengineassemblyroom.Eventhoughtheroomisdust-freetheblockwascoveredwithalint-freecovercloth.Oilsoncylinderboresmainsaddlescamboresandlifterboreswerethencarefullyremovedwithalint-freeclothandfast-dryingsolventpriortocambearingandcrankinstallationetc.WhenpreppingforfinalassemblyitsvitaltoCLEANallboresurfacesusingafast-evaporatingsolventandCLEANLINT-FREEragsuntilnotraceofcontaminantsareleftwhenthecylinderboresarecleanyoushouldbeabletowipewithacleanwhiteragandseenotracesofanythingontherag.Atthispointimmediatelypriortoinstallingtherodsandpistonsyoucanapplyawipeofcleanengineoiltothecylinderwalls.BLOCKPLUGSUsingallnewGMplugsIinstalledthefourthreadedwaterjacketandoilplugsontheoutsideoftheblockthreesteel16mmplugsandonebrass30mmplug.Theseplugsfeaturestraightmetricthreads.NoNPTthreadsexistontheOEblock.ThenewGMthreadedplugsfeaturethreadsealantalreadyapplied.Ifre-usingoldthreadedplugsbesuretoapplyTeflonthreadsealant.DONOTinstalltheseplugswithoutthreadsealant.Thefrontoilgalleyholefacingthefrontoftheblockthisholeislocatedtotherightofthemainboredriver-sidewaspluggedwithanew16mm-diameterGMPN9427693expansionplugwithafilmofRTVappliedtotheplugperimeteranddrivenintotheblockflushwiththefrontblocktimingcovergasketsurface.TherearofthesameoilgalleyfoundatthelowerleftrearfaceoftheblockwasfittedwithanewGMbarbelloilcontrolplugPN12573460.ThisplasticplugfeaturesablueO-ringattherearendoftheplug.Lubethefrontandrearoftheplugwithcleanengineoilandinstallbyinsertingthenon-O-ringendfirstgentlyinsertingtheO-ringedenduntilthebuttoftheplugisflushwiththerearoftheblock.Ifyouleaveeitherthefrontorrearplugoutyoullhavezerooilpressure.NOTESinceIconvertedthisLQ9blocktoafront-mountLS2stylefrontcoverandcamshaftpositionsensortheoriginalrearcampositionsensorportneededtobeplugged.The1diameterportattheverytopoftheblockdoesnotneedtobeplugged.Rathertheentryportthatslocatedabout2.820deepfromthetopistheholethatrequiresaplug.Thisistheportwheretheoriginalrear-mountedcampositionsensorstipandO-ringwouldhaveentered.Thisisclearlyvisiblefromtherearoftheblockviaanopencavityintheblockscasting.DuringinitialblockprepItappedthisholewithaNPTtap.DuringfinalassemblyIpluggedthisholewithaNPTsteelplugwithTeflonthreadsealantappliedtotheplugthreads.IfyouswitchanLQ9blocktoaccommodateafrontcamsensorbesuretoplugtheoriginalrearcamsensorholeCAMBEARINGINSTALLATIONThecamshafthousingboresintheblockdifferindiameter.Locations1and5areWiththeblockthoroughlywashedandrinsedanyLSblockrequiresa16mmexpansionplugatthefrontofthemainoilgalleyfrontleftoftheblock.LSblocksalsoutilizeanoilrestrictorattherearofthemaingalley.Thisisreferredtoasabarbellplug.ThebareendenterstheblockwiththeO-ringendattherear. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP25thesamelocations2and4areidenticalandlocation3isyetanotherdiameter.ThecambearingsinourClevitekitarestampedwithpartnumberswhichmustcorrespondtospecificborelocations.Carefullyinspecteachbearingnotingitspartnumberandorganizethemonacleanworkbench.Icheatbylabelingeachwithablackmarkerforquick-no-mistakeselection12345with1indicatingthefrontoftheblock.BEARINGPARTHOUSINGBEARINGPOSITIONNUMBERBOREO.D.15SH-1995A2.34722.349224SH-21242.32762.32953SH-21252.30792.3098Usingyetanotherpro-level-it-doesnt-get-any-better-than-thistoolfromthefolksatGoodsonweusedtheirCamBearingToolpartnumberCBT-300toinstallourClevitecambearingstotheblock.ThisuniversalcambearingkitincludeseverythingyouneedtoremoveandorinstallcambearingsincludingalongmandrelbarashortbarforfinishingtheNo.1bearingadurablesyntheticcenteringconeandavarietyofadjustablebearingretainers.Alsoincludedisaveryniftyaluminumwall-hangerorganizingtraythatallowsyoutostoretheentirekitinoneneatandtidylocation.CAMSHAFTThecamshaftselectedforthisbuildisaCompCamshydraulicrollerPN54-462-11.Thiscamfeaturesanoperatingrangeof2600-7200rpm.Lobelift0.367Valveliftw1.7rockerratio0.624intexhDuration0.050Intake243degExhaust251degInstalledat111.0intakecenterlineLSA114degValvetiming0.006Intakeopen34BTDCclose78ABDCExhaustopen86BBDCclose34ATDCCAMSHAFTTHRUSTPLATEAfterinstallingcambearingsandverifyingcamjournalclearancetheComprollercamwaslubedwithCompsassemblylubeandinserted.TheOEcamshaftthrustplatefeaturesaformed-in-placeO-ringstylesealthatsprintedontherearoftheplate.ThissealiscriticalinmaintainingproperoilpressureanddeliverytotheliftersseeAERATB2610.Whilethisretainerplatewithitsbuilt-insealissaidtobere-usablethesealingmaterialmaytendtohardenandflatten-outovertimedegradingitsabilitytosealcompletely.AlwaysinstallaNEWretainerplatewheneverservicinganLSplatformengine.OurMahle-Victorgasketsetincludedanewretainerplate.CRANKBALANCEThecrankwasbalancedbyJodyHoltreyatMedinaMountainMotorsinCrestonOhioamerehalf-milefrommyshop.Firstallindividualcomponentswereweighedeachpistoneachpineachrodeachpairofrodbearingseachpackofringseachpairofpinlocks.Notsurprisinglynocorrectionswereneededonthepistonsorrods.BothJEsandCalliescomponentsserveasidealexamplesofthehighlevelofprecisionmanufacturingintodaysperformanceaftermarket.Eachpistonweighedinat390grams.Eachpinweighedinat106grams.Eachrodbigendwasat452gramsandeachrodsmallendwasat174grams.WiththequalitythatIvecometoexpectfromthesemanufacturerstheresreallynoneedtoweigheachpieceofasetbutitneverhurtstotakethetimetocheck.BOBWEIGHTINFOPiston390gPin106gRings41gLocks3gSmallend174gBigend452gBigend452gBearing44x288gTOTAL1706gTOTAL853g50OIL4gBOBWEIGHT870g51Thecrankinitiallyspunshowingatadlessthan40gheavyateachend.AfterweightrelievingbydrillingcounterweightedgesJodyachieved-0.7g-0.4gwellwithinapeachywindowbasicallyanythingwithin4or5gramsforthestreetisfine.CRANKSHAFTTheheartofour408LSisaforgedCompstarcrankfromCalliesPNAPO31N.Thiscrankfeaturesa4.000stroke2.5585mainsand2.100rodpins.Thecrankwasshippedalreadyfittedwitha58-toothreluctorwheelandrough-balanced.Thecranksnoutalsofeaturestwoin-linekeystherearkeyforthetiminggearandoilpumpdriveandafrontkeytoaccommodateakeywayeddamper.WhileLSOEdampersareinterferencefitonlywithnokeyaftermarketdamperssuchasourFluidamprareofferedwithkeyways.Sowiththiscrankyouhaveachoiceofusingeitherakeyorno-keydamper.Uponearlytest-fittingthecranktoouralignhonedblockcrankendplaywasmeasuredat0.0025OEspeccallsfor0.0015to0.0078.Mainbearingclearancewascheckedateachjournalwithclearanceof0.002crankmainjournalsmeasured2.5585andinstalledmainbearingI.D.measured2.5605.WhileourmeasuredcrankendplaywaswithinOEspecsIfeltthatamere0.0025wasabittightespeciallyforastreetperformanceapplication.IremovetheNo.3mainbearingsthethrustbearingsandshaved0.001fromthefrontandrearofeachbearing.Imeasuredbearingwidthatthethrustfacesasareferenceandrubbedthepairofupperlowerbearingsontheemeryclothperiodicallyre-measuringformateriallossuntilIhadremoved0.001fromeachthrustface.Afterre-installingthecrankandtorquingallcapstospecIverifiedendplayat0.0045.MAINCAPSTUDSInsteadofusingOEtypemaincapboltsIoptedforasetofARPmainstudsPN234-5608.ThefollowingtoolsarerequiredPrimarymainstudsdriverremover4mmhexwrenchPrimarymainstudnuts12-point58deepwellsocketSidebolts12-point10mmsocketARPmainstudkitPN234-5608Inboardprimarystuds10mmx2.01.25x121mm4.773Outboardprimarystuds10mmx2.01.25x113mm4.450Sidebolts8mmx1.25Thestudsare10mmwith2.0threadsatthetopengagingintotheblockand1.25threadsatthelowerendforthenuts.TheLSmainstudsfeaturetwodifferentlengths10studsmeasure4.450inlengthand10measure4.773inlength.Theshorterstudsareinstalledintheoutboardlocationsandthelongerstudsareinstalledtotheinboardlocationsclosesttothecrankcenterline.Thethreaddepthsintheblockresultintheshorterexposedoutboardstudstoprojectfurtherouttoaccommodatethewindagetrayand windagetraynuts.Thestudsareinstalledfinger-tighttotheblock.DONOTexcessivelytightenthestudstotheblock.WithcapsandlubedbearingsinplacetheexposedstudthreadsandnutthreadsandundersideofthenutsarecoatedwithARPassemblylube.Theinboardnutsarefinaltorquedto50ft-lbsandoutboardnutsarefinaltorquedto60ft-lbs.The8mmsideboltseachcapfeaturesaRHandLHsideboltaretorquedto20ft-lbs.Alwaystightentheprimary10mmstudnutsfirstfollowedbytighteningthesidebolts.ThemainfastenersaretorquedinaspecificsequenceCap3RHinboardCap3LHinboardCap4LHinboardCap4RHinboardCap2LHinboardCap2RHinboardCap5LHinboardCap5RHinboardCap1LHinboardCap1RHinboardCap3LHoutboardCap3RHoutboardCap4LHoutboardCap4RHoutboardCap2LHoutboardCap2RHoutboardCap5LHoutboardCap5RHoutboardCap1LHoutboardCap1RHoutboard8mmside-boltsCap3LHCap3RHCap4LHCap4RHCap2LHCap2RHCap5LHCap5RHCap1LHCap1RHTIMINGSETWhenyoureselectingatimingsetforanyLSplatformyouneedtobeawarethattherearedifferencesinthecamshaftgeardependingonthespecificversionoftheLSengine.GMusedfourdifferentcamshaftgearsduringtheevolutionoftheLSengine.Single-bolt4X.Thisfitsacamshaftthatfeaturesasinglecenterboltgeartocamwhichappearedinsome2007-2009LS2andLS3engines.Three-bolt4X.Fitscamshaftthatfeaturesthreeboltmatinggeartocam.Usedin2006LS2Corvetteand2006-2009LS7and2009-2010LS9.Three-bolt1X.Usedin2005LS2Corvette2005-2006LS2GTOSSRandTrailblazer.Three-boltwithnocamshaftpositionsensorreluctorteethonthecamgear1997-2004LS1LS6andotherGenIIIenginescamshaftreluctorisbuiltintotherearofthecamshaftandispickedupbyarear-block-mountedcampositionsensor.Theprimaryfeaturethatyouneedtobeawareofisthedesignofthecamshaftgearintermsofthecamshaftpositionsensorlocationandthenumberofteethonthecrankshaftreluctorwheel.Ifthecrankreluctorhas24teethandthecampositionsensorislocatedatthetoprearoftheblockyouneeda1Xcamgear.Ifthecrankreluctorwheelhas58teethandthecamsensorislocatedontheenginefrontcoveryouneeda4Xcamgear.CompCamsofferstheirtimingsetPN3158KTthatfeaturesa1Xcamgearthiswouldbecompatiblewitha24-toothcrankgearandwiththecampositionsensorattherearoftheblock.CloyesoffersPN9-3172Awitha4Xcamgearfor58-toothcrankgearandwiththecamsensoronthefrontcover.Eachsetfeaturesahex-adjustallowingeasycamtimingadjustmentviaaneccentricbushinginthecamgearandathree-waycrankgearforsettingcranktimingatzero4degreesadvanceor4degreesretardIsetmycrankgearatzero.Wheninstallingthecrankgearlightlylubethecranksnout.Positionthegearontothesnoutaligningthedesiredtimingkeywaytothecrankskey.MineslidontotheCalliescranksnoutaboutaninchshortofbottoming.Ithenusedanaluminumdriverthickwallaluminumdriverwithhollowentrytotapthegearintofinalposition.NEVERhitthegeardirectlywithahammerorothersolidobject.Useasoft-metalaluminumorbrassdriverandahammer.Priortoinstallingthecamgearpositionthebearingcageincludedwiththetimingsetontothenoseofthecamwiththeblacksideofthebearingfacingtheretainingplate.Withthecamgearmountedtothecambutwithouttighteningthecamgearboltsuseahexwrenchtoadjustcamtimingattheeccentricbushing.Ifthecamboltsarealreadytightwhenyoutrytochangecamtimingwiththehexadjusterthehexadjusterwillsplit.Oncecamgeartiminghasbeenadjustedthentightenthecamgearboltswiththreadlockeronthethreadsto26ft-lbfor3-boltdesign.IusedARPscamgearboltsPN134-10038mmx1.25x25mmwithadabofthreadlocker.Ifusingasingle-boltgear-to-camstylethecenterboltisaTTYtorquetoyieldbolt.IfusinganOETTYboltalwaysuseanewTTYbolt.Applythreadlockerandinitiallytightento55ft-lbfollowedbyanadditional50degrees.TIMINGCHAINDAMPERThefactory-originalLQ9blockdoesnotfeatureatimingchaindamperprovision.LS2blocksforexamplefeatureastationarycompositedamperlocatedbetweenthecamandcrankgearsmountedtotheblockwithtwo8mmbolts.AquickandeasywaytoincorporateanLS2-stylechaindampertoanLQ9blockistoobtainTrickFlowsLStimingchaindamperadapterbracketPNTFS-306756000.Installthecamretainerplatetothefrontoftheblockwithonlythetopcenterboltinstalledfinger-tightforthisIgrabbedoneoftheretainerplateboltsfrommyARPsetPN134-1002an8mmx1.25x20mmhex-headbolt.Iappliedadropofthreadlockertotheboltthreadsbeforeinstalling.MounttheTrickFlowadapterbrackettotheremainingthreeretainerplateboltlocationsusingthesupplied8mmx1.25x20mmbutton-headboltsalsowiththreadlockerapplied.Youllneeda10mmsocketwrenchfortheARPboltanda5mmhexbitforthebuttonheadbolts.Tightenallfourboltsto15-18ft-lbs.26JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANAviewofthetimingsetup.Whilethecrankgearoffersachoiceofzeroadvanceorretardweinitiallysetthisatzero.Thisphotoshowsthetimingdotsaligned6oclockonthecamgearand12oclockonthecrankgear. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP27 28JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalUsingaGMoraftermarketreplacementplasticdamperuseasockettopunchouttheoriginalpowdermetalbushingsfromthedamperstwoboltholes.Mounttheplasticdampertothebracketusingthesuppliedtwo8mmx1.25x10mmflangedbuttonheadboltswiththreadlockeralsotighteningtheseto15-18ft-lbs.Damperbushingholessometimesvaryindiametersoincaseyourdamperholesaretoolargeforthebuttonheadboltheadsthekitincludesapairofaluminumspacers.Youmustusethesuppliedbutton-headboltsinordertoprovideneededclearancesodonttryswappingtotaller-headbolts.Thatsitnodrillingoftheblockisneeded.Theentiremodificationtakesabout5minutes.OILPUMPIinstalledaMellingSelectperformancepumpPN10296.Thispumpcomesequippedwithahighpressurereliefspring.Ifalowerpressureisrequiredremovetheredspringandinstallthesuppliedbluespring.Torquethevalveplugto106in-lb.Beforemountingthepumpinstalltheoilpumpdrivethatssuppliedwiththetimingset.Thiswillslipontothecranksnouteasily.Ifitsstubbornstopandcheckforburrsonthekeyorkeyway.Applyabitofoiltotheinsideofthedriveandslipitfullyontothesnoutuntilitbottomsoutagainstthecrankgear.0Notethatonesideofthepumpdrivegearisslightlychamferedtoalloweasierentryontothesnout.Oncefullyseatedthiswillleave1.250ofexposedcranksnoutforthecrankdamper.Pourcleanengineoilintotheoilpumpsinletportandhand-rotatethedrivengeartomoveoilthroughthepump.Youllneedtopre-lubetheenginebeforeinitialfiringanywaybutitsagoodideatolubethepumpnowwhileyouhavetheopportunity.Afterapplyingabitoflubetotheoutertoothareaofthecrank-snout-mountedoilpumpdrivegearcarefullysliptheoilpumpintoplaceengagingthedriveanddrivengears.Beforefinal-tighteningofthepumpmountingboltswigglethepumpbodyaroundtocenterthepumpsmainborewiththecrankcenterline.Specialaftermarketalignmentshimsareavailablebutyoucanaccomplishthetaskbycarefullymeasuringradialdistanceusingacaliper.Theresatinybitofplayinthepumpbodymountingholestoaidinachievingpropercenteringofthepump.Inotherwordsdontsimplyboltthepumpontotheblock.Payattentionandtrytoachieveasperfectacenteringpositionaspossible.Thepumpissecuredwithfour8mmx1.25x30mmbolts.Torquetheseto18ft-lb.OncethepumphasbeeninstalledlubeanewoilpumppickuptubeO-ringandinstalltheO-ringtothepickuptube.InsertthepickuptubeintothepumpexitbeingcarefulnottodamagetheO-ring.NOTETheoilpumpwillincludetwodifferentthicknessesofO-ringsdependingonthestyleofyourpickuptube.ThegreenthickerO-ringistobeusedonapickuptubethatfeaturesaslightoversizeshoulderatthetip.IftheendofthetubeisstraightsameO.D.fromtiptostopperusethethinnerblackO-ring.WhenyouinstallthepickupengageboththeentrytipatthepumpandthesupportbracketontotheNo.4outboardmaincapstudatthesametime.Withbothendsproperlypositionedfinger-tightenthe6mmx1.0boltthatsecuresthepickuptubetotheoilpumpandthelockingnutthatsecuresthetubebrackettothemaincapstud.Thenfullytightenthe6mmtube-to-pumpboltto106in-lbsandthentightenthesupportbracketnutto18ft-lbs.REARCRANKSEALMakesurethattherearenginecoverssealboreiscleanandfreeofcontaminantsandorexcesspaintbuildup.Installtherearsealwiththecorrectsidefacingoutwardsthissideofthesealfeaturessmalldotsandshortindentedlines.Thenewsealwillfeatureawhitenyloninstallationaid.Leavethisinplaceintheseal.AttachtheMahle-Victorrearcovergaskettotherearcoverthreadingtheboltsinjustfarenoughtopushthroughthegasketbodysrubberboltholeseals.Thiswillkeepthegasketalignedwiththecover.Theboltsrequiredare8mmx1.25x20mm.ForthisbuildIusedARPpolished12-pointstainlessboltstheirkitPN434-1504.AsyouinstalltherearcoverontothecrankthisnyloninsertsI.D.willcentertothecrankscenter.Asyougentlypushtherearcoverforwardthenyloninsertwillpopoutasthesealengagesontotherearcrankhub.Thisnyloninsertpreventstherearsealsfrontlipfromfoldingrearwards.Donotoilthesealorthecrankssealsurfaceinstallthissealdry.Oncetherearcoverisinplaceusealighttoinspectthefrontoftheseal.Ifthefrontlipofthesealispushedrearwardremovethecoverreinstallthenylonguideinsertandtryagain.Oncethecoverhasbeenpushedforwardforproperrearsealengagementsnugalltwelveboltsfingertightthentorqueinacrisscrosspatternto18ft-lb.PROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANWheninstallinganLSoilpumpyoucantrytooptimizepumpcentering.Thereisjustenoughwiggleroomattheboltlocationstoallowyoutocenterthedrivengearatediousprocessusingfeelergaugesbeforefinaltighteningthemountingbolts. CALL1-800-527-7604www.regismanufacturing.comREGISMFG.1500CorinthStDallasTX75215800-527-7604214-421-5171Fax800-535-8414214-565-1704RequestacopyofournewlyupdatedcatalogfilledwithhundredsofenginebuildingtoolsandsuppliesNEWREGISCATALOGNOWAVAILABLEengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP29 30JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalCONNECTINGRODSOurrodsareCalliesCompstarH-beamforgedsteelPNCSC6125DS2A2AHfeaturingacenter-to-centerlengthof6.125.ThepinendwidthisreducedtoaccommodateforgedsidereliefFSRpistonssomeFSRpistonshavethepintowersmovedinwardrequiringthepinendoftherodtobenarrowed.TheCompstarrodsweredesignedwithstrokerclearanceinmind.Optimizedprofilingandboltplacementincreasescamshaftandoilpanrailclearance.Duringtestfittingnoclearancingwasrequired.OtherinterestingfeaturesoftheserodsincludestrengtheninggussetsaddedtothecapsurroundingtherelocatedboltspotfacestheuseofARP2000rodboltswithnoexposedthreadswheretheytransitionintotheshankoftheboltsreducingthepossibilityofstressrisers.Partingedgeshavealsobeenchamferedpreventingscrapingmaterialfromthebacksideofthebearingsinsertsduringinstallation.Beamedgeshavebeenpolishedanothermovetoreducethechanceforstressrisers.Duringmanufacturingtherodsareinitiallytorquedandrough-honed.Theboltsarethenremovedandtherodsandcapsseparatedreleasinganyresidualstress.Therodsandcapsarethenreassembledandre-torquedforfinalhoning.Thisisanicedetailingaspectassuringthattherodwillstillberound.FinishhoningisdoneonaSunnenKrossgrinderwithtoleranceheldtolessthan0.0002maximumout-of-roundtaperhourglassorbarrelshape.ThebearinghousingsurfacefinishfeaturesanRAof9-12.The716ARP2000rodboltsfeatureashanklengthof1.450andarespecifiedbyCalliesfor75ft-lbsorameasuredstretchof0.0040.005.DuringfinalinstallationafterapplyingARPassemblylubetothethreadsandundersideoftheboltheadsIfirstindexedmystretchgaugetoeachboltsfreelengththentorquedto70ft-lbsandcheckedwithmystretchgaugecontinuingtotightenuntileachboltachieveda0.0040.005stretch.DuringtheinitialrodbearingclearancecheckusingCleviteCB-663HNKonthe2.100rodpinsclearancewasmeasuredat0.0019whichwaswaytootight.Whilekeepingthestandard-sizeCB-663HNKupperbearingsIinstalled1XlowerbearingsCB-663HXKwhichprovidedabearingclearanceof0.0024.Connectingrodsideplaywasmeasuredduringtestfittingwitheachpairofrodbigendsfeaturing0.014ofsideplay.ItwasobviousthatCalliesheldveryprecisetolerancesonboththeCompstarcrankandrodset.PISTONSOurpistonsofchoiceforthisbuildareJEsnewly-releasedforgedasymmetricpistons.Thesefeatureawiderskirtatthethrustsideoutboardontherightbankandinboardontheleftbankwithanarrowerskirtattheoppositesidethepincenterlineismovedabout0.020towardthethrustsidetocompensateforcenterbalance.OurpistonPNis311979.Theseareflat-toppistonswithvalvepocketsthatwillaccommodate12-15degreevalveangles.Pistoncompressiondistancepincenterlinetopistondeckis1.115.SkirtdiameteratJEsspecificmeasuringpointmeasuredfrom0.275fromskirtbottomis4.025.Witha4.030borediameterthisprovidesJEsrecommended0.005piston-to-wallclearance.Thepistonsfeaturesfull-floatingpins0.927pinswithapinlengthof2.250.PinsaresecuredwithJEs0.073singlewirelocks.Eachpistonweighsinatamere390grams.RINGGROOVELANDRADIALWIDTHWIDTHDEPTHTOP0.0480.2350.1622ND0.0600.155.0.177OIL0.1490.0850.172PISTONRINGSJEprovidesarecommendationforendgapoftheirringsbasedonborediameterandintendedapplication.Forourhigh-performancestreetapplicationwitha4.030boreIsettopringgapat0.018.Second-ringendgapwassetat0.020.Eachringwasfittoitsdedicatedcylinderlocation.Thisallowsforanydiametervariancefromonecylindertoanotherwhichwouldaffectendgap.Oncearinghasbeenfittedtoaspecificcylinderalwayskeepthatringorganizedforitsrespectivecylinder.NOTEIfyoucheckfitallringsusingonlyonecylinderlocationadifferenceofsay0.001fromonecylindertoanothercouldresultinasmuchasabout0.003differenceinringgap.Uponinitialtestfittingourtopringshadanendgapof0.002andour2ndringshadzerogap.UsingmySummitbench-mountedrotarydiamond-wheelringPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANOurJEpistonsfeatureafairlyshortcompressiondistanceof1.115.Sincethepinboreishighenoughtointersecttheoilringgrooveasupportrailisinstalledatthegroovebase.Notethemaledimple.Thesupportrailmustbeinstalledtoplacethisdimplecenteredoverthepinbore.Thispreventsthesupportrailfromrotatingeliminatingthepossibilityofitsgapfromenteringtheopenarea. 2013ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.ElginRanksAmongFastestGrowingSuppliersFEEDYOURENGINESWITHELGINSWORLD-CLASSCAMSHAFTANDVALVETECHNOLOGIESAskaboutourBLACKICESuper-CryogenicTemperingTechnologyElginCamshaftsMusclecarcamswithoriginalgrindsFullHemiLS1coverageRollercamsforFordGMenginesElginValvesStockStandard.015oversizePerformance-Forged21-4Nmaterialwithhardwafertip-Straightundercutdesigns-Standard.100lengths-ChromestemsFEEOURENGINYESWHELGISWOLD-SSengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP31 32JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalfilerIfile-fitourtopringstoachieveagapof0.018and2ndringsto0.020.AfterfilingtoachieveproperendgapIcarefullydeburredthefilededgesusingafineignitionfile.Theoilringrailswerecheckedat0.023minimumallowablegapis0.015.Sincethe1.115compressionheightofthepistonsbringsthepinboreintotheoilringgrooveyoumustfirstinstallasupportrailatthebottomoftheoilringgroove.Thisspansthegapwherethepinboreintersectstheringgrooverestoringoilringsupportinthesetwoopposingspots.Wheninstallingthesupportrailtherailsmaledimplemustfacedownwardcenteredoveroneofthepinbores.Thispreventsthesupportrailfrombeingabletorotatetoofarpreventinganychanceofthesupportrailsendgapfromenteringtheopenspanoverthepinbore.PICKUPWINDAGETRAYANDOILPANTheOEwindagetraydropsovertheexposedoutboardmainstudtipsnotethatthetrayisstampedforREARorientationthisistoalignthetraycutoutontherightsideforthedipstick.Withincreasedstrokeinourcasea4.00stroketheconnectingrodshittheOEwindagetray.IfyouplantokeeptheOEtrayyoullneedtospacethetrayawayfromthemaincapsbyabout0.230byusingsmall-diameterhardenedsteelwashersstackingtwo10mmwashersthathaveathicknessofabout0.115ontoeachoutboardmaincapstudtipwillwork.Usingthezinc-platedserrated-surfacelockingnutssuppliedwiththeARPmainstudkittightenallwindagetraynutsto18ft-lbs.TheHolleyaluminumoilpanfeaturesasumpcoverbaffleplatethatcoversmostofthesumpareasointhiscaseyoucouldeliminatetheOEtrayandjuststickwiththeHolleyplate.IfyoudecidetousetheHolleypanbutstillwanttousetheOEwindagetrayspaceitasImentionedearlierbutmakesurethatthewashersaresmallenoughinoutsidediametertocleartherearoftheHolleyoilpanifthewashersaretoolargeinO.D.thiswillpreventthepanboltholesfromaligningwiththeblockspanrailholes.Usingwasherswitha19mmO.D.willclearjustfine.Aftermarketwindagetraysareavailabletoclearstrokersbuttheyreinthe70-90pricerange.Byusingafewdollarsinspacerwashersyoucaneasilycreatetheneededrodclearance.TakeacloselookathowtheHolleypickuptubesupportbracketseatsattheNo.4RHwindagetraystudlocation.Ifitdoesntsitflatthecurvedcornersinboardoftheboltholemaybepreventingthebracketfromseatingflush.Usingadiegrinderremovethetworadiusedcornersuntilthebracketispermittedtoseatflat.TheHolleyoilpumppickupengagestotheoilpumpwithasuppliedO-ring.ApplycleanengineoiltotheO-ringandtightenthesingle6mmmountingbolttubetopumpto106in-lb.SecurethepickupsupportbracketthisattachestotheLHNo.4mainstudto18ft-lb.TheHolleybaffletrayinstallstothepanusingsuppliedx20x.50socketheadcapscrewsapplythreadlockertightenedto8-10ft-lbs.ThecastaluminumHolleypanissecuredwithasetofARPstainlessLSoilpanbolts.ThepanissealedwithapangasketfromourMahle-Victorgasketset.Atthefrontofthepanrailswherethefrontcovermeetstheblockadda20mm-longstripofRTV.Thepan-to-blockboltsaretorquedto18ft-lbs.Thepan-to-front-coverboltsaretorquedto18ft-lbsandthepan-to-rear-cover6mmx1.0x30mm-longboltsaretorquedto106in-lbs.Duringtestfittingoftheoilpanpayattentiontopanalignment.Therearofthepanshouldbeflushwiththerearoftheblockinordertoaccommodatethetransmissionbellhousing.TheHolleyLSoilpansumpfeaturesacapacityof5.5quartstotalcapacitywithastocksizefilteris6quarts.Whilethefactorynaturalfinishofthepaniscertainlyattractiveupontest-fittingIdecidedtocarrytheblockcolorfurtherandpaintedthepan.Thecasttexturewassandedwith80-gritfollowedbyacoatofheavy-buildepoxyprimer.Theprimerwassandedwith320-gritfollowedbyathinsealerprimerbasecoatcolorandclearcoatPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANThepickupincludedwiththeHolleyLSoilpanfeaturesastoutbracethatrequiresaslightreliefattheOEwindagetrayslot.Testfitthetrayandpickupmarkthetrayslotgrindonabenchandreinstall.Verifythatthepickupbracewillseatflatandflushtothemainstuduppernut.AlsoduringtestfittingoftheOEwindagetraycheckforstrokerclearance.Thismayrequireaminorbitofreliefgrindingofthetrayatafewspotswhererodboltsmayinterfere.Itsnobigdealbutbesuretocheck. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP33TOLLFREE800.648.7970CheckoutthefullselectionofSilv-O-LiteandKBHighPerformancePistonsatwww.uempistons.comCallusoremailusatsalesuempistons.comforapersonalresponseabouthowUEMpistonscanmakeyourbuildssuccessful.ReinforcedtoplandsCoatedskirtsFloatingwristpinswhereapplicableApplicationspecificaluminumalloysDiamondfinishedskirtsPinholeaccurateto-.0001Morethan485OEreplacementpistons.AsNorthAmericaslargestpistonmanufacturerUEMhasyourpiston.OurprocessesandequipmentfeaturethelatesttechnologyforbothOEreplacementandhigh-performancepistonsforeverytypeofengineyouarebuilding.Wehavebeenmanufacturingaftermarketpistonsforautomotivelighttruckpopularimportandheavydutyapplicationssince1922.390HypereutecticalloyFullymachinedcrownsandvalvereliefsDrilledoildrainbacksFullfloatingwristpinsTriplewoundspirallocksOver190differentoversizepartnumbersReflectivealloyallows2powerincreaseApplicationsavailablewith564thand116thringpacks.VastassortmentofcompressionratiosavailableindishflattopanddomestylesQuenchdometechnologyminimizesdeteriorationZerodeckquenchdesignsLightweightwristpinsavailableinmostapplicationsAllpartnumbersavailableinkitswithringsKBHighPerformancePistonsSilv-O-LiteOEReplacementPistonsBOTHICONSERIESFEATUREOver100applicationsontheshelfOver360differentpartnumberoversizesAvailableinkitswithringsICONFHRForgedHeadReliefPISTONSPremium4032alloySecondlandaccumulatorgroovesToplandminigroovetechnologyDiamondfinishedskirtsTriplewoundspirallocksSpacerringsincludedinshortcompressionheightsthatintersectthewristpinboreICONPREMIUMFORGEDPISTONSPremiumHighductility2618alloyNitrousTurbo-ChargedandSuper-ChargedAppsDualforcedpinoilingonmostapplicationsLateralgasportingonhighercompressionratiosFullymachinedwithdeepvalvepocketsSecondlandaccumulatorgroovesToplandminigroovetechnologyDiamondfinishedskirtsTriplewoundspirallocksSpacerringsincludedinshortcompressionheightsthatintersectthewristpinbore 34JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANusingthesamematerialswithwhichtheblockvalleycoverfrontandrearcoversweretreated.althoughIlaterdecidedtouseCompsnewfrontcoverinsteadofthenewOELS2stylefrontcover.IdecidednottopainttheCompcoversinceIthoughtitlookedbetterinitsout-of-the-boxbarefinish.Ontherightsideoftheblockthedipstickassemblywasinstalled.ForthesakeofappearanceIchoseaLokarLSdipstickassemblythatfeaturesaflexiblestainless-steel-braidedtubebodyandabilletaluminumdipstickknob.ThedipsticktubeassemblywastoolongtoattachitsupperbrackettooneoftheheaderstudssoinsteadofdisassemblingthedipsticktubeshorteningthestainlessbraidedtubeandreassemblingIsecuredtheLokarbrackettoanavailable10mmx1.5threadholeintheheadabovetheexhaustheaderfastenerarea.IneededtoenlargetheLokarbracketsboltholeto10mmandinstalledthebrackettothecylinderheadusingan8mmx1.25x20mmARPstainlessboltanda-longstainlessspacertokickthedipstickoutabittoclearthevalvecover.ThelowerportionofthedipsticktubeassemblyfeaturesanaluminumtipfittedwithanO-ring.AfterlightlyoilingtheO-ringthetubeextensionslidneatlyintotheblocksdipsticktubeport.Howeverduringtestfittingthedipsticktendedtohang-uponcefullyinserted.UponcloseexaminationIdiscoveredanastyburrontheswedged-ontipattheendofthestickscableandaburrontheloweropeningofthedipsticktube.Afterdressingtheseareasinsertionandremovalpresentednoproblem.TheHolleyoilpanfeaturesa5.5quartsump6quartstotalwithfilter.OnceIadded5.5quartstothesumpIcheckedthelevelwitnessmarkonthedipsticktipandmarkeditforreferenceaccordingtotheoillevelusinganelectricetchingpen.OILCOOLERADAPTERWhileanengineoilcoolerisanoptiondependingonthevehicleapplicationIinstalledaniftyLingenfelterbilletaluminumadapterblockPNL300025297totheHolleyoilpantheadapterbossonthepansleftsidejustabovetheoilfilterbase.Thisadapterissecuredtothepanwithapairofstainlesssteel6mmx1.0x35mmSHCSsocketheadcapscrews.Theinletoutletfittingsaremale10AN37-degreefittingsreadytoaccept10hoseends.TheadapterkitincludestheadapterblockapairofmountingscrewsandanOE-typedouble-O-ringseal.Inadditiontothe10ANmalefittingsforoilinandoilouttheadapterfeaturesabottom-position18NPTfemaleportforturbochargerorsuperchargeroilfeedapplicationsifyoudontneedtousethisfeedporta18NPTplugisincluded.Anotherfeatureisaside-positionoiltemperaturesensorport12mmx1.5femalethreads.Ifyouchoosenottousethisportforasensorastainlesssteel12mmx1.5hex-headplugandcoppercrushwasherisincludedinthekit.Wheninstallingtheadapterapplyamediumthreadlockingcompoundtothe6mmmountingboltthreadsandtorquetheseboltsto106in-lb12Nm.Wheninstallinganoiltemperaturesensororthe12mmcrush-washer-equippedthreadplugapplyamediumthreadlockingcompoundtothesethreadsaswell.Theoiltemperaturesensorportcanbeusedtoaddanoiltemperaturesensortoasystemthatdidntfeatureanoiltemperatureprovision.Thetemperatureatthisportwillbetheengine-outoiltemperaturebeforeittravelstothecooler.NOTEIfyourenotrunninganexternalengineoilcoolerdontinstallthistypeofadapterThisadapterisdesignedtobeusedwithacooleranddoesnotfeatureinternalbypass.The10fittingsMUSTbeconnectedtoandfromanoilcoolerorloopedtogether.Ifyousimplycap-offthe10fittingsyouwonthaveanyoilpressure.AsfarasfitmenttoLS-equippedproductionvehiclesisconcernedthisadapterisdesignedtofit1997-2004C5ABOVEWhiletheHolleybarecastpanwascertainlyattractiveenoughIdecidedtocarrytheredcolorschemefurther.Irough-sandedthepanwith80-gritappliedaheavy-buildepoxyprimersandedtheprimerwith220then400gritandappliedthebasecoatclearcoat.RIGHTLSoilpansfeaturetheenginesoilfiltermountaswellasapressure-outinprovisionforaremoteoilcooler.WhiletheHoleypanincludesablock-offadapterforthesideportsoftheoilpanIinstalledthisLingenfelteroilcooleradapter.Thisbilletpiecefeatures10ANmalefittingsandthreadedportforahandyoilpressuregaugeconnection. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP35PROUDTOSERVETHEENGINEREBUILDINGINDUSTRYSINCE1946WatchourTECH-TIPvideosonOILPUMPSOILPUMPSCREENSTIMINGSETSCAMSHAFTSVALVETRAINFREEZEPLUGSSLEEVESfacebook.commellingenginepartsSTOCKINYOURSHOPMELLING-2620SARADANDRIVEJACKSONMICHIGAN49202-517.787.8172-FAX517-787-5304-WWW.MELLING.COMtwitter.commellingpartsyoutube.commellingenginepartsNEEINEEUDIENIUYRIND1YOURSHOPSTOCKIRSCREENPSCREENFFRREZEZEfacebook.commellingengineparWatchourTECH-TIPvideosontsfacebook.commellingengineparWatchourTECH-TIPvideosonfacebook.commellingenginepar20SARADANG-26LLINMEcommeltwtttsfacebook.commellingengineparMICHIGANSONDRIVEJACK20SARADANts.commellingparyoutube.commellingenginepar17.787.8172-F202-549MICHIGANyoutube.commellingenginepar-WWW17-787-5304X52-Ftsyoutube.commellingengineparG.COMLLIN.ME-WWW 36JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANCorvette2005-2009C6Corvette2004-2006CadillacCTS-V1998-2002LS1CamaroandFirebirdand1999-20074.85.36.06.2LGMCKtrucks.Thisadapterwontfit2004-2006PontiacGTO.OfcourseifyoureadaptinganLSenginetoastreetrodmusclecarorotherswapnaturallycheckforclearanceaswithanyswapormod.FRONTCOVERGMcallsthisthefrontcoverbutyoucancallitatimingcoverifyouwish.Verifythatthegasketsurfaceontheblockiscleananddry.Assemblethemetal-corecovergasketfromourMahle-Victorgasketsettothefrontcoverbyinsertingthecoverboltsthroughboththecoverandgasketthiswillholdthegasketinplace.Placethecoverinpositionontheblockfaceandbegintofinger-threadallofthe8mmbolts.Onceallboltshavebeenstartedpushthecoverflushtotheblock.Begintotightenallboltsinacrisscrossmannertospreadtheloadequallyacrossthecoveruntiltheallbottom-outfingertightonly.Rotatetheblockupside-down.Placeastraightedgealongboththeoilpanrailsandthebottomofthefrontcover.Adjustthecoverpositionsothatthebottomsurfaceisflushwiththepanrailthensnugacoupleofboltstomaintainthatflushposition.Torqueallboltsagainusingacrisscrosspatterntoafinalvalueof18ft-lbs.Ihadachoiceoffrontcoversforthisbuildthatwouldacceptthefront-mountedcamshaftpositionsensoranewOELS2stylecoveroranewCompCamscoverPN5496.TheCompcoveriswaywaycoolofferingseveralbenefitsascomparedtotheOEcover.Itsdeeperwhichallowstheuseofadoublerollertimingchainsetupifyouchoosetouseadouble-roller.Italsofeaturesaholeontheleftsidethatcaneitherbepluggedwithasuppliedaluminumplugorfittedwithacamsensor.Anadapterthatfeaturesaneccentrically-locatedcenterholecanberotatedtoaccommodateeitherastandardblockoranaftermarketblockthatfeaturesaraisedcamlocation.Forusewithastockblockrotatetheadapterwiththeoffsetholeat6-oclockforastandardblockorat12-oclockforaraisedcamblock.Prettycool.Thecoveralsofeaturesabossontheleftsidethatallowsinstallationofabig-blockChevytimingpointeranaluminumspacerblockissuppliedformountingapointer.NOTETheCompfrontcoverincludesasetofblackoxide8mmSHCSsocketheadcapscrewsthatfitnicelyintothecounterboredboltholesofthecover.Ifyouwishtousedifferentfastenerssuchas12-point-headboltsandwashersfirstcheckthefitofthewashersinthecoverscounterboredholes.ThewashersshouldfeatureanO.D.ofnomorethanabout0.585.Ifthewasheristoolargeinouterdiameteryoustandachanceofdamagingcrackingthecastcoverduringbolttighteningat18lb-ft.Youhaveanevenbetterchanceofachievingimproperclampingforceleadingtoboltloosening.Justpayattentiontodiameterifyoudecidetoinstallflatwashers.CAUTIONWhentest-fittingtheMezierewaterpumptotheblockwiththeCompfrontcoverinplaceIdiscoveredthattheleftrearofthepumpbodydriversideinterfereswiththeraisedcamsensorbossontheCompcover.Thepumpbodycontactstheouteredgeofthebossataboutthebosss11-oclockpositionpreventingthepumpfromfullymatingagainsttheblock.Toremedytheproblemeithergrindthecoverssensorbossouteredgeagainataboutthe11-oclockpositionorgrindaslightreliefnotchontherearofthepumpbodyatthepointofcontact.Abouta18reliefisallthatsneeded.BeawareofthisifusingtheCompcoveroryoullhaveanimmediatewaterleakbetweenthepumpandblock.CRANKDAMPERForthisbuildIchoseadamperwithintegratedpulleygroovesfromFluidamprPN740111.ThismodelfeaturesanOEpulleydiameterof7.5replacementsizeandbeltgroovedesignfortheLS1CamaroFirebirdwhilethedamperInitiallyIwasgoingtouseanewLS2OEfrontcoverpaintedred.ButwhenthefolksatCompCamstoldmeabouttheirnewfrontcoverIjustcouldntresist.Thiscoverisdesignedwithperformancemodsinmind.FeaturesincludeadeeperwelltocleardoublerollerchainsanLS2-stylefront-mountcampositionsensorportandanadapterthatallowsmountingabigblockChevytimingpointer. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP37featuresadiameterof6.250.GrantedforourpurposesofprovidingasamplebuildandsubsequentdynorunthespecificvehicleapplicationissomewhatirrelevantsoIsimplychoseapopularapplication.IveusedFluidamprcrankdampersinseveralpreviousbuildsandhavealwaysbeenimpressedwiththeirqualityandperformancebythewaythisisa100made-in-the-USAproductwhichisoneofthereasonsIlikeit.SincetheCalliescranksnoutfeaturestwoin-linekeysrearkeyforthecranktiminggearandfrontkeyforadamperIorderedthedamperwithakeyway.RemembertheOEChevyGMdampersareapress-fitonlywithnoregisteringkey.ThekeyobviouslypreventsthepossibilityofdamperrotationrelativetothecrankallowingyoutoinstallatimingpointerforNo.1cylinderreference.Thedamperprovidedaninterferencefitof0.0015ourcranksnoutmeasured1.4820indiameterandourdamperboremeasured1.4805.InstallinganLSdamperrequiresaninstallationtoolthatfeaturesamalethreadof16mmx2.0inordertoengagethecranksnoutthreads.Whileacommonlyavailabledamperinstallationkitmayincludea16mmx2.0nosepiecetheissuewithLScranksisthedepthofthesnoutsboltholetheaveragekitsnosepiecewontbelongenoughtoengagethethreads.WhilespecialtythreadedinsertsareavailabletoaccommodatethisdepthIcheatedandmademyowninstallationtoolusinga10-longgrade816mmx2.0pieceofall-threadasteelmandrelthatImachinedonmylathefeaturinga16.5mmpass-throughholea2-diameterflatwasherandacagedbearingthatIstolefrommyMorosodamperinstallerkit.Withaflatmachinedatthereartipoftheall-threadinsertthethreadedrodintothecranksnoutobtainingfullthreadengagement.Whileholdingtheflatendwithanopen-endwrenchtightena16mmhexnutagainstthebearing-equippedmandreldrawingthedamperfullyintobottom-outposition.InordertoremoveanaftermarketdamperfromanLScrankyoullneedawayforyourpullertooltodead-stopagainstthecranksnout.YoucanbuyalongthreadedLSadapter58x18maleatoneendtothreadintoyourtraditionalpullertooland16mmx2.0attheoppositeendtothreadintothecranksnout.LScrankthreadsarelocatedprettydeepinsidethesnoutsotheadapterneedstobelongenoughtoengage.FYISummitRacingsellstheseadaptersforabout25.Insteadofbuyingthethreadedadapteryoucancheatbymakingyourowndead-stop.Igrabbedahex-headedboltwithashankofanywherefromto1.5longandchuckedtheboltintomylatheanddrilleda-diametercounterboreintothehexhead.Usingthe12mm-tipadapterfrommydamperinstallertoolsetIthreadedthisadapterintomytoolmandrelshaft.Iplacedthecounterboredboltintothecranksnoutholewithaheavyflatwasherandallowedthe12mmadaptertiptolocateintothecounterborepocket.Thisprovidedadead-stopfortheremovertooltopushagainst.ForfutureLSdamperserviceIkeepthemodifiedboltinmydampertoolkit.Bythewayincaseforsomereasonyoudecidetoremovethepulleyfromthedamperuponreassemblythethree12-pointmountingboltsshouldbetorquedto37lb-ftwiththreadlockerapplied.TIMINGPOINTERTheCompCamsfrontcoverincludesaprovisionformountingabigblockChevytimingpointer.IobtainedaTCIadjustabletimingpointerPN871005.Thetimingpointeradapterincludedwiththecovermountstothefrontcoverwithapairofincludedx20x12SHCSwhichIinstalledwithadropofthreadlockeroneachscrew.Itightenedbothto106in-lb.ThetimingpointermountstotheCompadapterwithapairofincludedstainlessx20x1SHCS.Thesewerealsosnuggedto106in-lb.HoweversinceIoptedtouse12-pointSSboltsforthecover-to-blockinsteadofusingthesuppliedblackoxideSHCSthelowertimingpointerboltbottomedoutagainsta12-pointboltheadlocatedbehindthelowerendofthepointeradapter.Isimplyinstalledax20x1SHCSforthelowertimingpointerboltlocationtoobtainclearance.NOTECompsizedthethreadedholeforthecamsensorat6mmx1.0andthebottomoilpan-to-coverholesto8mmx1.25butallremainingboltholesintheircoveraretappedwithfractionalthreads.NowthefunpartWhilethefrontcoverwillacceptthestockOEcamsensoritwontaccommodatetheOEcamsensorbracket.ThereisnoprovisionontheCompcovertosecurethebottomofthebrackettheOEfrontcoverfeaturesa6mmx1.0threadedholeforthebracketbottom.GrantedtheCompcoverdoesfeatureablankbossthatalignswiththecamsensorbracketsbottomlocatingdimplewhichisjustabovethebracketslowerbolthole.Itispossibletodrilloutthedimpletoaccepta6mmboltandtodrillandtapthecoverbossfor6mmx1.0or14x20.HoweveruseoftheOEcamsensorbracketinterfereswiththetimingpointerrequiringspacingthepointeroutfromtheadapterbyabout.RatherthanmesswiththisIavoidedbothissuesbysimplyremovinganddiscardingthebracketfromthecamsensor.Iinstalledthesensortothecoverwitha6mmx1.0x15mmSHCSandflatwasher.InordertosecureandprotectthedanglingsensorwireharnessandconnectorIshieldedthesensorwireswithalengthof0.188I.D.braidedloom.Ifabricatedanaluminumbrackettoallowmountingasmalladelclamptolocatethewires.Theadelclampmountstothebracketwithasingle8x32x12stainlessSHCSandstainlessnylocnut.ThebracketmountstotheCompcoverusingthetwo38x16threadholesontheleftsideofthecoversecuredwithtwo38x16xstainlessSHCS.Thislocatesthecamsensorwiresandconnectorpreventingtheconnectorfromfloppingaround.ToprovideatimingreferenceIinstalledatrimmed-downadhesivetimingtapeforthe7.25-diameterFluidamprpulleytothepulleys0.250-widecenterrib.WiththeNo.1pistonatTDCinthefiringpositionIalignedthetapes0-marktothepointerneedle.Theneedleisadjustableforfinetuningitforperfectalignmenttothetape.LIFTERSForthisbuildImusingCompCams15850-16shortracehydraulicrollerliftersthatfeaturean0.842dia.Theseshort-travelliftersaredesignedspecificallytohandlehighenginespeedslimitingtheinternalpistonmovementduringpump-upprovidingthebestofbothsolidandhydrauliclifterattributes.IfyouveeverdealtwithanLSengineyoualreadyknowthattheliftersareguidedbyplasticlifterbuckets.Eachof4bucketunitscapturesandguidesasetof4lifters.Naturallyarollerliftermustbepreventedfromrotatinginitsboreinordertokeeptheliftersrollerbearinginplanewiththecamlobe.RatherthanusingdogbonesorbridgedliftersGMdesignedthesecompositeliftertraysbucketsthatfeaturefemaleflatsthatengageandguideeachlifter.Onceabankof4liftershasbeeninsertedintoabuckettheassemblyisinsertedintotheblock 38JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANwiththeliftersenteringtheirrespectivelifterbores.Eachbucketassemblyisthensecuredtotheblockwithasingle6mmx1.0shoulderedhexboltyoumustusetheOEstyleshoulderedboltstoproperlycentereachlifterbucketboltholetoitsthreadedholeintheblock.Theboltsaretightenedto125in-lbs.Oncethelifterassemblieshavebeeninstalledtheliftersarestillheldupawayfromthecamlobes.Simplyinsertapushrodandpopeachlifterdownontoitscamlobe.NOTETheGMdesignofthelifterbucketshasoneslightflaw.Thebaseofthewellspushrodentryareatendstocollectexcessengineoil.Beforeinstallingthelifterstothebucketsdrilla0.250holeintheoutboardsideofeachbucketslifterlocationimmediatelyabovethefloorofthewell.Thisallowsexcessoiltodrainoutofthebucketsmuchfaster.Aniceaspectofthislifterbucketdesignrelatestofuturecamshaftremovalswaps.Simplyloosenorremoveallrockerarmsandthenrotatethecranktwofullrevolutions.Withnopressureontheliftersthisresultsintheliftersbeingpushedupandheldintheirbucketswhichmovestheliftersoutofthewayofthecam.Oncethecrankdamperwaterpumpfrontcoverandcamgearisremovedthecamcanbeslippedoutandthenewcamcabbeslippedin.Oncethecamshafthasbeeninstalledyouthenuseapushrodtopoptheliftersoutoftheheldpositioninthelifterbuckets.Theresnoneedtoremovetheliftersintakemanifoldorheads.Theclick-insnugfitoftheliftersinthebucketswithlifterspushedfullyupwardintothebucketsisfairlyreliable.Howeverjusttobesafetoeliminatethepossibilityofalifterfallingoutofplaceanddroppingintothecamboreareaoncetheliftershavebeenpushedupintotheirbucketsinserta24orlongeror516metalrodintoeachoilgalleyjustaboveandatoppositesidesofthecambore.Thesetemporaryrodsserveasafailsafe.Ifoneormoreliftersbecomedislodgedfromtheirbucketstherodspreventtheliftersfromtravelingfarenoughtocauseaproblem.Oncethecamisreinstalledremovetherods.NOTEPriortoinstallingtheheadgasketstheliftersbucketsmustbeinstalledsincetheheadgasketsandheadstrapthelifterbuckets.VALLEYCOVERTheLQ9soriginalvalleycoverisacastaluminumpiecethatsdownrightugly.Itfeaturestwobigboresthataccommodatethevalley-mountedknocksensors.SinceIdontplantouseknocksensorsandsinceIdefinitelydidntwantthosetwouglyholesvisibleonthecoverIoptedtofabricatemyownvalleycoverusing-thickT6061aluminumstartingwithapieceofflatstock6widex20long.TheOEcovermeasuresexactly6widesoIonlyneededtocutmyrawpieceofflatstocktolengthcontourcuttingatthereartocleartheOEoilpressuresensorlocationanddrillingboltholes.SincetheLQ9featuresitscamsensoratthetoprearoftheblockandsinceImusinganLS2frontcoverthatfeaturesafront-mountedcamsensorIalsoneededtoplugtheoriginalcamsensorboreintheblock.InsteadofmakingaseparateplugcoverforthecamsensorholeandsincethetopsurfaceoftheLQ9camsensorlocationisflushwiththemountingsurfaceofthevalleycoverIsimplymadethenewvalleycoverabitlongertotalfinishedlengthof19716toalsocoverthecamsensorbore.Mountingthenewvalleyplatenowrequires11boltsinsteadoftheoriginal1010boltsforthestandardlocationsplusoneboltatthecamsensorbrackethole.AllboltsforthevalleycoverareARP12-pointpolishedstainlesssteel8mmx1.25x20mmsnuggedto18ft-lbs.BecausemyfabricatedvalleycoverdoesntfeatureamilledgasketringrecessliketheoriginalIsealedthecoverwithathinbeadofRTV.MyfavoritechoiceforthistypeofapplicationisPermatexsTheRightStuff.Thisisahigh-densityblackRTVthatdoesakillerjobofsealing.InordertokeepthingsneatandtidyIfirstmaskedthevalleyplateedgesandsurroundingadjacentblocksurfaces.Afterthecoverboltsweretightened1018ft-lbsIthencarefullywipedoffanyexcessRTVthatsquishedout.WiththemaskingtapethenremovedtheresultisacleaninstallationwithnoRTVexposed.AftermarketvalleycoversareavailableforafewLSvariantsbutIcouldntfindonefortheLQ9thatwouldalsocovertherearcamsensorhole.Besidestheaftermarketcoversarepricey120andup.Myinvestmentforthefabricatedcover15fortheflatstockandabout2hoursofmytime.AsfarasappearanceisconcernedtheoptionsthatIconsideredincludedpaintingitorange-redtomatchtheblockorhavingitwet-dippedtolooklikeblackcarbonfiber.UnfortunatelythewatertransferhydrographicssourcethatIveusedinthepastrecentlywentoutofbusiness.ConsideringthedeadlineIfacedwiththisparticularbuildIdidnthavethetimetolocateanothersourcetimetosampletheirworkandtimetohavemystuffdonesoIsimplypaintedtheplate.AlloftheotherwatertransferprintingshopsthatIcontactedwereoutofstateandtheircurrentturn-aroundtimeswere3-4weeks.Ithinkitwouldhavelookedreallycoolincarbonfiberbuttimesimplywasntonmyside.CYLINDERHEADSTwoexamplesofperformanceaftermarketcylinderheadsincludeTrickFlowsCNC-portedfullyassembledheadsandBMPsWarhawkbareheads.WeinitiallyplayedwithbothbutdecidedtoinstalltheTrickFlowheadspartiallyduetoaconflictwithourvalvecoveradapters.BecauseImovedthecamshaftpositionsensorfromtheoriginalLQ9rearlocationIwantedatopvalleycoverthatwouldcoverthesensorsentryholeatthetoprearoftheblockjustforthesakeofappearance.UnabletolocateacoverthatwouldaccommodatethisIsimplymademyowncoverusingastockpieceof316aluminumplate.Theplateissecuredwithanewmetal-coregasketfromMahle-VictorandasetofARP8mmstainless12-pointbolts. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP39TRICKFLOW3061T001-C02TheTrickFlowheadsfeatureCNC-ported225ccintakerunnersand65cccombustionchambers13.5-degreevalveangle2.055intakevalvesand1.575exhaustvalves.FullcylinderheaddetailsarelistedbelowMaterialA356-T61aluminumCombustionchambervolume65ccIntakeportvolume225ccIntakeportdimensions3.250x1.070cathedralportIntakeportlocationstockIntakevalvediameter2.055Intakevalveangle13.5degreesIntakevalveseatductileiron2.125x1.800x0.375Intakevalvelength124.45mmIntakevalvestemdiameter8mmExhaustportvolume80ccExhaustportdimensions1.460x1.670ovalExhaustportlocationstockExhaustvalvediameter1.575Exhaustvalveangle13.5degreesExhaustvalveseatductileiron1.625x1.280x0.375Exhaustvalvelength124.45mmExhaustvalvestemdiameter8mm0.314960ValveguidematerialbronzealloyintexhValveguidelength2.000Valveguideclearance0.0012int0.0016exhValvesealsVitonflouroelastomercanisterValveseatangles37x45x60Valvespringpocketdiameter1.480ValvespringI.D.locators1.300Valvespringretainers7x1.300O.D.titaniumValvestemlocks7machinedsteelValvesprings1.300O.D.doublespring150lbs1.800installedheight438lbs1.200open448lbsperinchrate0.600max.valveliftbutwillaccommodate0.624liftMillingspecificationsanglemill0.008perccflatmill0.006perccRequiredpushrodlengthlongerthanstockrequiredours7.500RockerarmtyperollerrockerarmsonlySparkplugsNGK4177Assembledheadweight24.5lbseaCYLINDERHEADAIRFLOWTRICKFLOWTFS-3061T001-C02INTAKEEXHAUSTLIFTVALUEFLOWCFMFLOWCFM0.10068550.2001421150.3002201850.4002792300.5003162510.600338259BMPWARHAWK001-025250Theseheadsfeature235ccintakeportvolumesand72cccombustionchambersand15-degreevalveangle.TheWarhawkheadswereobtainedasbaremachinedbutdidnotincludevalvessealsspringcupsspringsretainersorlocks.WefittedtheheadswithManleystainlessintakeandexhaustvalves2.080intakeand1.600exhaustCompspringsspringseatsretainersandsquare-cutvalvelocks.TheWarhawkheadsfeatureafewchangesincomparisontoastockdesign.Thewatertemperaturesensorlocationwasplacedatadrearwardwhichinterfereswiththefronttipoftheleft-sideexhaustheaderflangewhichrequiresremovingabout0.250ofmaterialfromtheflange.Theotherissueweranintowasthatofrockerarmclearancebetweenthepushrodendoftherockersandtheinboardvalvecovergasketsurfaceoftheheads.Thisrequiredaslightrelievingoftheinboardwallatanaveragedepthofabout0.100ateachrockerlocationalongthefullwidthoftherockerarmsinboardtip.CYLINDERHEADSTUDSHeadboltorstudlengthsdifferdependingontheblocksyearofmanufacture.1997-2003blocksrequire11mmstudsoftwodifferentlengthseightofthesamelengthandtwoshorterattheupperfrontandrearcorners.2004andlaterLSblocksfeatureallten11mmheadfastenersofequallength.Inadditiontotheprimary11mmfastenerseachproductionstyleheadalsousesfive8mmx1.25x65mmstudsattheverytoprowattheupperedgeareaofthehead.ForthisbuildIinstalledARPstudswith12-pointnutsandhardenedwashers.ThissetPN434-4316featuresacompletearrayofallstudsneededforbothheads.WithourLQ9blockwhichtakestheunequal-lengthseteachheaduseseight11mmstudsatanoveralllengthof185mmtwo11mmstudsatanoveralllengthof130mmandfive8mmstudsatanoveralllengthof65mm.Ifyouredealingwitha2004orlaterLSblocktheARPstudkitisPN434-4317the11mmprimarystudsinthissetareall130mminoveralllength.OurTrickFlowfullyassembledheadsfeature225ccintakeportvolume65ccchambers2.055intakevalvesand1.575exhaustvalves.Valveangleis13.5degrees. 40JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANTheARPprimarystudsfeaturealowerthreadforblockengagementof11mmx2.0andanupperthreadsizeof11mmx1.25.Duringblockprepwecleanedandchasedallblockthreads.Thisisimportantespeciallyforanironblockasrustcanquicklyaccumulateinthefemalethreads.Sincewevebeenhandlingthestudsnutsandwashersduringblockmachiningandtestfittingeachpiecewasthoroughlywashedandcleanedofanyandallcontaminants.Thestudswereinstalledtotheblockfinger-tightwithnopreloadIlightlylubesthelowerthreadswithoilthreadedtheminuntiltheybottomedoutthenbackedoffjustatadtoavoidanyharshpreloading.WiththeMahle-VictorMLSheadgasketsandheadinplacetheupperstudthreadswerecoatedwithARPassemblylubeaswerebothsidesofeachwasherthefemalethreadsandundersidesofallnuts.Withwashersandnutsinplacetheprimarynutsweretightenedtoafinaltorqueof80ft-lbandthefourinboard8mmstudnutsweresnuggedto25ft-lb.Notethatallprimary11mmstudnutsweretightenedinthreestagesstartingat25ft-lbsfollowedby60ft-lbandfinalizedat80ft-lbfollowingthecorrecttighteningsequenceateachstage.CYLINDERHEADTIGHTENINGSEQUENCEFORTHETENPRIMARY11MMFASTENERS1UPPERROWCENTER2LOWERROWCENTER3UPPERROWLEFTOFCENTER4LOWERROWRIGHTOFCENTER5UPPERROWRIGHTOFCENTER6LOWERROWLEFTOFCENTER7LOWERROWFARLEFT8LOWERROWFARRIGHT9UPPERROWFARRIGHT10..UPPERROWFARLEFTFORTHEFIVE8MMFASTENERS11.CENTER12.RIGHTOFCENTER13.LEFTOFCENTER14.FARRIGHT15.FARLEFTROCKERFITTINGTOTHEHEADSTheHarlandSharpPNSHLS17aluminumfull-rollerrockerarmsrepresentarefineddesignofferingincreasedbeefinesstoanalreadysuperbdesign.InadditiontothesuperiorstrengthandrigidityoftheserockersHarlandSharpalsoslightlychamferededgestofurtherreducearmweight.Ourrockersfeaturea1.71ratioandaremountedwithsuppliedsupportstandsand8mmSHCSsocketheadcapscrewstightenedto22ft-lb.Alwayscheckrockerarmclearancetothecylinderheadsasheaddesignscandifferintermsofclearanceissues.OntheTrickFlowheadsclearancesimplyisntanissueboltemonandproceedtomeasureforpushrodlength.OntheBMPWarhawkheadsforexampleduetotheheightincreasedesignedintotheheadsthepushrodsideoftherockersinterferedwiththeinboardsideoftheheadsrequiringaslightreliefineachoftherockerarmlocations.Usingapneumaticminibeltsanderand80-gritaluminumoxidebeltsIgroundareliefpocketateachrockerarmlocationrelievingtheinboardcylinderheadwallfromvalvecovergasketsurfacedownwardbyabout0.750downwardfromthevalvecovergasketsurface.IlovetheHarlandSharprockers.Inadditiontothequalityoftheforgingsandtheheavy-dutybearingsandbearingaxleseachcylinderspairofrockersareshaft-mountedtogether.Thisprovidesprecisionalignmentofeachpairwithoutthebotherorexpenseoffittingafull-lengthshaft.HarlandSharpalwaysproduceshighqualityanddurablerockersandthissetwasnoexception.NOTEWheninstallingrockerstoanLScylinderheadbeawarethatthethreadedholefortheintakerockerboltsareopentothecylinderheadintakeports.Becauseofthisyoumustalwaysapplyathreadsealertotheintakerockerboltthreadsbeforeinstalling.ThisholdstrueforanyLShead.PUSHRODSUsinganadjustable-lengthpushrodcheckingtoolwedeterminedanidealpushrodlengthat7.500.OurCompCamsHi-TechpushrodsPN7957-16feature516diameter7.500lengthandawallthicknessof0.080.PriortoinstallationIranapushrodcleaningbrushthrougheachpushrodwithafast-dryingbrake-cleaningsolventseveraltimesfollowedbyahotsoapywaterwashandrinsefollowedbyacompressedairblow-through.EachpushrodreceivedacoatingofRoyalPurpleMaxTuffassemblylubeateachtip.CRANKANDCAMPOSITIONSENSORSInordertooperatetheignitionsystemonanyLSplatformyoudontneedalloftheOEsensorsfeaturedinthefuelinjectedversionbutyoudoneedthecrankshaftandcamshaftpositionsensors.TheserelayinformationrelativetocrankpositionandcampositioninorderfortheMSDignitioncontrolmoduletomanagecoil-to-sparkplugfiring.Thecrankshaftpositionsensormountstotherightrearsideoftheblockin-linewiththecrankstoothedreluctorwheel.ThesensorfeaturesanO-ringandsimplyslipsintoitsbore.Thesensorsmountingtabsecurestotheblockviaasingle6mmx1.0x15-20mmbolt.OurCalliescrankOurHarlandSharpfull-rollerrockersfeaturea1.71ratioandincludemountingpedestalsand8mmSHCS.TherefineddesignoftheirLSrockersPNSHLS17featureextremelydurablebearingsandtrunionsandslightweight-savingCNCchamferingoftheforgedaluminumbodies.Thefitandprecisionisabsolutelyoutstanding. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP41featuresa58-toothreluctorwheelsowereusingcranksensorGMPN12585546.Thesensors8x1.25x15mmretainingboltistightenedto18ft-lbs.ThecamshaftpositionsensordependingontheversionoftheLSblockmountseitheratthetoprearoftheblockorontothefronttimingcover.OurLQ9coreblockoriginallyfeaturedarear-mountedcamsensorwhichiscompatiblewithanenginethatfeaturesa24-toothcrankreluctor.LaterdesignsaftertheLS1LS6andearlyLS2thatfeature58-toothcrankreluctorsplacedthecamsensorupfrontmountedtothetimingcover.Rearmountedcamsensorspickupcampositionviaareluctorthatsbuiltintotherearofthecamjustaheadofthecamsrearjournal.Front-mountedcamsensorsgrabtheircampositionsignalfromthecamshaftsprocketgear.Thisrequirestheuseofa4Xcamgear.Idecidedtogowiththe58-toothcrankwheelandthelate-LS2-stylefront-mountcamsensorsincethislaterversionprovidesincreasedignitiontimingaccuracy.WATERTEMPSENSOREachcylinderheadfeaturesa12mmx1.5threadedholetoaccepttheOEwatertemperaturesensor.IinstalledGMsensorPN12608814tothesensorholeontheleft-sideheadmakesurethethreadsarecoatedwithTeflonthreadsealer.Inordertoplugthesameholeontheright-sideheadIsimplyinstalledashort12mmx1.5hex-headboltwithcrushwasher.Lengthisntcritical.Iuseda20mmlength.Dontforgettoplugtheunusedwaterhole.TheGMplugthatsinstalledonOEright-sideheadsisnotavailableseparatelyfromGMGMonlyofferstheplugaspartofaheadsoyoudneedtobuyacylinderheadjusttogetthisplug.NOTEAlwaystestfittheexhaustheaderstotheheadstocheckforclearancebetweenthewatertempsensorandorplugtoyourheaderflange.ForexampleontheWarhawkheadsthewatertempholeislocatedabittooclosetotheadjacentexhaustportanddependingonyourspecificheadersyoumayneedtogrindabitofmaterialfromtheleadingedgeoftheheaderflangeforclearancetothesensor.OntheTrickFlowheadsthisclearanceproblemisntanissue.SincebothcylinderheadsareidenticalinterchangeableorleftorrightbanksyoullneedtoplugthethreadedholeforthetempsensorontheRHhead.OEright-handheadsalreadyfeatureathreadedplughoweverthisplugisnotavailableseparatelyfromGM.Thefixiseasy.Simplyusea12mmx1.5x1520mmhexheadbolt.Installacrushwasherandapplythreadsealantandinstall.YoudontneedtheuniqueGMplug.TAYLORVERTIEXVALVECOVERADAPTERSIveneverranintoanyonewhocaresfortheappearanceoftheignitioncoilsmountedatopLSvalvecovers.ToremedythisandtoobtainabitofoldschoolvibeIinstalledapairofTaylorsSpacer-MaxPN555701valvecoveradapterstotheheads.ThisallowsyoutoinstallsmallblockChevyvalvecoverstoLSheadsnaturallyyouthenneedtore-locatethecoilpackstoanydesiredlocationintheenginebay.ThekitincludesFel-ProsiliconebeadgasketsPNVS50504RoryoucanuseGMPN12560696gaskets.Thesebeadgasketswillcreatethesealbetweenthecylinderheadsvalvecoverrailsandtheadapters.ForsealingtheSBCvalvecoverstotheTayloradaptersTaylorrecommendsFel-Procork-laminategasketsPN1604516thick.TheTaylorkitalsoincludeseight6mmx1.0x45mmSHCSsocketheadcapscrewswithlocwashersandflatwashers.Applythreadlockerandtightenthe6mmSHCSto106in-lbs.NOTEThesupplied45mm-long6mmx1.0boltswillworkbutevenwiththeflatwashersandlocwashersmaycomeveryclosetobottomingoutinthecylinderheadvalvecoverthreadedholesdependingonthespecificcylinderheads.AftermeasuringthedepthofthefourvalvecoverthreadedholesonapairofBMPWarhawkheadsthe45mm-longscrewstendedtobottom-outso40mmlengthswereneeded.ForattachmentoftheSBCvalvecoverstotheadaptertherequiredthreadsizeisx20lengthdeterminedbythicknessofthechosenvalvecovers.TheTaylorVertexvalvecoveradaptersfitperfectly.Allboltholesadaptertoheadandvalvecovertoadapteralignwithnoneedtofudgeanyoftheholesthisofcoursedependsontheheadsthatyoureusingalwayscheckcarefullyforclearanceatthepushrodendoftherockersandcheckforclearancebetweentheadaptercrossbarswheretheadapterboltsarelocatedandthevalvespringretainers.Grantedtheinboardsidesoftheadaptersclosesttotheintakeoverhangtheheadsabitbuttheresnowayaroundthistoaccommodateearly-generationsmallblockChevyvalvecovers.NOTETheadapterstendtodeflectabitatthefrontandrearendsastheadaptersaretightenedtotheheadspossiblyminimizingtheadaptergasketsabilitytoseal.IsuggestaddingabitofRTVtotheblueelastomersealoneachadapterjustatthefrontandrearsealingareas.VALVECOVERSBecauseIchosetousetheTaylor-VertexvalvecoveradaptersthatallowmountingGeneration1smallblockChevyperimeter-boltvalvecoverstoLSheadsIobviouslyhadachoiceofawidevarietyofvalvecoverstyles.SinceIplannedtohavethecoverspowdercoatedandengravedIchosecastaluminumflat-topstylecovers.IorderedapairfromSummitRacingtheirPNSUM-G3302.Bothcoverseachfeaturea1.220holeoneforabreatherandoneforPCV.Ihadthecoverspowdercoatedinasilversplashpebble-texturedfinishatAcePowdercoatinginGreenOhioSilverSplatterPWB-3044WrinklePrismatic.Thecostofpowdercoatingwas7230formaterialand42forlabor.IthensentthecoversofftomybuddyArtCarltonatInnovatorsWestforengraving.ArtengravesvalvecoversonaCNCmillthencolors-intheengravinginyourchosencolor.ForthesakeofidentificationandsimplicityIchose408LSwiththeengravingsfilled-inwithorange-redpainttomatchtheblockcolor.IinstalledtheSBCvalvecoverstoourTayloradaptersusingARPbullnosedstainlessstuds14x20lowerthread14x28upperthreadand12-pointstainlessnutsandflatwashers.Acorkrubbervalvecovergasketset0.250-thickprovidestheseal.TheleftsidevalvecoverfeaturesabilletbreatherfromSummitRacing.TherightsidecoverfeaturesabilletadjustablePCVvalve.ADJUSTABLEPCVVALVEForthisbuildwereexperimentingwithanewly-introducedadjustablePCVvalvefromMEWagnerPNDF-17.Thisinnovativevalveisadjustableforairflowforidlemodeandcanbesetforfixedconstantflowforengineswithlowvacuumsignalsaggressivecamswithlotsofoverlapetc..INTAKEMANIFOLDFITDependingonthecylinderheadstheintakemanifoldbasemayinitiallyinterferewiththecylinderheadintakedecksatthetopoftheintakemanifoldflangesouteredgeshittheun-milledsectionoftheheadsimmediatelyabovethemilled 42JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANWithGoodsonToolsSuppliesValveSeatGrindingIsNotTheSameOldGrindGOODSONValveSeatGrindingStonesareavailablein6abrasiveformulasformostpopularstoneholdersincludingSiouxKwik-WayBlackDeckerandSnap-On.Diametersrangefrom12to5.Buythepartsandpiecesindividuallyorbuythe45-PieceValveSeatGrinderKitandgetthe4500RPMAirDriverwithSiouxDriveAdaptorabsolutelyFREE.MentionKeycodePEP3.FreeAirDriverwithSGK-385regularjobber1489.99.1-800-533-8010www.goodson.comtwitter.comGoodsonToolsfacebook.comGoodsonToolsAndSupplies45PieceValveSeatGrinderKitisAGreatStarterSetIncludes14.385TopPilots14GeneralPurposeand14FinishingStones2StoneHolders3-PieceBounceSpringSetandUniversalDressingStand.OrderNo.SGK-385Jobber1489.994500RPMAirDriverwithSiouxDriveAdaptorPlanetarygearset-upreducesspeedto4500RPMforbestnishandmorecontrol.OrderNo.AG-4500withADA-SXFREEAirDriverwithGrinderKitPurchaseExpires9-30-13KeycodePEP3194.98valuesurfaceoftheheadsintakedecks.IencounteredthiswithasetofBMPWarhawkheadsbutnotwiththeTrickFlowheads.Ifyourunintothisyoucouldmillthecylinderheadintakedecksfurtherupwardsincreasingtheheightofthemilledsurfacestothetuneofabout0.060.Oryoucanchamfertheouteredgesoftheintakemanifoldflangesinsteadremovingabitfromthemanifoldiseasier.Oncetheintakemanifoldwasproperlymatedtotheheadintakedecksbesuretoinspectportalignmentandcorrectifneededinordertogentlyblendtheintakemanifoldportstotheirrespectiveportsontheheads.WitheithertheBMPorTrickFlowheadsallmanifold-to-headboltholesalignedperfectlysonofiddlingwasrequiredatthoselocations.TheintakemanifoldinthiscaseIusedHolleysHi-Rammodularlowerandupperassemblyissecuredtotheheadswithten6mmx1.0fastenersandissealedwithsiliconebeadseals.ApplyalightcoatofoilorlithiumgreasetotheO-ringsealsandinsertthemintothesealgroovethatsurroundseachcathedralintakeport.Thelubewillhelptoholdthesealsinplaceduringhandling.Themanifoldkitincludes6mmstudswashersandnuts.Idecidedprimarilyforthesakeofappearancetouseasetof6mmx1.0x60stainlessSHCSandstainlessflatwashersfromTotallyStainless.IstillmadeuseoftheHolley-suppliedstudsformanifoldplacementsincethefastenersareverticalplacingoneateachoutercornerprovidesaneatwaytolowertheintakemanifolddowntotheheadswiththestudsservingasguides.OncethemanifoldwasorientedinplaceIfinger-installedSHCSsintheremaininglocationsthenremovedthefourstudsandfinishedplacingtheSHCSs.IappliedasmalldabofARPmolytothescrewthreadsbeforeinstalling.Alltenfastenerlocationsareinitiallytorquedto50in-lbsfollowedbyafinal106in-lbs.ItsimportanttofollowHolleysrecommendedtighteningpatternstartingatthecenterandworkingyourwayoutward.Theupperplenumsecurestotheintakemanifoldwithtwelvex20x78SHCSsocketheadcapscrews.Beforemountingtheupperplenumyoullneedtoinstalltheround-profilebeadsealO-ringtothegroovethatsmachinedintotheintakemanifoldsplenumflange.Thissealissuppliedextra-longasinglestraightlength.Insertthesealintothegrooveandcarefullycuttolengthtocreateatightmatingend-to-end.LiftthetwoendsoutofthegrooveplaceadropofSuperGluetotheendsandsecuretheendstogether.Oncethegluesetsreinstalltheseal.Theintakemanifoldflangefeaturesopenholeswhiletheupperplenumholesarethreaded.Asaresultthescrewsareinsertedfromthebottomoftheintakesplenumflange.LightlylubricatethethreadsandinstalltighteningtoHolleysspecof130in-lbs.IusedasetofstainlessSHCSsandwashersfromTotallyStainless.FUELPLUMBINGPlumbingadual-carbsideways-mountsetupisalwaysachallenge.WhileseveralapproacheswerepossibleIinitially 44JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANplannedtorun6AN45-degreehoseendsfromthecarbbowlsdowntoa4-portfueldistributionblockthatwouldbemountedtotheenginesvalleycoverholescouldbedrilledandtappedintothe0.250-thickcoverinordertosecureafuelblockalongwithstand-offspacerstoreduceambientengineheattothefuelblock.Theblackbraided6hosewouldthenconnecttothefuelblockwith45-degree6hoseends.Therearinletportofthefuelblockcouldbefittedwitha6malefittingtoaccommodatefuelfeedandaregulator.HoweverafteranguishingoverthefuelplumbingplanforlongerthanIcaretosayIfinallydecidedtoplumbthecarbswith38ODaluminumfuellineusing6tubenutsandferrules.Bothcarbslinesarefedthrougha5-waybilletaluminumfuelmanifoldfromPetersonFluidSystemstheirPN10-0071.Thisfeaturesasingle10maleinletandastaggeredgroupoffour6maleoutlets.ThePetersonmanifoldalsofeaturestwohandymountingtabswhichallowedmetomounttheunittotherearofthetunnelramintakeviaafabricatedbracketthetabsaccommodate10screwsize.IfabricatedthemountingbracketallowingattachmentofthePetersonfuelmanifoldusingaluminum2x1L-channelstock.Thisissecuredtothetworearmost14x20capscrewlocationswheretheupperplenummountstotheintakemanifold.Thislocationkeepsthefuellinesawayfromhigherheatareasasopposedtomyoriginalthoughtofmountingafuelblocktothevalleycover.Ofcoursecuttingbendingandflaringthetubingrequiredabitoftedioushandbendinginordertoobtainapleasingappearance.ThistaskwasartfullyhandledbyBirchwoodAutomotivesLarryandEricRitzinabout3hoursusingahandtubingbendera37-degreeflaringtoolandtonsofpatience.Oncethelineshadbeenfabricatedtheywereremovedandpolishedtoasatinlusterusingabuffingwheelandpolishingrougefollowedbyhand-polishingwithWenolpolishingpaste.Lineswerethenwashedandrinsedandre-installed.NOTEIfyouplantoplumbusingtubingthatyouintendtoconnectwithANfittingsbeawarethatANtypicallyfeaturesa37-degreesealingsurface.WhenusingANtubeferrulesandnutsasingleflarewillsuffice.Howeveracommonflaringtoolwillonlyoffera45-degreeflarewhichwontprovidetheneededseal.Anexampleofa37-degreeflaringtoolkitistheonefromFragolaPN900500actuallymadebyImperialwhichaccommodatesarangeoftubediametersincluding31651638and58OD.Thetoolisabitpriceyataround169butitwillcreatetheneeded37-degreeflare.Withtheengineinstalledinavehicleitwouldbeeasytothenconnectanadjustablepressureregulatorpressuregaugeandfilterataconvenientunderhoodlocation.VELOCITYSTACKSAsiftheinductionsystemwasnttallenoughIdecidedtoslaponapairof8-tallspunaluminumvelocitystacks.Heyifitsworthdoingitsworthdoingtoexcess.Eachstackfeaturesastampedaluminumscreendiscthatrestsonaninsidediameterlip.Ax20studandnutsecuresthescreentothecarbwhichholdsthestacksecurelyinplace.Icutapairofstudsatalengthof2.50andinstalledthestudstothecarbswith14x20femaleto516x18maleadapterssincethecarbsfeature516x18femalethreads.IsecuredthescreensandstackstothecarbsusingTopSeal1.5-diameterknurledaluminumaircleanerlidnutsfromCamMotion.IpurchasedthestackswithscreensfromCPPerformancearace-boatsupplierinCalifornia.WATERPUMPMountingawaterpumptoanLSblockissuper-easy.Itssecuredtotheblockfacewithtwometal-coregasketsandfourbolts.Insteadofusingaboring-lookingOEmechanicalpumporevenanaftermarketmechanicalbelt-drivenpumpIoptedforyouguesseditatop-of-the-lineit-doesnt-get-any-better-than-thisMeziereelectricpumpPNWP319U.MeziereofferstheirLSpumpsinfivedifferentappearanceversionsincludingblackanodizedredanodizedblueanodizedpolishedandchromeplated.SinceIwasconcernedthattheredpumpbeingadifferentshadeofredthantheblockwouldclashandthebluepumpalthoughtheblueonemademymouthwatermightbeaddingtoomanycolorstotheoverallschemeIwittledmychoicedownbetweenablackorpolishedpump.SincetheonlyotherpolishedsurfacesonthisbuildarethevelocitystacksIdecidedthatapolishedpumpwouldincreasethedazzle-factor.Thispumpbythewayalsofeaturesalargeidlerpulleytoeasilyaccommodateaserpentinebeltarrangement.ForthethermostatneckhousingIcouldhaveinstalledanOEunitbutwhatfunwouldthatbeIdecidedtocompletetheaestheticpackagebyusingMezierespolishedbilletaluminumwaterneckPNWN0019UusinganOEneckonthisgorgeouspumpwouldbeakintomountingblackpaintedwheelsandcheeseyhubcapsontoanewBMW.Iinstalledthepumptotheblockusingfour8mmx1.25x115mmstainlesssteelsocketheadcapscrewstightenedto11ft-lbsonthefirstpassfollowedby22ft-lbs.AsnotedearlierifyoureusingtheCompfrontcoveryouneedtocheckforinterferencebetweentherearofthepumpandthecoverscamsensorboss.Itsaeasyfixrequiringaveryminorbitofreliefgrindingbutitscriticaltocheckthisbeforeattemptingtotightenthewaterpumpbolts.EXHAUSTHEADERSTheHookerblack-ceramicheaderswereinstalledtotheTrickFlowheadsusingasetof8mmstainlesssteelstudswashersand12-pointnutsfromTotallyStainlessthesestudsfeatureaveryhandyfemalehexforinstallationremovalaid.TheHookerheaderflangesfitperfectlytotheheadsliterallyadrop-oninstallationIloveitwhenthathappens.FYItheheadersthatwechoseforphotosaredesignedforanLSengineapplicationinaTri-FiveChevy.Sinceweregoingtousethedynoshopsheadersfortheenginedynorunourinitialchoiceofheadersforphotoswasreallyimmaterial.Isimplythoughtthatthelong-tubeheadersshownherelookgreatanddresstheenginewell.IGNITIONSincewererunningthisenginewithcarbswedontneedelectronicmanagementtocontrolfuelbutwedoneedasystemtocontrolspark.TheEASYwaytoaccomplishthisiswithMSDsLSignitioncontroller.Theyoffertwoversionsthe6LScompatiblewitha24-toothcrankreluctorandthe6LS2compatiblewiththe58-toothreluctor.OurCalliescrankcameequippedwitha58-toothwheelsoourignitioncontrolleristhe6LS2.ThecontrollerwhichcanbemountedanywhereintheenginebaywithinreachoftheMSDharnessfeaturessixpre-programmedignitioncurveplug-inchips.Thisliterallyprovidesaplugplayselection.IfyoupreferyoucancreateyourowncustomignitioncurveusingthesuppliedCDplugthecontrollerintoalaptopordesktopPCwithaUSBcableandfollowtheinstructions.TheMSDharnesssimplyneedstoconnecttotheignitioncoilstheengines engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP45watertemperaturesensorcampositionsensorandcrankpositionsensoryoucanalsoconnecttoaMAPsensor.Thatsit.IveinstalledthisMSDsystemseveraltimesanditsapieceofcake.ThissystemmakesconvertinganLSenginetocarburetionsoeasythatitsalmostembarrassing.BythewaytheMSD6LSor6LS2controllerwillalsoworkwithafuelinjectionsetupallowingindependentcontroloftheignitioncurve.TheignitioncoilsjustlikeanyLSplatformyouneedonecoilpercylinderareMSDsPN82858.ThesearelistedasapplicabletotheLS1LS6butworkjustfinewitha58-toothreluctorandtheLS2stylecamsensor.Noissuesatall.Oneofthedesignaspectsofthisbuildfocusedonusingearly-generationsmallblockChevyvalvecoversandrelocatingthecoilpacks.Ivenevermetanyonewholikesthelookoffourcoilsmountedontopofeachvalvecover.EventhoughtheprettyredMSDcoilslookfarbetterthantheuglyblackOEcoilsIstilldidntwanttoclutterthevalvecovers.Thealternativesincludefabricatingbracketstoallowcoilstomounttotherearoftheheadsorinthevehiclelocatingthecoilsonaremotesurfacesuchasthefirewallorinnerfenders.NGK4177sparkplugs34reachtaperedseatswereinstalledwithanadjustedgapof0.054.Withanti-seizeappliedtothethreadsallplugsweretightenedto10ft-lbs.MSD8.5mmsparkplugwireswereobtainedasPN32079.Thissetfeaturesbothstraightmulti-angleand90-degreesparkplugbootsandterminalsandasetofLSstylecoilbootsandterminalsthemulti-anglebootsalloweasycustomangleadjustmentfromstraighttoalmost90-degreeoranywherein-between.OurHookerheaderswouldallowtheuseofeitherthemulti-angleor90-degreeboots.Themulti-anglebootswouldprotrudeoutbetweentheprimarytubeswithadequateclearancewhiletheuseof90-degreebootswouldallowmetoroutethewiresbehindtheheaders.Sparkplugwireroutingwilldependonthefinallocationofthecoils.ENGINEOILWereallnowawareofthecriticalneedforahighzincphosphatecontentinengineoilforaflattappetcam-equippedengineforbothinitialbreak-inaswellaslong-termuse.Howeverwhenrunninghighliftandhigherthanstockvalvespringpressuresevenarollercamenginewillbenefitfromthisinordertoprovidehigh-pressurelubricationtovalvestemtips.ThiscanbeaccomplishedbyeitherusingyouroilofpreferenceandaddingazincphosphateconcentrateZDDPorbyusingaspecialtyengineoilthatsalreadyformulatedwiththisprotection.ThistypeofoilisnowreadilyavailablefromcompaniessuchasBradPennJoeGibbsRoyalPurpleandothers.ForthedynorunIllusea30Wbreak-inoilthatshighinZDDP.OnceringsareseatedIllrunCompCamsnewMuscleCarStreetRod10W-30asyntheticblendthatshighinzincandphosphorous.PRE-OILENGINEBEFOREFIRINGWheneverafreshengineistobefiredforthefirsttimeitisabsolutelyessentialtopre-oiltheenginebysendingpressurizedoilthroughtheentireoilpassagenetwork.Thisinsuresthatbearingsrockerspushrodsetc.arelubricatedbeforetheengineisfired.Adrystartcankillanotherwiseproperly-builtengine.Forthistaskwellusethenewpre-oilerunitfromGoodsontheirPNEPL-120.Thisaluminumcanisterholds12quartsofoilandfeaturesaveryconvenientcarryhandleapressuregaugepressurepop-offWiththehi-ramanddualcarbsetupvelocitystacksandsmallblockChevyvalvecoverswevetransformedalate-modelLSplatformintoaradicalold-schoolRatFinkpackagethatjustbegstobestaredat. PROJECT408LSbYMIKEMAVRIGIANsafetyvalvehoseandavarietyoffittingstoaccommodatearangeofblockoilportsizes.Simplyfillthecanisterwithfreshoiloftheappropriatetypegradeconnectthehoseoutlettoanoilfeedportintheblockpressurizethecanisterwithshopairandopentheunitsballcockvalve.Withvalvecoversremovedverifythatoilisbeingdeliveredtothetopend.Icantstresstheimportanceofpre-oilingtoostrongly.RegardlessofwheretheenginecamefromorwhobuiltitDIYproenginebuilderOEcrateetc.YOUMUSTALWAYSPRE-OILANYFRESHENGINEoranyenginethathassatdormantforanextendedperiodoftimeforthatmatterpriortothefirststart.Dontrelyonsimplycrankingtheengineinordertoprime.BythewayinpreparationforadynorunorifyouwishtouseaconventionaloilpressuregaugeyoucanmakeyourownthreadedadaptertotaketheplaceoftheGMoilpressuresensorGMPN12616646.Thethreadedholeinthetoprearoftheblockfeatures16mmx1.5threads.Youcaneitherlocateahexhead16mmx1.5x10-15mmboltanddrillthroughtheboltwithan1132dillthentaptheholefor18NPT.OryoucanusejunkspareGMoilpressuresender.onalathemachineoffthetopofthesensordownintothehex-drivesidesleavingabout316depthatthedriveflats.Thiswillremovethegutsofthesendertoprevealingaflatrecessedbarealuminumbaseatthetop.Thenstillonthelathedrillan1132holeallthewaythroughthesenderandtapthetopoftheholefor18NPT.Usingeithera16mmboltoranoldGMsenderyoucannowconnectanyoilpressuresenderelectricormechanicalthatfeaturesa18NPTconnection.EitherwaytheboltoroldsendermustbefittedwithacrushwasheroraluminumrubberStat-O-Sealwasherforsealingsincethe16mmthreadsarestraightandwillrequiresealingbetweentheblockandtheadapter.Ifyouuseanoldsendermakesurethatthebottomofthehexandthethreadsarecleanandfreeofsurfaceirregularities.Ofcourseyoucanuseanewsendertomakeyouradapterbutanewoneispriceytothetuneofaround64.Justgrabausedsenderandmachineitbycuttingoffthetopdrillingthroughandtappingthetopofthehole.Ifyoustartedoffwithacoreenginechancesareyoualreadyhaveadonorsender.IMikeMavrigianhaswrittenthousandsoftechnicalarticlesoverthepast30yearsforavarietyofautomotivepublications.InadditionMikehaswrittenmanybooksforHPBooks.ContacthimatBirchwoodAutomotiveGroupCrestonOH.Call330435-6347ore-mailmikebirchwoodautomotive.com.Websitewww.birchwoodautomotive.com46JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalFindenginespecsfastandeasyPRO-SISSAENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWAREGIVESYOUACCESSTONEARLY7000ENGINESPECIFICATIONSWITHJUSTACLICKOFYOURMOUSEPLUSYOUCANADDYOUROWNCUSTOMENGINEINFORMATIONTOTHEPRO-SISSADATABASE.SOBYTHETIMEITTAKESYOUTOFINDTHEMANUALWITHPRO-SISSAYOUVEALREADYFOUNDYOURSPECSANDAREBACKTOWORK...THATSAMONEY-MAKINGDIFFERENCEWWW.AERA.ORGPRO-SISTOLL-FREE888-326-2372815-526-7600500COVENTRYLANESTE180CRYSTALLAKEIL60014twitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraep engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP47ENGINEBLOCKGM6.0LLQ9IronMAINCAPSOEPMpowderedmetalCAPSMAINSTUDSARP234-5608MAINBEARINGSMAHLECLEVITEMS-2199HKRODBEARINGSUPPERMAHLECLEVITECB-663HNKRODBEARINGSLOWERMAHLECLEVITECB-633HXKCAMBEARINGSMAHLECLEVITESH-2125SCAMBEARINGINSTALLERTOOLGOODSONCBT-300CRANKSHAFTCALLIESCOMPSTAR4.000StrokeCompstarforged58-toothreluctorAP031N-CSCONNECTINGRODSCALLIES6.125CompstarforgedCSC6125DS2A2AHPISTONSJEflat-topFSRAsymm4.030bore1.115CD311979CYLINDERHEADSBAREBILLMITCHELLPRODUCTSWARHAWKLS1235ccInt72ccchambers001-025250CYLINDERHEADSASSEMBLEDTRICKFLOWTFS-3061T001-C02THREADEDBLOCKPLUGSX316mmX1.5GM11588949THREADEDBLOCKPLUG28mmX1.25GM12561663FRONTOILGALLEYCUPPLUGGM9427693REAROILGALLEYPLUGBARBELL15mmX64mmGM12573460CYL.HEADDOWELSX4GM12570326OILPRESSURESENSORGM12616646WATERTEMP.SENSORGM12608814CRANKPOSITIONSENSORFOR58TOOTHGM12585546CARBURETORSX2HOLLEY4150600cfm0-80801-RDINTAKEMANIFOLDHOLLEYHI-RAM300-226INTAKEMANIFOLDTOPHOLLEY300-216INTAKEMANIFOLDBOLTSTOHEADSTOTALLYSTYAINLESS8mmx1.25x80mmSHCSUPPERPLENUMTOINTAKEMANIFOLDBOLTSTOTALLYSTAINLESS14x20xSHCSCARBURETORLINKAGEHOLLEY4022CARBURETORVELOCITYSTACKSCPPERFORMANCE620-60445VELOCITYSTACKSTUDKITALLSTAR26056studscuttolengthVELOCITYSTACKSTUDNUTSCAMMOTIONTOPSEAL14x20threadsRED516RODENDSformainthrottleshaftQA1AMR5VACUUMFITTINGFORPCVEARLS984206ERLVALVECOVERBREATHERSUMMITRACINGSUM-G3403VALVECOVERBREATHERGROMMETMOROSO68772PCVVALVEGROMMETMOROSO68775OILPUMPMELLINGhi-volume10296CRANKSHAFTDAMPERFLUIDAMPR740111CRANKSHAFTDAMPERBOLTARP234-2503CYLINDERHEADSTUDSARP234-4316EXHAUSTHEADERSHOOKERblackceramic2292-3HKRHEADERFLANGESTUDSTOTALLYSTAINLESS8mmx1.25x40mmCYLINDERHEADGASKETSMAHLEVICTORMLS54445GASKETSETMAHLEVICTORCS5975ENGINEPRE-OILERPRESSUREUNITGOODSONEPL-120CAMSHAFTHYD.ROLLERCOMP54-462-11PUSHRODS516X7.500X0.080WALLCOMPCAMS7957-16LIFTERSSHORTRACE-HYDCOMP15850-16LIFTERGUIDETRAYSGM12595365GENIVor12551162GENIIIEitherstylefitstheLQ9block.NOTEDrilloutboardsidesforbetteroildrain.INTAKEVALVESFORBMPHEADS2.080x5.300x516BMP702830RMEXHAUSTVALVESFORBMPHEADS1.600x5.300x516BMP702715SDVALVESPRINGKITFORBMPHEADSCOMP26926TS-KITROCKERSrollers1.71ratioHARLANDSHARPSHLS17OILPANHOLLEYcastaluminum302-1OILPANBOLTSARP434-6902OILFILTERACDELCOPF48orequivalentTIMINGSETCLOYES9-3172ACAMGEARBOLTSARP134-1003TFSTIMINGCHAINDAMPERLS2STYLETFS-30675540TFSTIMINGCHAINDAMPERADAPTERTFS-30675600CAMSHAFTRETAINERPLATEBOLTSARP134-1002WATERPUMPMEZIEREWP319UWATERPUMPWATERNECKMEZIEREWN0019UWATERPUMPBOLTS6TOTALLYSTAINLESS8mmx1.25x115mmFRONTCOVEROEGMLS2wcamsensorGM12633906FRONTCOVERCOMPCOMPCAMS5496FRONTCOVERBOLTSARP434-1502REARCOVERGM1263357912639250KITREARCOVERBOLTSARP434-1504VALLEYCOVERBIRCHWOODFABRICATED0.250-thickaluminumVALLEYCOVERBOLTS12TOTALLYSTAINLESS8mmx1.25x20mmENGINEBLOCKPAINTCHEVYORANGE-REDDupontbaseclearSPARKPLUGSNGK4177orequivalentVALVECOVERADAPTERSTAYLORVERTEX555701VALVECOVERSSUMMITSUM-G3302PCVVALVEMEWAGNERbilletadj.DF-17PCVVALVEHOSE-6blackbraidedwshrinktubeendsOILCOOLERADAPTERKITLINGENFELTERL300025297STEAMHOLEFRONTFITTINGS-4ANTFS-30600611STEAMHOLEREARCAPSTFS-30600612FRONTSTEAMPLUMBINGTwo-490-deghoseendstwo-4straighthoseends-4T-fitting-4blackbraidedhoseFUELLINES38ODaluminumfabricatedFUELLINEFITTINGS-6tubenutsandferrulesFUELMANIFOLDPETERSON10-00715-way6AN-10ANFUELMANIFOLDBRACKETBIRCHWOODfabricatedaluminum37-DEGREEFLARINGTOOLFRAGOLA900500IGNITIONCONTROLLERMSD6LS-2for58-toothreluctorIGNITIONCOILSMSD82858SPARKPLUGWIRESMSD32079TIMINGPOINTERTCI871005DIPSTICKASSEMBLYLOKAR5008LS408PARTSLIST SinceracepistonsindomesticV8enginesmoveupanddowninexcessof100timespersecondreplacingthemisanormalpartoftheracersroutine.NHRATopFuelandFunnycarteamsreplacethemaftereveryracepassandeverysecondqualifyingpass.ProStockteamsreplacethemafterevery40passesapproximatelyandweekendwarriorsreplacethemevery12to18monthssooneriftheirenginesarenitrous-assisted.Atpistonreplacementtimequestionsofspecchangesusuallyariseespeciallythetopicofcompressionratios.DiamondPistonsRonBeaubienexplainsAnenginescompressionratioiscalculatedbytakingthetotalsweptvolumewiththepistonatbottomdeadcenteranddividingitbythetotalcompressedvolumewiththepistonattopdeadcenter.Forexampleifthetotalsweptvolumeofa632cuinbig-blockChevroletis1380.34cccubiccentimetersandthetotalcompressedvolumeis86.69ccthecompressionratiowouldbestatedas15.921.Tofindtheenginestotalsweptareaincubicinchesthefollowingformulacanbeapplied0.7854xborediameterxborediameterxstrokelengthxthenumberofcylinders.Toconvertcubicinchestocubiccentimetersmultiplyby16.39.Usingaburetteisthebestmethodofmeasuringthecompressedvolumechambervolumepluspistonvolume.Compressionratiosareofteninfluencedbyrulebookregulations.Alsoengineefficiencyisadecidingelementintheircomposition.Highercompressionratiosarenotalwaystheonesbestcalculatedtosucceed.Whenyouover-compressthecylinderyouinduceapumpinglossittakeshorsepowertosqueezethecylinderscontents.KeithWilsonofWilsonManifoldswhoforthirtyyearshasdistinguishedhimselfwiththeleadingracingteamsinattainingbetterair-fueldistributionandcylinderfillingcommentsEfficientcylinderfillingallowsustokeepthepistoncrownsasflataspossiblewetrynottoshootourfireoverthehillockAlsosaystheFortLauderdaleinductionspecialistwhenyouexamineanintakeportofanassembledmotorwithvalvesadjustedcamdegreedetc.andyouobservetheintakevalvecrackedopenitisimperativethemixtureflowsoutandaroundthevalverapidlyintothecylinderduringthoseearlymomentsofvalvelift.Theincomingairmixturemustnotbeimpededbyanawkwardshapeonthepiston.Anyencumbrancewillharmtheenginesabilitytoproducepower.Inadditionoverlyzealousignitiontimingisnotalwaysrecommendedeither.AsChuckLawrenceofJonKaaseRacingEnginescontendsEarlierfiringoftheignitioncausestheenginetoworkharderasthepistonisrisingonitscompressionstrokeithastoovercometheprematuredownwardforcesoftheexpandinggases.Calculatingcompressionratiosaccuratelyisimportantforatleastthreereasons.FirstsaysBobFoxheadofDiamondpistonsareoftenrequestedwithcompressionratioshigherthanarephysicallypossibletoprovide.Secondsomesanctioningbodiesstipulatestrictlimitationsoncompressionratiosandiftheyarenotcalculatedpreciselytheracercouldeithersquanderpowerhecouldlegitimatelygenerateorunwittinglygetcaughtcheating.Thirdiftheraceengineisdesignedtomeetstrictspecificationsincludingoperatingonaspecificracefuelhavingthecompressionratiocalculatedproperlyisworthdoing.Yetwhenpistonmakersorsuppliersrequesttheinformationnecessarytomaketheirpistonstothecorrectspecificationsinvariablycrucialdataisomitted.FailuretocompletethecustompistoninformationformisusuallythebiggestdifficultytheyTheimportanceofcompressionratiosandhowtomeasurethemBYSAMLOGAN48JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional Doingitright.Weighingunder400lbandrunningonpumpfuelwith101compressionratioanddishedpistonsErnieElliottsnew450cuinalloyengineproducesanimpressiveandreliable790horsepower.Itstimetocrunchthenumbers.Theburettedelivered38ccofliquid.Bysubtracting21.2ccthevolumeoftherecessontheundersideoftheplatefrom38wearriveatapistonvolumeof16.8ccplus.Nextwemeasurethevolumeofthecombustionchamber.Thefirststepinpreparingtomeasurecombustionchambervolumeistosealitbyapplyingalayerofgreasetothematingsurfacesoftheinletandexhaustvalves.Nextinstallthesparkplug.Beforeplacingtheacrylictopplateoverthecombustionchamberathinlineofgreaseisapplied.Takecarenottoapplytoomuchoritwillenterthechambertothedetrimentofthemeasurement.Presstheplatedownontothegreaseandfilltheburettewiththeliquiduntilitreachesthezeromark.Tomeasurepistonvolumefirstuseadegreewheeltoattainthreeobjectivessetthepistoncompletewithringsandattachedtothecrankshaftwithyourlongestrodattopdeadcentersquarethepistonwiththedeckandpositionthepistonpininthedeadcenterofthecylinder.Applyathinlineofgreasetosealthetopedgeofthepistontothecylinderandplaceathickacrylicplateoverthecylinder.Theplaterequiresa14inor38indiameterholedrilledwherethecylindermeetsthepiston.Filla100-millilitermLburettegraduatedinccswithacoloredliquidtothezeromarkKaaseusesmineralspiritsErnieElliottusesrubbingalcoholwithagreentint.Thentransfertheliquidtothepistoncavity.ErnieElliottsacrylicpistonplatehasa21.2ccrecessonitsinnersurface.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP49 COMPRESSIONRATIOSBYSAMLOGANface.AndwhydoesthiswearisomeproblemrecurwithsuchrapidityItishardtosaysinceitcanleadtofrustratingrepercussionsfortheracer.Howeveritisknownthatthetwochiefproblemspertaintoblockdeckheightandchambervolume.Chambervolumeismeasuredbyinvertingthecylinderheadontheworkbenchcompletewithtwovalvesandasparkpluginstalledplacingapieceofthickacrylicplasticwitha14inor38indiameterholeinitoverthecombustionchamberfillinga100-milliliterburettegraduatedinccswithacoloredliquidandtransferringtheliquidtothecombustionchamber.Thismeasuringprocessisduplicatedtoestablishthepistonvolume.Blockdeckheightismeasuredfromthecrankshaftcenterlinetotheblockdeckusuallywithsomeformofcaliper.Knowingtheexactblockdeckheightiscrucialbecauseitisusedtoverifyfourvitalmeasurementshalfofthestrokedimensionrodlengthcompressionheightandthepiston-to-deckdimension.Thepiston-to-deckdimensionisthemeasurementfromtheflatofthepistonto50JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalNOWISAGREATTIMETOVISITK-LINEINDUSTRIESONLINEFORGREATDEALSONOURSURPLUSINVENTORY.WEARECLEARINGOURSHELVESOFMANYPOPULARITEMSLIKEVALVESPRINGCOMPRESSORSGRINDINGWHEELSGEARPULLERSANDMOREATGREATPRICES.MANYOFTHESEITEMSAREBEINGDISCONTINUEDSOWHENTHEYREGONETHEYAREGONE.VISITKLINEIND.COMANDCLICKONOURLINKFORALLOFOURSALEITEMSTODAYSURPLUSNVENTORYSALEEBAYS-PALVESGSALVESCGWALVEG-LOREDispensethecoloredliquidfromtheburetteintothechamber.Ifanairbubbleoccurstiltthecylinderheadtobleedtheairthroughthefillhole.Picturedaboveistheconditionforwhichwereaiming.Onreadingtheburettepicturedatrightwelearnedourcombustionchambervolumeis51.7cc.Thisvalueplus1cctoaccountforthevolumearoundthetopringlandandthepistonvolumeinourcase16.8plusarethefiguresthepistonsupplierneeds. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP51 COMPRESSIONRATIOSBYSAMLOGAN52JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalthedecksurfaceisittobepositionedatzeroflushwiththeblockdecksurfaceorplaceddowntheborebyasmallamountMostenginebuildersrequestthepiston-to-deckdimensiontobe.005inor.010indownthebore.Thissmallfudgefactorgivesthemtheabilitytotakeaskimcutoffthedecksatalaterdateifneeded.Thecompressionheightofthepistonalsoknownascompressiondistanceismeasuredfromthecenterlineofthepistonpintotheflatonthetopofthepiston.Oncethesedimensionsareestablishedaccuratelythepistonwillbepositionedatthepreciseheightinthecylinderandthecompressionratiowillbeexactlyasdesired.HoweverwhensomeofthesevitaldimensionsareomittedperhapsthespacesareleftblankortheycontainthewordStockgriefusuallyfollows.Letsassumetheracerhasadesiredcompressionratioof11.91andassumestheblockdeckheighttobestock.Letsfurtherassume10.720inrepresentsstock.ButatsometimeinthepastandunknowntothepresentownertheblockhadvisitedBlockdeckheightisthemeasurementfromthecrankshaftcenterlinetotheblockdeck.Usuallythismeasurementiscapturedbysomeformofdialgaugecaliper.AboveChuckLawrenceofJonKaaseRacingEnginesusesasteelballasanaidtoobtainanaccuratereading.Thenhedeductsthediameteroftheballandaddshalfthecrankmainsjournaldiameter.OnaKaaseBossNineenginethediameterofthemainsjournalis3.193inthereforetoestablishhisblockdeckheighthetakeshisdialgaugemeasurementsubtractsthesteelballmeasurementandadds1.5965in. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP53 54JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalCOMPRESSIONRATIOSBYSAMLOGANamachineshopwherethedeckswerecleanedupandtheheightisinfact10.700inandnot10.720in.Asaresultthe.020indifferenceincompressiondistancewillcausethepistontosithigherintheboreresultinginamuchhigherandunwantedcompressionratioofaround12.51.Savvypistonmakerswithexperienceindifferentraceenginecategorieswilltellyouthatcompressionisamostintriguingtopicandthathavingmoreisnotalwaystoyouradvantage.WhenbettercylinderheadandinductionmanifolddesignsprevailsaysBobFoxlesscompressionisneededbecausetheyaccomplishbettercylinderfilling.Thereforeitcompressesmoreairinagivenarea.Butifthecylinderheadandtheinductionsystemarelessefficientmorecompressionisneededbecausethereislessairinthecylinder.ThequestionthenbecomeshowmuchairarewedrawingintothecylinderButinthemeantimehereishowtoprovideDiamondandotherpistonmakersthevitalinformationoftenmissingfromthepistonorderform.IVictorMoorewhowritesunderthepseudonymSamLoganwasborninavillagenearBallymenaNorthernIreland.AfterhiseducationheimmigratedtoAustraliawherehebeganhiscareerinsaleswithBritishTubeMillsinSydneyNSW.WhiletherehecompetedregularlyinthelocalroadracingsceneandeventuallyreturnedtotheUKwhereheformedafabricatingcompanynearPeterboroughCambridgeshire.Hisfirmspecializedinthedesignofprototypeandproductionchassisandassociatedcomponentsforsportsandracingcars.Inthe1990sheimmigratedtotheUnitedStateswherewithhisAmericanwifeSusanheformedanagencyknownasMooreGoodInkspecializinginadvertisingthepromotionofracecarpartsandtechnicalwriting.SourcesDiamondPistons23003DiamondDriveClintonTownshipMI48035877552-2112www.DiamondRacing.netJonKaaseRacingEnginesInc.735WestWinderInd.ParkwayWinderGA30680770307-0241www.JonKaaseRacingEngines.comWilsonManifolds4700N.E.11thAvenueOaklandParkFL33334954771-6216www.WilsonManifolds.comErnieElliottInc2367ElliottFamilyParkway3DawsonvilleGA30534706265-1346 ABOVEANDBEYONDHONINGDesignedforperformanceandbuiltforproductiontheSV-20istrulyinaclassofitsown.Formoreinformationvisitsunnen.comorcontactyourSunnenrepresentativeat1-800-325-3670.Cylinderhoningmachinesgenerallyfallintotwocategorieslowerpricedmachineswithfeaturestomatchorproductionmachinesthatcostasmallfortune.DevelopedinpartnershipwithindustryleaderJasperEnginesandTransmissionstheSV-20incorporatesthehigh-endfeaturesthatsatisfybothproductionbuildersandperformanceshopsbutatacostthatwontbreakthebank.HereiswhatyougetwiththeSV-20Truelinearstrokingsystemkeepsthehoningtoolconcentricfortheentireborelengthtoproduceconsistentdiameterfromtoptobot-tomcylinderaftercylinderRobust5.5HpspindlemotorispowerfulenoughtodriveSunnensheavy-dutytwo-stagediamondhoneheadsforshortercycletimesandsuperaccuracyRotaryservotoolfeedsystemallowsautomatic2-stagehoning--aroughcycleforfaststockremovalandanishcycleforoptimumboregeometry--withoutstoppingtochangeabrasivesbetweencyclesAdvancedPLCcontrolwithcolortouchscreenallowseasycontrolofallhoningparameterssuchascrosshatchangleautodwellandon-the-ychangingofspindleandstrokespeedsFullboreproledisplayprojectsareal-timeimageoftheborecrosssectionallowingtheusertoquicklyseeproblemareasandnetunetheresultsOptionalrolloverxtureaccommodateslargeV-blockswithdeckplatesattachedevenextrememountainmotorsandmanydieselsInaclassbyitself......SunnensnewSV-202012SunnenSt.LouisMOUSAA12-1engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP55 56JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPowerisafairlypowerfulwordinsomecircles.Thewordpowerbringstomindseveralimagesandmeansdifferentthingstodifferentpeople.Thereispoliticalpowerandthereispeoplepower.Thereisalsoeconomicpower.Womencertainlyhavepowerbutthatiswaybeyondthescopeofthisparticulararticle.Thereisalsopowerintheair.PowerfromthewindsbroughtthefirstexploringsailorswhoevertheyweretotheNorthAmericancontinent.Howeveranimmediateinterestgetsstirredupinmostgearheadsandenginebuilderswhenthetermhorsepowerisusedwhileonlysomearestirredupindiscussionsofairflow.Therelationshipsofthetwotermsareverycloselyjoined.Wehumansarecreaturesthatusetheairtoprovidelifegivingoxygenandourinternalcombustionpistonenginesalsousetheoxygenintheairtohelpmakepower.Itisagiventhatapistonengineisaself-drivenairpumpandassuchthemoreairwecanarrangetogetintoandoutoftheengineallowingittohavethepotentialtomakemorehorsepower.Theinternalcombustionpistonengineneedsthreethingsinordertoproducehorsepowerandshoveavehicleagainsttheresistancesoftheroadwayorracetrack.Thereisacriticalcombustiontriangleoffuelsparkignitionsparkatthesparkplugandairoxygenintheair.Allthecomponentsmustbepresentatthecorrecttimeinthecombustionchamberwherenoiseandhorsepoweraregenerated.YesitisbasicbutconsiderthefourstrokecyclesofafourstrokeengineIntakefreshairgoesintotheengineCompressionwhereairandfuelaresqueezedintoasmallervolumeCombustionwheretheairandfuelmixtureisignitedbythesparkplugandthemixtureexpandsasitburnswhilepushingonthepistonandlastlytheExhaustwheretheburnedgasesandresidueisexpelledfromtheengine.Yesitissimplisticanditisbasicbutkindlynoticethattwooftheeventslistedpreviouslyhavetodowiththemovementofairintoandoutoftheengine.Improvingjustthosetwocyclesefficiencywillimprovethepotentialtomakemorehorsepower.Ifyoucanimprovealltheeventefficienciesyoucanmakemorepowerbutimprovingtheairflowthroughtheenginecaneasilyimprovehorsepower.Ifyoucancapturetheimportanceandcontrolthoseeventsyouarewellonyourwaytomakemorehorsepower.Itisthatsimple.Ifwelearnsomeparticulardetailsabouttheairflowcharacteristicsoftheengineanditscomponentsitisverypossibletopredictwithsomecertaintytheenginespotentialtomakehorsepower.AcarefulanddeliberatestudyoftheairflowoftheFlowingKnowingandGrowingImprovingengineairflowisagoodstarttowardproducingmorehorsepowerBYHAROLDBETTESFigure2.Theseintakevalvesaremadeofthesamematerialtitaniumalthoughshapeddifferentlyyetarethesamediameters.ButdotheyflowthesameOnlytestingonaflowbenchcanrevealthetruthandtheonethatflowsthebestwillhelptheenginetoproducemorehorsepower.Figure1.Theairflowcharacteristicsofenginecomponentssuchascylinderheadsmanifoldsandthrottlebodiesorcarburetorsestablishthecapabilityoftheenginetoproducehorsepower. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP57engineandcomponentsareverybeneficialandprovideaplatformforimprovingthehorsepoweroftheengine.Thestudyoffluidsinmotionairisafluidandisknownbyadescriptiveengineeringtermcalledfluiddynamics.ThemostcommontermusedtodescribeairflowthroughtheengineandcomponentsisCFMcubicfeetperminuteandisavolumemeasurementreferencesometimesreferredtoasvolumetricflowrate.Amassflowweightpertimereferencewouldbesomethingsuchaspoundsofairperunittimeinsecondsminutesorhours.Themassflowoftherunningengineisdependentuponatmosphericconditionsorthelocationofthetestingbeingdone.Theengineshorsepoweroutputissensitivetomassflowwhiletheindividualcomponentssuchascylinderheadsmanifoldscarburetorsorthrottlebodiesarenot.Theassembledandrunningenginerespondstoatmosphericchangesevenwhenthecomponentsboltedtogetherremainthesame.Theatmosphericeffectsandcomponentcomparisonisbeingtestedeverydayondynamometersandracetracks.ThereforethemostcommonreferenceinCFMcanbeaneasywaytocomparemeasurementdatanomatterwherethetestingisbeingdone.Measuringtheresistancetoflowairisessentiallywhatmostflowbenchesdosotheoperatorcanquantifyandcomparecomponents.Theeffectiveairflowdevelopmentofthecylinderheadsandmanifoldsandevencarburetorscanbeevaluatedonaflowbenchandisacriticalprocessintheimprovementofthehorsepowerofanengine.WhencommercialflowbenchescameontheperformancesceneintheUnitedStatesbackinthe1970smanysmallshopsbecamemorecompetitivewithlargerandmorewellfundedoperationsbyhavingawaytonotonlychecktheircylinderheadmodificationsbutanewwaytoimprovetheirwork.Thosethatlearnedfastergrewinspecialtyapplicationsandbecamethegotoguysinmanyareasofthecountry.Thiswasthetimewhenitwasapparentallcylinderheadworkandvalvejobswerenotcreatedequally.Anysmallshopcanfilltheneedandexpandcustomerbasesbyimprovingqualitybyusingaflowbenchasapathwaytogreatersuccess.EngineAirflowEstablishestheEnginesPotentialforHorsepowerIfwecanlearnsomespecificcharacteristicsanddataaboutcylinderheadsitcanbepredictedhowmuchhorsepowerandatwhatRPMitwilloccur.Aflowbenchisthenecessaryandcorrectmachinetouseinordertoaccuratelymeasuretheairflowofthecylinderheadsandotherenginecomponentsthatareintheairflowtract.Ofcoursethereisalsoaninitialassumptionthattheenginesealsproperlynobentvalvesorseizedpartsandthedetailsoftimingandacorrectamountandtypeoffuelisusedandallthoselittlebasicshavenotbeenneglected.Asanexampleifyouhaveanenginethatisan8cylinderof389cubicinchesdisplacementandyouhavesometestingdoneonthecylinderheadsandtheyflow320CFMat28H2Otestpressureat.600valvelift.WhatcanbepredictedfromthatdataItobviouslyhas8cylindersthatdisplace48.625cubicincheseach.Fromtheairflowdataitcanbepredictedthattheenginehasthepotentialtoproduce83.2Hppercylinderor665.6Hpbasedoncylinderheadairflow.Howevertheengineneedstohaveanintakemanifoldandcarburetororthrottlebodyattachedandeachofthoseitemswilltypicallyreducetheairflowavailable.Forthesakeofthisexampleletsguesstimatethemanifoldandcarburetorwouldreducethecylinderheadsairflowbysomethingaround13or41.6CFM.Soournewcalculationofpredictedhorsepowerwouldbebasedonairflowof278.4CFMatatestpressureof28H2O.Nowitwouldhavebeenbettertohaveactuallymeasuredtheairflowofthecylinderheadwiththeintakemanifoldandthecarburetorattachedbutnotmanyfolksactuallydothedetailedworkthatwayalthoughtheyshouldiftheywantaccuratenumbers.YeahsowhatisthenewpredictednumberforhorsepowerwiththechangeslistedpreviouslyTheansweris72.38Hppercylinderor579Hpfortheentireengineworkingproperly.Andthatwouldhappenatsomewherearound6850RPMorso.Atleastithasthatkindofpotentialbasedontheairflownumbersgivenintheexample.Althoughthenumberslistedaboveapplytonaturallyaspiratedgasolinefueledapplicationssuperchargedenginesorenginesusingdifferentfuelscanalsobeimprovedusingairflowtechnologytechniquesgainedfromflowbenchmeasurements.Therearemanyproblemsinnotmeasuringintakemanifoldsandcarburetorsattachedtothecylinderheads.Figure3.Agrinderisaboutthelastthingthatshouldbepickedupwhenplanningonimprovingtheairflowofcylinderheads.Firstyouhavetoknowwhatneedstobedoneinordertobeeffectiveandrandomgrindingmaynotbethecorrectanswer.Oftenwhatlooksgoodmightnotflowwell.Figure4.SuperStockcylinderheadshavespecificrulestofollowandportscanbereshapedbuttheymustmaintainmandatedsizes.Allexhausttestingshoulduseapipetogetcorrectflownumbers.This1000cfmflowbenchprovidesaccuratenumbersfordevelopingcomponentsandkeepsqualitycontrolontheheadsatahighlevel.PhotocourtesyofStuZylstra. FLOWINGKNOWINGANDGROWINGBYHAROLDBETTES58JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalSoonehastobeverywaryofpublishedflownumbersforcylinderheadsandnotplanonmanifoldsreducingtheheadflownumbers.Itmakesadifferenceandtheonlywaytoreallyknowtheairflownumbersistomeasurethemonanaccurateflowbench.Usingaflowbenchisnotverydifficulttolearn.Itisabitmoreproblematictolearnhowtousethedataandhowtoapplythesimplearithmetic.Aswithanyprocesspracticemakesthingsworkmoresmoothlyandmoreexperienceintheapplicationofthetestdataisanothereffectivetoolinyourtoolboxofknowledge.Airflownumberswithouttestpressurereferencesmakestheflownumbersmeaninglessbutmanystillfallfortheflownumbersiftheyarebignumbers.Gettingairintotheenginehasbeenmostofthefocusthusfarbuttheexhaustsidecanandshouldbemeasuredalso.Infactallcylinderheadtestingontheexhaustsideshouldalsoincludetheuseofapipeontheexhaustport.Whilenotascriticallyimportantastheintakesideoftheengineexhaustimprovementscanenhancetheperformanceofacylinderheadbycomplimentingtheintakeflowparticularlyduringtheoverlapevent.CamshaftsandAirflowThereisnowayacamshaftselectioncanmakeupforinadequateairflowforanengine.Simplyputcamshaftscannotcreateairflow.Thevalvetimingeventscanhelptoenhancethebenefitsofwhateverairflowisavailablebuttheycannotcreateairflow.Thatisthekindofstatementsthatstirshateanddiscontentamongsome.Therearemanymythsthatsupportcamshaftsasacureallforenginesthathaveallsortsofotherissuestoovercome.Inadequateairflowofcylinderheadsandintakemanifoldsiswayuponthehitparadeofproblemstobesolvedwhenbuildingformaximumperformance.Andtheonlywaytocheckoutwhatrestrictionsyouhaveintheairflowpathoftheengineistomeasureeachitemonaflowbench.Waytoomanyfolksbelieveinmagicalmethodologyinchoosingcamshaftswhilemanyotherssimplychoosethelastpartnumberonthecatalogpage.Withairflowbaseddatadrivendecisionsthechoiceofacamshaftneednotbearollofthediceortheflipofacoin.CNCVersusHandPortingMostCNCprogramsfirststartedasahandportedportandthentheportisdigitizedinordertocopytheshape.TheusesofCNCequipmenthasincreasedinmanywaysintheaftermarketindustry.TheportingofcylinderheadsbyusingCNCmachinesisquitepopularbutisitbetterthanhandportingItdepends.ItdependsonhowwellthehanddevelopedportwasdigitallymeasuredandthuscopiedbytheCNCoperations.ManyconsiderationsusedbyCNCprogrammersandoperatorsmightnotexactlyduplicatetheoriginalhandportedconfigurationofagoodflowingport.TheCNCmachinedportscanbedonefasterLOSINGMONEYONENGINEPARTSFeaturedProductEngineProHeadBoltswww.goenginepro.comENGINEPROBRANDENGINEPRODUCTSvailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProparts.ADiscovertheprofit-buildingpowerofEngineProbrandengineINNENMNEINEPingpowerofEnYandyourcustomergetsmoreAndtheyrepricedsoyoumakeaprofitproductsmeetorexceedcompetitorsfeatures.vailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProparts.AcompletelinesintheindustrtEngineProHturedProduceaFandyourcustomergetsmoreycompletelinesintheindustrtEngineProHforthemoumakeaprofitcompetitorsfeadfortheengineENINPRBRANDENIPRDUT engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP59thanhandportingandeverythingfromthecoarsenesshowroughoftoolingcutsandhowhardthecuttingtoolisforcedorcrowdedcausingtooldeflectionorwearcancauseproblemswiththefinishedCNCport.Howeveritisbyfarfasterthanhandporting.TheCNCoperationsallowcomparativelyrapidturnaroundtimesfromrawcastingtoafinishedproduct.Howeverwhenallisdonethefinishedpiecestillneedstobemeasuredonaflowbenchasaqualitycontrolcheckingitem.ManyCNCportscanberefinedfurtherbyhandtweakingtheportshapeandmeasuredoftenonaflowbenchsotheprogresscanbetrackedcarefully.Noteveryoneoreveryorganizationdoestheirproductdevelopmentinthesamewaythereismorethanasubtlehintintheresomewhere.UsingaFlowBenchtoImproveQualityandPerformanceTheuseofaflowbenchcancertainlyimprovethequalityofworkanyshoporindividualproduces.Properapplicationofthedatacollectedcanalsoimproveperformanceandincreasethepowerpotentialofthetestedparts.Simpleflowtestingcannotbyitselfprovideanyperformancegainbutcanprovidedatainordertoimprovethepartstested.Ifnothingelseflowtestingpartscanhelptoselectthepartsormodificationsthatprovidebetterflowcharacteristics.Itisveryrarethatbetterflowingpartsdontprovidereliablepotentialforincreasedhorsepower.Theflowbenchcanhelptofindthepartsthatcanmakebuildingmorehorsepowermuchmorelikely.Aflowbenchismuchlessexpensivethanadynamometerandtakesmuchlessfloorspaceandsupportsoitbecomesaneasychoiceasapieceofequipmentthatcanpayforitselfoverasensibleperiodoftime.Itistheshapeoftheairflowingductportthatismuchmoreimportantthansizevolumesojustmakingahugeportisnotthebestanswer.HowdoesonefindthebalanceofshapeandsizeStraightanswerisWithflowbenchtestingexperienceandaccumulationofshapingexperience.TrytogetstartedaccumulatingFigure5.ThisshowstherowsandrowsofcuttingtoolpathsofaCNCmachinedintakeport.HowcanyouknowiftheportflowisanybetterorworsethanahanddevelopedportTheCNCprogrammermightormightnothaveaninterestinairflowbuttheCNCmachinedheadscanbeproducedmuchfasterthandoingthejobbyhand. bothassoonaspossible.Thegoalshouldbetocreateashapethatflowswellwithoutbeingtoobigandthatissometimesatoughbalancetocontrol.HowdoesacombustionchambersshapeaffectairflowItcanbetestedontheflowbench.HaveyouevertakenalookatthecombustionchambershapethathasalaidbackwalldirectlyoppositetheintakeflowpathPerhapsitwasdevelopedonafteraflowtestshoweditimprovedtheintakeairflow.Onecannotguesssoitmustbetested.BuzzwordsAttitudesandKnowingWhatYouAreTalkingAboutThelategreatAmericanphysicistRichardFeynmanstatedIlearnedveryearlythedifferencebetweenknowingthenameofsomethingandknowingsomething.Soperhapsbuzzwordsandthelikearenotnearlyasimportantasthosethatusethemmakethemouttobe.Thereareaverymanybuzzwordsandsomeverbalshorthandconcerningracersandracingandgearheadsingeneralbutwhenitcomestoairflowitsometimesgetsoutofhand.Sometimesthebuzzwordoftheweekgetstossedoutandsomethingelsereplacesitfornoreasonotherthansomeoneelsesnewcommentoropinion.Orperhapsitcomesfromlotsofopinionsonthevarioususesoftheinternet.SohowdoyougettounderstandallthisstuffThereisnotarealneedtodoanythingspecialrelativetoairflowlinguisticsotherthanjustcallitemsasyoulearnaboutthem.Asanexampleaportdoesnotbackupasithasnoreversegear.Theclumsytermsimplymeanstheportflowisdecreasingasthe60JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalFLOWINGKNOWINGANDGROWINGBYHAROLDBETTESFigure67.Thecombustionchamberontheintakesideisofalaidbackdesignthatprobablyenhancestheairflowpathfromdecreasingtheshroudingoftheintakevalve.Theonlywaytobesureistomeasuretheresultsonaflowbench.Figures89.Theverycriticalareaovertheshortsideradiusishardtogettobutveryimportanttoshapeproperlysointakeflowdoesnotseparatefromtheturn.Heretheplaceispointedoutbyusinga316flowball.Anassortmentofflowballsandflowflagsshouldbewithinreachofanyflowbenchtestinginsetphoto.Veryhandytoolsforairflowdevelopmentprojects.Figure10.Hereisasingle-cylinderrapidprototypeplasticheadforanewcleansheetofpaperdesign60degreeV-12engine.Foraviationuseairflowdevelopmentdatafromflowbenchworkindicates800Hpat4600RPMforthenaturallyaspiratedversionandtheturbochargedmodelistargetedfor1600Hpat6000RPM.PhotocourtesyofEPIInc. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP61 valveisopened.Justsaysomethingthatcanbeunderstoodbyatwelveyearoldkid.HowaboutpinchpointMakesyouwanttowatchoutforyourfingersforsurebutitisclumsilydescribingtheportareanearthepushrodonapushrodengineorperhapsitmeansthepointofminimalcrosssectionsomewhereintheportiftheengineisanoverheadcamsetupthusnopushrod.Thetermstallmeanstheportdoesnotgainflowwithmorevalveopening.Theshortsideradiusisafairlydescriptivetermandisanimportantpartofaportsconfiguration.Learnwhereitisandwhyitisimportant.Anattitudeofdesiringtolearnandperhapsapplythatlearningtoimprovingyourbusinessorperhapseventostartabusinessbasedonwhatyoulearnisworthwhilebutnotnecessarilyaneasypath.Theflowmeasurementpathistheknowingpathtowardsuccess.Sometimesitismorecosteffectivetouseamodelcylinderheadforairflowdevelopmentandrapidprototypepiecescanbegeneratedifbudgetisavailablebeforeafinaldesignissettledon.Asensibleapproachtoairflowdevelopmentsavescountlesshoursanderrors.Anindividualorasmallshopcanworkonbrokenheadsormanifoldsbeforeafinalproductdesignisdecidedspeedingupthedevelopmentprocess.Theinertiaofalargershopcanbeadetrimenttosuccessifinnovativeandresultsorientedpersonnelarenotinthecylinderheaddepartment.Tryyourverybesttokeeplearningandtohelpotherstolearn.Watchoutwithairflowhoweverasitbecomesquiteaddictiveinaverygoodway.Thereispowerintheairbutitisuptoyoutonotjustfinditbuttoapplyitaspartofyourbusinessplanorracingprogram.IHaroldBettesisauthorofEngineAirflowandco-authorofDynoTestingandTuning.Hehasbeenamechanicalengineerforover40yearsandhasbeeninvolvedinmotorsportsinonefashionoranotherformorethanhalfacentury.Haroldisarecipientofmanyawardsforhiscontributionsinfurtheringmechanicalengineeringinthemotorsportsindustryandaftermarket.Heisanactiveconsultantontestfacilitiesequipmentandracingengineconfigurationsanddesigns.HeisalsowritinganovelaboutexperiencesinSoutheastAsiaMexicoandTexas.FLOWINGKNOWINGANDGROWINGBYHAROLDBETTES62JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP63 64JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalIsyourblindfoldonKidshaveplayedblindmansbluffforyears.Thegameisnormallyplayedinaspaciousareausuallyoutdoorsorinalargeroom.Onekidistaggeditblindfoldedandthenreachesoutattemptingtotouchtheotherplayerswhilenotbeingabletoseethem.Allthewhiletheothersarehidinginplainsightjustinfrontofthetaggeditperson.Goodold-fashionedfunrightWellhowfunisblindholecylinderboringthoughBlindmansbluffisideallyplayedinanareafreeofdangerousobstructionssothepersonblindedcanavoidinjuryofthemselvesandtheirfellowplayers.Blindholeboringandhoningisbasicallyobstructive.Anditcertainlydoesntaffordthemachinistthatluxury.Itisntconsideredawholelotoffuneither.Boringaholetoaspecifieddepthwithoutbreakingthroughtotheothersidecanbeadauntingchallengetoonesconfidence.Blindholeboringhoningandsleevinghasbeenmysterioustosomepeopleovertheyears.Thetermblindisabitmisleadingwhenwelookintoaboreandseeexactlywhatwehavetodo.Butonceunderaboringbarandnolongerseeingwhatsbeingmachinedwereblindlyhopingthatbarandcutterwilldothejobwithoutcuttingsomethingwhichwasntintended.Therearenumerousblindholemotorsthroughouttheindustriesweallmaydealwith.ThisincludesoldoilpumpstosinglecylindervintagemotorcyclesorOMCJohnson-EvinrudeandMercuryoutboardmotors.FromvintageSaabfourcylinderstotodayscurrent2.5LSubarustheyreallapossibilitytowalkintheshopdoor.Wheresomeapprehensionstartsinonesmindiswhatifthecuttertoolgoespastthesafeareathushurtingthecylindercrashesthroughthesaddlesorwhatevernightmareonesmindcanthinkup.Somemachineshopswillturnthosejobsawaybutitshardtoblametheshopsinsomecasesthough.Onceuncomfortablethemachinistdoesntconfidentlythinkthemoneycominginfortheworkwillcoverthemoneygoingoutofpocketiftheholeiscutincorrectly.Itisunnervingbutfranklyyoucandothis.Boringsleevingandhoningareelementarywhethertheholeisopenorclosed.ThemysteryinthemindoftheinexperiencedBlindMansBluffBYDAVEMETCHKOFFBlindHoleBoringBlindHoleToolingCylinderHoning engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP65machinistiswhathappensifIcantcontrolthestrokeorover-strokeofthecutterNowshopswithCNCboringandhoningmachineryarentasconcernedwiththistypeofjob.Obviouslythecomputerprocessoreliminatestheconcernaboutwhatthemachineisgoingtodo.FranklyifyoureaCNCmachineoperatorandreadingthisyoureprobablywonderingwhyitsevenanissue.IfyoureaCNCoperatoryouvegotthatluxuryofwhatisfigurativelyconsideredanopenspaceinwhichtoworkwith.IftheCNCcuttersareproperlypositionedsimplytagthecontrolbuttonandthemachinedoesthethinkingforyouwithoutconcern.Ifyoureashopwithconventionalmanualboringcentersandhonesandyoureturningawaytheblindborejobgiveyourselfsomecreditplease.IfyoucanboreacylinderblockaV8V4inline4orHarley-Davidsonsinglecylinderroadsteryoucanboreablindhole.Allyoullneedisafewsimpleadditionstoyourmachinearsenalsomeexperienceandfinallyalittleconfidence.Mymachiningbackgroundstartedin1980.Beingafamilybusinessmyfatherorgrandfathershowedmehowsetupanenginelathe.AfterthataturretlatheandlateraverticalSunnenhone.BackinthedaywhenIwasjust13yearsoldyes13thatwasadifferenttimeitwassummertimeandIdsetupinfrontofthelathesteppingonabox.DuringthattimeIlearnedhowtomachinecylindersleevelinersandIlearnedaboutsharpeningmyowncarbidecuttingtoolsonagrinderwheel.Iwastaughthowtoanglethecuttertoeffectivelycutthematerialandeasethejobinfrontofmebecauseofit.AnyofyouwhovebeenatthislongenoughknowwhatImtalkingabout.Itskindofalostartbutitsstillbeingdonebysome.Bythelate80swehadcarbideinsertcuttersandsharpeningtoolssoonbecameforgotten.Ifyoudontalreadyhavethetoolinglyingaroundyourshoptheresplentyofhelpoutthereforyou.ThetechniciansdownatSunnenKwik-WayRottlerLacey-Williamsetc.arealwayseagertohelp.Andofcoursethesalesrepsareeagertosellyouthenecessarytools.Theywillgetyoustarted.Buttogiveyouanideayoushouldhavethesenecessitiesforyourmanualmachiningcenters1Offsetcuttingtoolsallowsforfacingcutsandhorizontalcuts2Boringbarwithoperationalautomaticstop3Dialboregaugecaliperruleretc.4Honingmachine5Honingstoneswithoverextendedwhichclearhead6YoumayneedextendedstoneswhichcanbecustombuiltbySunnenetc.Onceyouveputthosetoolsintheshopinsteadoftryingitoutonyourcustomerspriceless1936Hendersonor1922RollsRoycefindajunkercylindertopracticeon.Anothergoodpracticeitemisanoldreplacementdieselsleeveliner.Itdoesntneedtobeablindholeblockinwhichtopracticeon.Thepracticeofblindholeboringandhoningiswhatyouneedtopracticeon.continued 66JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalHerearecouplesuggesteddrills1Measurelengthofdesiredpass2Setautomaticfeedstop.Ifyoudonthaveanautostoppracticeamanualstopoverandoverandoveragain.Afterpracticinganexpertmaybeborn.Trustyourselfifyoureclosetogettingit3Roughcuttheborealsoknownasroughfacing.Ifyoumastertheautomaticstopyoullraiseyourconfidence.Ifyoumasterthemanualstopyoureonyourwaytobeingamastermachinist.4Finishcuttheboreforsleevepreparationorfinalhoning.Regardingoffsetcutterwesuggestleavingroughly.005ofmaterialthenonyourfinalfinishingcutyoubackthebarintozeroandslowcutorfaceoutthatstepwhichmakesforanicematchingcutreadyforthehoneorsleeveinsertionwhicheveryoureworkingon.5Forsleeveinstallscounterborestepforsleeveatbottomofblock.6Honeironboreorsleeveafterinstall7Asyouawarenoover-strokeinablindholewhenhoningthereforeadditionaldwelltimeneededatthebottomofcylinder.Practicethedwelltimeoverandoverandoveragain.Watchcloselyandmeasureoften.Thedwellcanchangethesizeifheatbuilds.Thetechniquebecomesnaturalasyoupractice.Honepressureandstroketimewillbeeasierasyoulearnovertime.OnceyouvedecidedtopracticethesestepsjustdoitagainPracticemakesadequate.Alotofpracticemakesperfect.Thenpulloffthatfigurativeblindfoldbeconfidentandstartusingyourmachinerytomakeyoumoremoney.Therearenotalotoftechniqueschronicledoutthereaboutthistypeofwork.Thereasonisitsnotthatdifficultaprocess.Itjusttakespractice.Whatsdifficultisprocessingtheprocessoftheprocessinyourmind.Andifyouareabletoprocessthatyourealreadywellaheadofmostmasteringtheblindholemachining.IDaveMetchkofffromL.A.SLEEVECo.Inc.inSantaFeSpringsCA.Formoreinformationcalltoll-free800-822-6005oremailinfolasleeve.com.Websitewww.lasleeve.com.BLINDMANSBLUFFBYDAVEMETCHKOFF engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP67 68JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalEveryonerememberstheoldFordflatheadsandprobablythemostsuccessfulflatheadtheHarley-DavidsonKR750ccsidevalvemotorcycleracers.ButhowmanyrememberthatCadillachadaflatheadtooWehavetalkedaboutCFDComputationalFluidDynamicsandcylinderportinginpreviousarticlesfeaturedinEngineProfessionalmagazineOct-Dec2010andApr-June2012.ButwhathappenswhenreallyoldandnewtechnologiesclashLetstakealookandyoudecide.DesignDreamsLLCwastaskedtotakealookattheportsona575HPblown1940svintageCadillacflatheadstuffedintoa1938ChevyrunningattheBonnevillesaltflats.Firsttaskwastocreatea3DCADmodeloftheheadandvalves.LuckilyDaleHaystheenginebuilderhadmodeledsomeheadsandpartsinSolidWorkssowejustneededtogettheportscreated.ThatwasalmostadealbreakerBuddyWalkerthecarownergotussomegoodmoldsoftheportsbutwestillneededtogetthemscanned.MartyChaderofRapidformandhisstaffsavedthedaywithreadytoinsertportmodels.TheportingmethodwastheusualhotrodapproachmakethemasbigasyoucanandstillclearthewaterjacketsandboltholesthenaddahufferSeeFigures1and2.Firsttaskwastoseewhatkindofcorrelationwecangetwiththeflowbench.WeknowthatalloftheCADpartsdonotmatchtheflowedpartsbuttheflowcurvesshowedthesametrendifnotthesamenumbers.E.g.Themaxliftwas.500intheflowtestand.450inthemodelbecausetheCADheadgasketwasthinner.Weknowfromflowtestingthat.040willbumptheflow10sothatsprettymuchspotonSeeFigure3.ButwewilllookatalittlemorethanjusttheCFMatthedesignatedlifts.Internalstreamliningisjustlikeitsexternalcounterpartinthattheshapeshouldhavefirstpriorityandthenthesizeisadjustedtofitorclearthecomponents.SeeFigure4.WhenweplottheflowcoefficientsinternaldragweseethattheflowtestFlatCaddymeetsCFDBYDAVIDC.WOODYWOODRUFF12 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP69andtheCFDagreeverywell.SeeFigure4.SamebasicshapeTheflowcoefficientslikethecoefficientofdragCdallowyoutodirectlycomparedifferentshapeswithoutknowinganyflownumbers.ButnoticetheCFDflowismoreefficientatlowerlifts.MaybearethinkisneededhereAllthepressuredropatlowerliftismainlyacrossthevalveandseatsosubtlechangescanhavebigeffectshere.MightbeworthwhiletoquantifytheexactdifferencesintheCADmodelandtheflowtests.Whenweplottheportareasatangularintervalsweseetheportareasdonotchangeinaregularmannerespeciallyatthevalveguideboss.SeeFigure5.AirdoesnotlikechangesindirectionsorsectionsItwantstobepersuadednottorturedCorrectingthiswillimprovetheflowandthecoefficientsTheHarley-DavidsonKRportswerereshapedreduced30inareaandstillmademoreHPIfweplottheairvelocitieswecanseetheslowordeadairblueandwheretheairismovingfastred.Ruleofthumbistofillthelowvelocityareasandfilethehighvelocityareastogettheflowgoinginthedesireddirections.Startmassagingtheextremesinamethodicalmanner.Thishastobedonein34675 70JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalFLATCADDYMEETSCFDBYDAVIDC.WOODYWOODRUFFreasonablestepsaseachchangeaffectsthethreedimensionalairflowinteractions.Rememberalltheselittlepressurechangestalktoeachotheratthespeedofsound.AnaddedbonuswithCFDiswecangetinsightintothevalvecurtainflowfields.Wecreateasurfaceinthecenterofthevalveseatthatwecaninterrogateforfluidparameterssuchasvelocity.SeeFigures6and7onthepreviouspageandFigure8picturedright.LookattheseandponderwhateffectsthesurroundingheadandvalveshapesmighthaveBetterstilldontguessTESTCFMistheWHATofairflowandCFDistheWHYofairflowFlatCaddyhasrun154mphwith575HPNowthegoalis200mphwithsomeaeromodsandlotsmoreHPComeseeitrunatBonnevilleinAugustIDavidC.WoodyWoodruffCMfgEispresidentofDesignDreamsLLC.Formoreinformationcall513403-3165E-mailDesign_Dreamscinci.rr.comWebsitewww.designdreams.bizwww.rapidform.comwww.flatcadracing.orgwww.scta-bni.orgFlatCaddyhasrun154mphwith575HPNowthegoalis200mphwithsomeaeromodsandlotsmoreHPComeseeitrunatBonnevilleinAugust8 OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonpage98andreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP71twitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraep 72JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalAsincreasinglystrictgovernmentandinternationalmaritimeregulationsarephasedintoreduceharmfulemissionsproducedbylargetonnageshipstheneedforonboardin-usetestingservicescapableofdeliveringtheaccuratecontinuousemissionsdataneededhasalsoarisen.SlowlybutsurelytheshippingindustryisbeingforcedtocleanupemissionssuchasNOxSO2andparticulatematterthatislargelyresponsibleforsignificantonshorepollution.Althoughmuchworkhasbeendonetocleanupportsandmarineterminalsthemselvesthenextbigtargetislargetonnageoceangoingvesselsdocksidevesselsharbour-craftandoffshoredrillingrigs.TheprimaryregulatoryagenciesdrivingthischangeincludetheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAtheInternationalMaritimeOrganizationIMOwithitsMARPOLguidelinesandtheCaliforniaAirResourcesBoardCARB.CARBinparticularhastakenaleadershiprolewithsomeofthemoststringentemissionreductionmeasuresanddeadlines.ThisisnotsurprisinggiventhatSouthernCaliforniaportshandle40percentofallUSnationalconsumerimports.AsaresultthePortofLongBeachandPortofLosAngelesareamongthenationshighestpolluters.AccordingtotheSouthCoastAirQualityManagementDistrictSCAQMDoceangoingvesselsareamongthelargestsourcesofnitrogenoxidesNOxemittingmorethanallpowerplantsandrefineriesintheareacombined.Shipsalsocontributeapproximately70percentofemissionsofsulphurdioxideSO2aswellasparticulatesthatcreatesignificanthealthrisksforarearesidents.Anotherpointofconcernisthatforeigntradehasgrowndramaticallywhichmeansmorecontainersmoregeneratorsandlargerengines.Asaresultpollutionfromshippingandportoperationsisgrowingasapercentageoftotalemissions.Fortunatelytheclean-upisalreadywellunderwayattheports.Overthepastdecademarineterminalownershaveworkedtoretrofitandcleanupportgroundandcargomovingequipmentandturnedtoalternativefuelelectricandhybridtruckstrainsandtugboats.NowthefocusisturningtocleaninguplargeoceangoingvesselstheirmainC3dieselenginesandmanyauxiliaryenginessuchasdieselgenerators.Cruiseshipsinparticularcanhave20-30suchenginestosatisfytheirextensivepowerrequirements.Dieselemissionsfromcruiseshipswhileatportareasignificantsourceofairpollutionwithone-thirdofthetotaloccurringwhileidlingatberth.Theseeffortswillrequireretrofittingexistingengineswithaftermarketemissionscontrolproductsorreplacementwithnewerlowemissiongreenengines.AlthoughthissoundssimpleenoughandissimilartothepathstakenbyotherindustriestargetedbytheEPAtocleanupdieselenginestheabsenceoftestingservicesandproductsspecifictotheshippingindustryhasbeenaroadblocktoprogress.TestingtomeetnewregulationsUntilrecentlycomprehensivetestingservicesthatmeettherequirementsofeveryexistingregulationhavenotbeenavailabletoshippingcompanies.Neitherhavethecommercialdevicesrequiredtoconductthetesting.ThereareseveralhandhelddieselenginetestingdevicesapprovedbytheEPAonthemarketbutmostdonotmeetallOnboardtestingtoclean-upshippingBYMARKADAIR engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP73theregulationsofISO8178testingrequiredbyCARBEPAandIMO.Manyareelectrochemical-basedanalyzersasopposedtothechemiluminescentdetectorsoutlinedinthetestprotocol.ManycannotbecalibratedeitheranotherISO8178requirement.TomeetalltheregulationslaidoutbyCARBIMOandtheEPAanonboardtestingservicewouldnotjustbeasnapshotofengineperformancebutwouldhavetoincludeongoingin-useperformancetestingovertimetomeettheISO8178testingprotocols.SuchmonitoringisrequiredbyboththeEPAandCARBtodemonstrateperformanceoveranestablishedperiodoftimeandthisiswheredifficultycomesin.Thetypeoftechnologiesusedtocleanupthoseindustrieswillessentiallybethesameweusetocleanupshipsbutthedifferenceisthatallthoseemissioncontroltechnologiesweredevelopedinlaboratorytestcellsundercontrolledconditionswithenginesremovedfromequipmentandsenttothelab.Youcantpullanengineofftheseships.Thisessentiallymeansthetestingservicehastoincludedevicesthatremainonashipover-timeconstantlymonitoringemissionsideallywithminimaldisruptiontoshipscrewandlimitedaccesstotheshipitself.SoanewservicetomeettheserequirementsneedsacceptableemissionsdatathatalsomeetstheISO8178standardsforin-useemissiontesting.IdeallytheyshouldalsobeabletoperformtheInternationalAirPollutionPreventionIAPPenginere-certificationrequiredbytheIMOandtheEPA.Thiscouldincludeanemissionmonitoringunitthatremainsonthevesselovertimewithinformationfromtheseunitsrelayedwirelesslytoasecureonlinedatabaseaccessibleovertheinternet.ThistransmissionofinformationwouldalsohelpacompanytoadheretoCARBsTitle13Div.3VerificationProcedureWarrantyandIn-useComplianceRequirementsforIn-UseStrategiestoControlemissionsfromDieselEngines.TheVerificationProcedurecallsformeasurementsofexhaustbeforeandaftertreatmentbyaNOxemissionreductiondevicewhileestablishingin-useperformanceanddurabilityoveranestablishedtimeperiod.AccordingtotheprocedurethemassemissionsofNOxbothupstreamanddownstreamoftheaftertreatmentdevicemustbemeasuredandrecordedovertheentiredemonstrationperiod.Thedocumentgoesontooutlinethatdatamustberecordedatintervalsnogreaterthan10secondsmustincludeaccuratedateandtimestampsthatcorrespondwithengineoperationandmustbesubmittedelectronicallyallfactorsthatneedtobeaddressedbyanytechnologyusedforthiskindofemissionsmonitoring.Thegoalistoeliminatetheneedtogobackonboardtheshiprepeatedlyaftertheequipmentisinstalledsowirelesstransmissionofdataandremoteaccesswouldbeessentialinthisregard.TheuseronshorecouldconducttestscalibrateequipmentchangesettingsandeventroubleshootusingalaptoporsmartphonewhiledrinkingcoffeeatStarbucks.TheabilitytomonitorresultsisparticularlyimportantduringthedurabilitystepofCARBsverificationprocess.Emissionscontrolproductsfordieselgeneratorsarerequiredforexampletobetestedoveraperiodof500operatinghoursataskthatcouldtake6monthsonboardavessel.Afailureduetohumanerrorortheengineitselfwouldrequirere-startingthedurabilitytestfromscratch. 74JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalONBOARDTESTINGBYMARKADAIRSM1000ForOnly21250TheBestSurfacerOnThePlanetPrecisionsurfacingthatyoucanrelyontolastmanygenerations.Bercohas90plusyearsofmanufacturingqualitymachinesthatlastalifetimeJointhethousandsofshopsthathaveexperiencedthequalityofBercobutnowatanaffordableprice.Insteadofdiscoveringthisafterthe500hourshadelapsedsporadictestsrunwhiletheequipmentisonboardwouldindicatetheneedtore-startthetestfromshoresavingvaluabletime.IndustrybenefitsTheavailabilityofsuchonboardin-usetestingservicesthatmeettherequirementsofalltheexistingregulationswillbenefittheshippingindustryonmanysignificantlevels.Tostartshippingcompaniescanconductindependentprivatetestingtoestablishabaselineofexistingengineperformancebothforthemainenginesandthemanyauxiliaryenginesusedthroughouttheshipthatfactorintotheshipstotalemissions.Thisbaselinecouldbeusedtosimplydeterminehowmuchcleanupimprovementwillberequiredinthecomingyearsortoidentifywhichenginesarecontributingthemostpollutionandneedrepair.Testingserviceswillalsoplayakeyroleinidentifyingemergingemissioncontroltechnologiesthatcanberetrofittedonships.Shipownersareconstantlypliedwithnewproductsthatclaimtosignificantlyreduceemissions.Atestingservicethatcanmeasureemissionsbeforeandafterthedevicewillallowshipownerstoseparateemissioncontrolproductsthatworkasadvertisedfromthosethatdont.Testingisalsocriticaltothemanufacturersoftheemissioncontrolproductsthemselves.ToobtainverificationasaCARB-approvedproductforexampleanemissioncontrolproductmanufacturermustpresentpreliminarytestdatatodemonstratetheviabilityoftheproduct.Thentheymustsecurethecooperationofawillingshiptotesttheproductin-usewheremultiplebaselineandposttreatmenttestsmustbeconducted.Establishingproductdurabilityisanotherkeystepintheprocessrequiringin-usetestingoveranestablishedperiodoftime.FinallytheenginemanufacturersthemselveslookingtosellnewgreenerenginestotheshippingindustrywillneedtestingthatmeetsalltheregulationsaspartofitsRD.AlthoughregulatorycomplianceisaprimarydrivermanyshippingcompaniesalsoseesignificantcompetitiveandevenPRadvantagestobeingattheforefrontofthegreenfleetmovement.ProactivefleetscanalsotakeadvantageofpotentialgrantfundsfromlocalstateandfederalagenciessuchastheEPAforairemissionreductionsthatgobeyondcurrentregulatoryrequirements.IMarkAdairistheinventoroftheGreenLinkSystemsfamilyofproductsandhasbeenanemissionscontrolproductexpertforthepast28years.GreenLinkSystemsoffersarangeofonboardemissionsmeasurementandmonitoringequipmentwhichcanbeusedtofulfilltherequirementsofIMOEPAandCARBmaritimein-useemissionstestinglegislationandtheirOn-BoardEmissionsTestingistheonlyserviceprovidingCARBIMOandEPAacceptableemissionsdatathatalsomeetstheISO8178standardsforin-useemissiontesting. 76JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalAnoftenoverlookedcriticalstepinanyenginebuildistheprimingoftheengineoilpumpandtheentirelubricationsystempriortoinitialstart-up.Theseproceduresshouldoccurascloseintimetotheinitialenginestart-upnotaweekbefore.Properlyprimingwillnotonlyhelptoassureatrouble-freerebuiltengineitmayprovideearlycluestoengineoilleakareas.Therearetwopreferredmethodstoprimeoilpumpsandnewlyassembledengines.Thefirstmethodcoversoilpumpswhicharedrivenbythecamshaftandthesecondcoversthosedrivenbythecrankshaft.Thisinformationshouldbeusedinconjunctionwithanyoriginalequipmentmanufacturersuppliesfortheirspecificenginesonesuchexampleisdescribedbelow.PrimingCamshaftDrivenOilPumpsThesepumpsaretypicallyreferredtoaswetsumppumpssincetheysitlowintheengineoilpanandarepartiallysubmergedintheengineoil.Firstsubmergetheinletoftheoilpumpincleanengineoilandrotatethedriveshaftinthecorrectdirection.IfpumpdoesnotpumpchangedirectionofshaftrotationuntiloilflowsfromtheoutletofthepumpDraintheexcessoilfrompumpandinstallitontheengine.Attachanoilpressuregaugetotheoilpressureportintheengine.Thenfilltheoilfilterandinstallitontheengineandfilltheenginewithoil.Installthecorrectprimingtooloramodifieddistributordriveshaftintotheengineandengagetheoilpumpdriveshaft.Attacha12electricdrilltotheexposedendoftheprimingtoolandspintheoilpumpataminimumof500RPM.Continuetospintheoilpumpuntiloilreachestherockerarms.Itisagoodideatorotatethecrankshaft360degreeswhilespinningtheoilpumpduringpriming.Theoilpumpandenginearenowprimed.Enginestart-upshouldoccurverysoonafterthispoint.PrimingCrankshaftDrivenOilPumpsThistypeofoilpumpcannotbeturnedwithoutturningthecrankshaftorbyaprimingtoolsowerecommendusingapressureprimingtanksuchastheMellingMPL-101.Usethistypeoftanktoprimetheenginewithnewoilasclosetotheimmediatetimebeforeinitialstart-up.Beforeassemblingtheoilpumptotheenginepourasmallamountofengineoilintotheoilpumpandrotatetherotorsetbyhand.Thusallowingthenewcleanoiltocoattheentireinternalsurfacesofthepumpandrotor.Mountthepumpassemblyontotheengineusingthepropertorquevalues.Oncetheengineisfullyassembledfilltheoilfilterwithcleanoilandassembleittotheengineaswell.Attachthepre-lubetanklinetotheoilpressureportontheengine.Thenfillthepre-lubetankwithuptofourquartsofdesiredengineoilandclosethevalveonthetopofthetank.Pressurizethepre-lubetankwithshopairandthenslowlyopenthevalveonthetankreleasingtheoilandallowingittoflowintotheengineoilgalleries.Whiletheoilisbeingtransferredfromthepre-lubetankintotheengineslowlyrotatetheengine360degreesonefullturn.Oncealltheoilhastransferredintotheengineyoullhearagurglingsoundfromthetankturnthevalveoffquicklyasyoudontwanttoforcetheoiloutofthesystem.Theengineisnowprimedandenginestart-upshouldoccurverysoonafterthispoint.Pleasekeepinmindtheoilbeingusedfortheprimingoperationsdescribedaboveshouldbethedesiredoilforaspecificengineorperformancebreak-inoil.Whilesomecompaniesindicatetheirenginesareprimedatthefactorythatprocesswasdoneforotherreasonsanddoesnotassureanyonetheoilsystemisprimedatanylaterpointintime.Theoilsusedforthoseoperationsmaybehydraulicfluidandisonlyusedtoestablishoilpressureandcheckforleaks.Themajorityofthatoilisdrainedlongbeforetheengineisshipped.IMikeOsterhausistheProductDevelopmentManagerforMellingEnginePartsJacksonMI.Formoreinformationpleasecontacthimat517-787-8172oremailmosterhausmelling.com.EditorsNoteToreferenceatechvideoonthistopicgotowww.melling.comAftermarketTechTipVideos.aspx.TypicalGMgearatorstyleoilingsystemOilPumpandEnginePrimingBYMIKEOSTERHAUS 78JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalCONFERENCERECAPBYSTEVEFOXAERAkickedoffthe2013TechSkillsConferencesinCupertinoCAoutsideofSanJoseatDeAnzaCollege.Thosewhoattendedweretreatedtosomegreatpresentationsandwereabletotakebacktotheirshopsomethingthattheycoulduserightaway.SpeakersatthiseventincludedDemaElginwhospokeaboutMatchingAirflowtotheValveTrainDaveHagenofAERAwalkedpeoplethroughAERAsPRO-SISSAProgramGaryReedfromLock-N-StitchinformedthegroupaboutUnderstandingCastIronandCrackRepairMethodsandLakeSpeedJr.ofDrivenRacingOilsspokeaboutTheHistoryofMotorOils.DeAnzaCollegehasanicefacilityandifanyoneisoutintheareatheyshouldstopandtakealook.ThesecondTechSkillsConferencewasheldinNASCARcountryinWelcomeNCatRichardChildressRacing.AbigthanksgoesouttoBillMcKnightofMahleandLakeSpeedJr.ofDrivenOilsforhostingthiseventatRCR.ThecomplexasitwasreferredtowasoutstandingandtheyareaonestopshopasmostNASCARfacilitiesaretheycandoprettymuchanythingfromA-Zontheirracecars.DuringlunchatRCRtheattendeesweretreatedtoashorttourofthecomplexbyMichaelHumlanwhowasagreathostforourgroup.ForthoseofyouthatmissedthisconferenceitlookslikewemightbeheadingtoanotherNASCARshopin2014andyouwilldefinitelynotwanttomissitRoundingoutthefirstpartof2013wastheLibertyEnginePartsConferenceheldinPittsburghPAthefirstpartofJune.ThiswasthethirdtimeLibertyEnginePartshostedaTechSkillsConferenceatoneoftheirwarehousesandonceagaintheydidagreatjob.TheattendeesweretreatedtopresentationsfromScooterBrothersof2013AERATechSkillsConferencesstartstrongGaryReedfromLock-N-StitchgaveapresentationonprovenrepairmethodsfordamagedcastironattheDeAnzaTechSkillsConferenceinCupertinoCAonApril13th.TheMahleandDrivenRacingOilTechSkillsConferencewasheldatRichardChildressRacinginWelcomeNConMay16th. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP79CompCamsRichardMaskinofDartMachineryandTreyMcFarlandofMahleMotorsports.Everyoneinattendancereceivedadoorprizeandpickedupsomegreatinformationfromthepresentationsaswellasnetworkingwithothermachineshops.TherearestillfourlocationsthatwillbehostingaTechSkillsConferenceduring2013andtheyareasfollowsSeptember18-19HostedbyAERAandPERAatAERMfg.CarrolltonTXSeptember27HostedbyRottlerKentWAOctober9HostedbyPartsWarehouseSupplyKansasCityMOOctober26HostedbySunnenandDartatMacombCommunityCollegeWarrenMIIfyouhaveneverbeentoaTechSkillsConferencewehighlyrecommendyouattendoneYouwillhavetheabilitytotalktomanufacturersandalsonetworkwithothermachineshopswhichiswhattheseconferencesareallabout.WelookforwardtoseeingyouataconferencesoonLookforupdatesonourwebsiteatwww.aera.orgconferences-events.IAttendeesvisitedexhibitorsattheLibertyEnginePartsConferenceheldinPittsburghPAonJune8th.AERATechnicalSpecialistSteveFoxhasover25yearsexperienceintheenginebuildingindustrywith10ofthoseyearsspentworkinginthemachineshop.SteveisanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistaswellasalongtimememberofthedragracingcircuit. 80JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalTECHSIDEBYLAKESPEEDJR.Viscosityisthemostimportantpropertyofalubricantbutwhocanexplainthedifferencebetweena10W-30anda20W-50Ifyouthinkoneisa10whenitiscoldandtheotherisa50whenitishotthencountyourselfwithmostpeople-Wrong.Dontworryorfeelbadmostpeopleoutsideofoillaboratoriesdontknowthetruemeaningbehindthesenumbers.Howeverunderstandingviscosityunlockstheabilitytoreducewearimprovefueleconomyandmakemorehorsepower.ForstartersWdoesnotstandforWeight.ItstandsforWinterandthatisthekeytounderstandingviscositygrades.A10W-30isamulti-grademotoroilandasthenameimpliesitmeetsmorethanonegrade.ThisgoesbacktothatWinterthing.40yearsagoyouhadbothWintergradesforcoldweatherandSummergradesforhotweather.AtypicalWintergradewas10W.AtypicalSummergradewas30.Weoftenrefertotheseoilsasstraightgradeoils.A10Wflowswellincoldweathersoitprotectstheengineatstartupincoldweather.ThatiswhyithastheWafterthe10.WstandsforWinterbuta10WistoothinforuseintheheatoftheSummer.Soyouwouldchangetoa30Summergradeoilthatwasthickenoughtoprotectintheheat.Thatiswhymulti-gradeoilswereinvented.A10W-30hasboththeWintercoldstartupflowpropertiesofa10WandtheSummerhightemperaturethicknessofa30grade.Amulti-gradeoilallowstheoiltostayasclosetotheoptimumviscosityoverarangeoftemperatures-nottoothickwhenitiscoldandnottoothinwhenitishot.Thedifferencebetweena0W-30anda10W-30ishowwellitflowsatlowtemperature.WintergradeoilsmustnotonlyallowtheenginetocrankinthecoldofWinterbutalsopumpoilthroughtheengine.DependingonifyouareinMinnesotaorMississippithelevelofWintercrankingprotectionrequiredvaries.Whilea10W-30flowswellenoughonacoldmorninginMississippiyouneeda0W-30fora-30FmorninginMinnesota.ObviouslythecoldertheenvironmentalowerWprovidesbetterstart-upprotection.Howeverviscositychangeswithtemperatureandoilgetsthinnerasitgetshotter.TheviscosityofoilwhenitgetshotismeasuredusingadifferenttestthanwhenoiliscoldsothenumbersaftertheWdontrelatetothenumbersinfrontoftheW.Thedifferencebetweena10W-30anda10W-40istheSummerhightemperatureviscosity.Obviouslya10W-40isthickerthana10W-30athightemperature.SonowthatyouknowallaboutviscositygradeshowdoyouusethisknowledgeUsingtoohighofaviscosityoilcanresultinexcessiveoiltemperatureandincreaseddrag.Usingtoolowofaviscosityoilcanleadtoexcessivemetaltometalcontactofmovingparts.Usingthecorrectviscosityoilreducesfrictionandwear.Forimprovedstartupprotectionuseasynthetic10W-40insteadofaconventional20W-50.OnacoolSpringnighttheconventional20W-50hasahardertimeflowingtothebearingsandvalvetrain.Thesynthetic10W-40flowseasilywhichreducesstart-upwearyetitstillmaintainsenoughviscositywhenitgetshottoprotectbearingsandpistonskirts.Theimprovedtemperaturestabilityofsyntheticsmakethemabetterchoiceforraceenginesandserioushighperformanceengines.Evenwithasyntheticviscositystillchangeswithtemperaturesoselectingthecorrectviscosityforanapplicationrequiresknowingtheoperatingtemperatureoftheoil.Enginesthatrunhighoperatingoiltemperaturesrequirehigherviscosityoil.Enginesthatrunlowoiltempsrequirelowerviscosityoil.Theoperatingtemperatureoftheoilplaysamajorroleintheselectionoftheproperviscosityoil.ForexamplelookatanNHRAProStockengineaNASCARSprintCupengineandaWorldofOutlaws410Sprintengine.Eachenginehasaverydifferentoperatingoiltemperature100F220Fand300F.AsaresultallthreeenginesrunverydifferentviscosityoilsSAE0W-5SAE5W-20andSAE15W-50.ThelowertheoiltemperatureisthelowertheSAEyoucanrunandviceversa.Itisimportanttokeepclearancesinmind.Looserclearancesintheengineandoilpumprequirehigherviscosityoiltomaintainoilpressure.Tighterclearancesneedlowerviscosityoilwhichprovidesbettercoolingandimprovedhorsepower.Armedwithknowledgeofviscositygradesyoucannowselecttherightviscosityforyourengine.Inreturnyoucanreducethewearinyourengineimprovefueleconomyandmakemorehorsepower.IfyouhaveanyquestionsregardingviscositygradesandselectingthecorrectviscositylubricantpleasecontactDrivenRacingOilat1-866-611-1820orvisitDrivenRacingOil.com.ILakeSpeedJr.fromDrivenRacingOilisthesonofLakeSpeedSr.whoracedinNASCARfrom1980to1998.Formoreinformationcallat704239-4401ore-maillspeeddrivenracingoil.com.Findmoretechnicaldataatwww.drivenracingoil.com.ViscocityDoesyourweightmakethegrade DRIVENRACINGOIL.COM866611-1820Oilisthelifebloodofanyengine.Whenitcomestohighlycomplexper-formanceenginesitscriticaltochoosetheoilthatmeetsyourenginesspecif-engineoilsrestassuredthatlubricanttechnologyisconstantlyevolvingatthehighestlevelsofmotorsportsandDrivenRacingOilisamajorplayerinthosedevelopments.Onesuchbreak-throughthatDrivenhasrecentlyincor-poratedintoallitssyntheticoptionsismPAOanext-generationsyntheticbaselubricant.Whileyoumayneverhaveheardthisnamebeforewhatthisstuffdoeswillimpressanyonewhoun-derstandsthedifferencebetweenpis-tonsandpetunias.ByusinganmPAObaseforcreatingitsperformancelubri-cantsDrivenisabletocreatealight-weightmotoroilthatretainsahighHTHSHighTemperatureHighShearviscositytogiveyouthebestlubricantpossible-anoilthatslesssensitivetoheatdoesntbreakdownunderextremefrictionandjustplainworksbetter.WinningchampionshipsatthehighestlevelsofmotorsportsistheprimarygoalofDrivenRacingOilsowhileotherbrandsmayclaimtobeperfor-manceoilsonlyDrivenbacksitupbyactuallyracingthesamestuffyoucanbuyofftheshelf.OnlyDrivenRacingOilputstheverysameoilitsellstoyouineveryJoeGibbsracingengine.Fromfullsyntheticraceoilstoenginebreak-inoilsDrivenRacingOiloffersawiderangeofrace-winningproductsthatdeliverperformanceprotectionandvalue.CountlesshoursoftestingandmillionsofdollarsinRDhavebeendevotedtoDrivenRacingOilproducts-andtheresultsspeakforthemselves.untilnowhasbeenPAOwhichisquiteabitbetterthananyconventionalasitfeaturesanindexnumberof140.mPAOhasaviscosityindexof200solidevidenceofitsenhancedlubri-cationpropertiesDynotestsshowthatenginesconsis-tentlygainone-and-a-halfhorsepow-erwiththenewoilformulationscon-tainingmPAO.AsyoucanseethisisahugeadvanceinoiltechnologyandDrivenincludeditinallofitssynthet-icoilsautomatically.Manymotoroilmanufacturersifgiventheopportu-nitywouldhavecreatedabrand-newproductusingmPAOandgivenitanultra-premiumpricetomatchitsper-formance.ButDrivenwhichcurrent-lyistheonlycompanywithaccesstothisnext-generationtechnologyhaschosentouseiteverywhereitcanatnoadditionalcosttoitscustomers.9106jInnovationsInLubricantTechnology-ZeroCompromisesConsiderthatlubricationscientistsusetocomparethequalityofdifferentbaseoils.TheindexisbasedonPenn-sylvaniaCrudewhichisthehighestqualityconventionaloilyoucandrillfor.PACrudehasaviscosityindexof100.Theverybestsyntheticbaseoil 82JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalAreyoulookingforawaytopromoteyourbusinessandpossiblygetnewcustomersWellifyouareandyouarenotonFacebookyouprobablyneedtobe.WiththegrowingpopularityofFacebookithasbecomeoneofthebestwaystopromoteabusinesstoday.Ifyouhaveawebsiteforyourbusinessthenthatismostlikelyyourfirstoptionforyourbusiness.WellletsaddanotheroptionhavingaFacebookpage.Thesocialmediasiteisbecomingoneofthelargesttrafficsitesontheinternet-trafficthatcouldbevisitingyourpageandlearningwhatyourcompanyhastooffer.1SelectcategoriesandcompanynameTobegintheprocessonFacebookyouwillchoosethemaincategorywhichmostlikelywillbeCompaniesandOrganizations.Afteryouhavechosencompaniesandorganizationsyouwillhavetheabilitytochooseasub-category.Thereareseveraltochoosefromandyouwillneedtopicktheonethatbestdescribesyourbusiness.Oncethecategoriesareselectedyouneedtogivethepageaname.Youwillwanttousethenameofthebusinessandnotyourpersonalname.Ifsomeoneistryingtofindyourcompanyspagetheywillseethecompanysname.WhymakeitharderforthemtolocateyouwhensomeonewantstoseewhatyourcompanyisuptoonFacebookKeepitsimpleandjustusethecompanyname.2AddlogotopageNowwecanaddalogotoourpagethatpeoplewillrecognizeandassociatewithyourbusiness.Thiswillbeusedastheprofilepictureforyourbusiness.Uploadthepicturetoyourpageandusesomethingthatpeoplecanrecognize.3ProvideashortsentenceastowhatyourbusinessisaboutYouwillseeontheAERApageintheexampleweexplainedwhattheassociationisaboutandwhatweofferourmembers.Youwillwanttotellthepublicalittlebitaboutwhatyourcompanydoesandwhatyoucanofferthem.ForexampleACMEMachineShopprovidesenginemachineshopserviceforcylinderblocksheadsconnectingrodsandcrankshaftsforgasanddieselenginesalongwithsupplyingparts.4SetFacebookwebaddressSetamemorablewebaddressforyourpagesthatcanbeusedonmarketingmaterialtopromoteyourpresenceonFacebook.Youwillhavetheoptiontodothisafteryourcompanyhas25likestoyourpage.Ifyouuseyourbusinessnamehereyouwillmakeiteasierforpeoplelookingforyourcompanytofindwhereyourpageislocated.Itwillalsoboostyourcompanybygettingthenameoutthereinanotherform.5-ChooseacoverphotoChooseacoverphotothatrepresentsyourbrandandshowcasesyourproductorservice.Itsthefirstthingpeoplewillseewhentheyvisityourpage.Acoverphotoisthelargerphotoatthetopofyourtimelinerightaboveyourprofilepicture.Youcanseeinourexamplewehaveanenginecylinderblocketc.allthingsthatAERAworkswith.Thatiswhatyouwantinyourcoverphotoimagesofthingsthatyoudoinyourshop.Letthepersonlookingatyourpageknowrightawaywhatyoudo.OnceyouhavethosefiveitemssetuponyourcompanysFacebookpageyouarereadytomakeyourfirstpost.PostsomethingwelcomingpeopletoyourpageandaskpeopletoshareyourpageontheirFacebookpage.ThemorepeoplethatseeyourpagethemoreFREEadvertisingyougetonFacebook.Trytopostmoreoftenthannot.Themoreyoupostthemorelivelyyourpagewillbecome.IfyouareonFacebookandhavenotlikedtheAERApagepleasevisitourPageatwww.facebook.comaeraep.LikeusandstayinformedaboutwhatisgoingonatAERA.IPromoteyourbusinessonFacebookBYSTEVEFOXFollowAERAonFacebookatwww.facebook.comaeraep. EVERYTHINGTOBOOSTYOURBUSINESSISHERE.THEONLYPARTMISSINGISYOU.EXHIBITDAYSTUESDAYNOVEMBER5FRIDAYNOVEMBER82013EDUCATIONDAYSMONDAYNOVEMBER4FRIDAYNOVEMBER82013LASVEGASCONVENTIONCENTERLASVEGASNVRegisternowatwww.SEMAshow.comEPRengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP83 84JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalPRO-SISCORNERBYSTEVEFOXHaveyoueverprintedsomethingfromPRO-SISSAandatthetopofthepageintheheadersectionyoudonotseeyourcompanyinformationlistedWellafteryoureadthisarticleyouwillbeabletofixthatandhaveyourcompanyinformationatthetopofthepage.ThisisprobablyoneofthemostcommonquestionswegetregardingPRO-SISSA.Shopswanttohavetheirinformationlistedatthetopofpagesothattheircustomersknowwheretheinformationcamefrom.TobeginonceyouhaveopenedPRO-SISSAupatthetopyouwillseeanEDITbutton-goaheadandclickthatbuttonasshowninFigure1.OnceyouhaveclickedontheEDITbuttonyouwillhavealistingofsubcategoriesthatshouldreadSetupLanguageandImportDataasshowninFigure2.YouwillwanttoclickonSETUPasthatwillbringupanotherscreenthatwillallowyoutoenteryourshopinformation.OncewehavechosenSETUPyourscreenshouldlookliketheoneinFigure3.Fromthisscreeninthetopportionyouwillbeabletoenteryourcompanyinformationthatwillbeprintedatthetopofeachpage.Otherinformationonthispagewillrelatetoestimatesandworkorderswhichwillbecoveredatalaterdate.RememberinordertohavePRO-SISSAyouhavetobeamemberofAERA.Ifyouareamachineshopandarenotamemberpleasecall888-326-2372andjointodayYoucanalsojoinonlinebyvisitingourwebsiteatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesbecome-a-member.IEnteringshopinformationintoPRO-SISSAFigure1aboveThemainPRO-SISSAscreenshowingEDITbutton.Figure2aboveAfterclickingEDITyouwillwanttoclickonSETUPtoenteryourshopinformation.Figure3rightThisisthescreenyoushouldseewhenyouaddyourowncompanyinformationtoheaderportionofpagesyouprintfromPRO-SISSA. Inventorymanagementisacriticalpartofmanagingabusiness.Everybusinessmustpurchaseitemstosellforaprofit.Whenexcessitemsarepurchasedthebusinesstriestosellthoseitemsorreturnthemtothevendorforcredit.Ifexcessitemsareleftunsolditislikehavingcashontheshelfthatisproducingnoreturnoninvestment.HaveyoueverconsideredthatpayrollisjustlikepurchasinginventoryEmployeesworkforawage.Thebusinessispurchasingthattimefromtheemployeeandsellingitforaprofit.Inventoryismonitoredandkepttrackof.AreyoudoingthatwithemployeetimeTimeboughtfromanemployeeshouldbeaccountedfor.Everyhourpurchasedfromanemployeeshouldbeaccountedforandbilledtoacustomer.Somemanagerssayitdoesnotcostthebusinesstoallowtheiremployeestorepairequipmentinsteadofhiringanoutsiderepairperson.Themanagermustrememberthattheyarestillpurchasingtimefromthatemployeebutnotsellingit.Thereisacostassociatedwiththisrepairthatmustbeaccountedfor.Inventoryitemspurchasedfromavendorcomewithaninvoiceandthecostoftheitemisknown.DoyouknowwhatyourcostisforeachhourpurchasedfromeachemployeeIfthecostofthattimeisunknownhowdoyouknowhowmuchitshouldbesoldforNosuccessfulbusinessbuysitemsandsellsthemforlessthantheycost.Timeshouldbesoldthesameway.Thehourlywageisonlypartofthecostassociatedwiththetimebeingpurchased.Asanownerormanagerifyoudonotknowhowtocalculatethiscostitistimetogetwithaprofessionalwhocanhelpyoucalculatethiscost.Timefromeachemployeeshouldbeaccountedfor.Thereshouldbeasysteminplacetoaccountforeachhouryouarepurchasing.Attheendofeveryweekyoushouldbeabletoseehowmanyhoursyoupurchasedandhowmanyofthosehoursarebilledtocustomers.Awarenessoflosttimewillmakeeveryonemoreaccountablefortheirtimeandincreaseproductivityandprofits.Attheendoftheyearitiscommontodophysicalinventoryofitemspurchasedbutnotsold.WhataboutallthosehoursyoupaidforbutdidnotselltoacustomerCanyoureturnthemWilltheemployeebuythembackTheanswerisnoandthatismoneyspentwithnoreturnontheinvestment.Nexttimeyoulookatthebottomlineofyourbusinessthinkaboutallthosehoursthatwerepurchasedandnotsold.Theyaresittingontheshelfandwillneverbesold.Justlikebadinventorypurchasestheyendupinthegarbagenevertohavevalueagain.IDwayneDugasistheownerofDugasEngineServiceandalsoholdsthepositionoftreasurerontheAERABoardofDirectors.DugasEngineServicewasstartedin1969byhisfatherClouresDugas.Dwayneboughtthebusinessfromhisfatherin1999.Formoreinformationemaildugasengineservibellsouth.net.PurchasingTimeBYDWAYNEDUGASengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP85 86JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessional engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP87 88JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalAbouttheProgramEachprogramisanonlineself-pacedcoursewithuptooneyeartocomplete.GaryLewisbookAutomotiveMachiningEngineRepairwillbeincludedwiththe150registrationfee.Everythingatechnicianwillneediscontainedintheprogramwithvideoclipsandsupplementalreadingsatkeylocationswithintheprogram.Thebookwillbeusedasasyllabuswhennotonline.Eachchapterwillbefollowedbyamultiplechoicetest.TherewillbeafinalexamforeachcertificationCylinderHeadandorEngineMachinist.AERAoffersacomprehensiveonlinetrainingprogramnotjustatestleadingtodiploma-qualitycertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.Technicianswhosuccessfullyearneithercertificatewillholdproofthattheyhaveaprofessionalunderstandingofautomotivemachiningfundamentalsmeasuringtoolsshopsafetyfastenersenginetheoryenginediagnosisenginedisassemblycomponentcleaninginspectioncrackdetectionandrepaircomponentreconditioningandcylinderheadandblockresurfacing.Theinformationinthisprogramispresentedfromtheviewofenginemachineshopoperations.Basicproceduresareselectedfromthosewithwideindustryacceptanceandrepresentwell-balancedandcompetentstateoftheartpractice.GaryLewisInstructorandAuthorFormoreinformationcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202oremailkarenaera.org.CylinderHeadandMachinistCertificateProgram engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP89AERAONLINETRAININGREGISTRATIONFORMNAMECOMPANYNAMEAERAIDNUMBERCOMPANYADDRESSCITYSTATEZIPPHONEE-MAILADDRESSREQUIREDSIGNEDBYFEES150perpersonINCLUDESGaryLewisbookI2-4PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................125perpersonI5-9PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................100perpersonI10PEOPLEfromthesameshop..................................................................75perpersonEachpersonregisteredwillreceiveaGaryLewisbook.PleaselistadditionalnamesbelowTOTALAMOUNTENCLOSEDICHECKPLEASEMAKEPAYABLETOAERA.CREDITCARDIVISAIMASTERCARDIDISCOVERIAMERICANEXPRESSCARDNUMBEREXPIRATIONMMYY3-DIGITCSSCARDHOLDERNAMECARDHOLDERSIGNATUREIfpayingbycreditcardpleasefaxcompletedregistrationformtoAERAtoll-freefax888-329-2372OrmailyourcompletedformwithpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.CallAERAtoll-freeifyouhaveanyquestions888-326-2372ordirectat815-526-7600. 90JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalTB2617InjectorTipProtrusionfor1985-2012Cummins3.95.9LDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardinginjectortipprotrusionfor1985-2012Cummins3.95.9Ldieselengines.Itisimportanttonotethatthisinformationpertainstoonlythoseenginesusingtwovalvespercylinderwithmechanicalfuelinjection.Thisinformationshouldbeconsideredanytimecylinderheadserviceisperformed.Injectortipprotrusionisthedistancethetipofanindividualinjectorextendsfromthedeckofthecylinderhead.Thepropertipheightisrequiredforthemostoptimumengineperformancepossible.Failuretoestablishthisdesignedtipheightmayalsoresultinenginedamageiftheengineisallowedtooperatewithimpropertipheights.Itisimportanttonotecastingirregularitiesexistandusingdifferentthicknessshimsonaparticularcylinderheadisverylikely.Eachlocationmustbecheckedandthemeasurementoftheinjectorprotrusionrecordedforcomparison.Refertothechartbelowtoobservethecorrectinjectortipprotrusion.InjectorTipProtrusionBSeries1991AutomotiveandCPL1577MMInch3.5MIN.13784.5MAX.1772InjectorTipProtrusionAllOtherBSeriesPre1991Automotiveand1994AutomotiveMMINCH4.5MIN.17725.5MAX.2165InjectorTipProtrusionNon-AutomotiveBSeriesIndustrialMMINCH3.0MIN.11804.0MAX.1575Iftheinjectorprotrusionisnotwithinthespecificationsreferencetheinjectorsealthicknesschartbelowfortheavailablesealthicknesses.InjectorSealThicknessMMINCH1.5mmSeal1.40MIN.0551.68MAX.0662.5mmSeal2.40MIN.0952.68MAX.1063.0mmSeal2.90MIN.1143.18MAX.125tech engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP91TB2618CamBearingBoreRepairForCummins1985-20125.9LDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationonanalternativecambearingborerepairfor1985-99Cummins5.9LBSeriesdieselengines.Therehavebeenseveraldifferentbearingsusedfortheseengineswithdifferentdimensions.Thebearingswillallowasinglerepairoperationformanyengineblockswhichallowsthemtobeputbackintoservice.Additionallyrepairedcylinderblocksareshowingupwithbearinginsertsinstalledinthe2-7locations.Cumminshassuppliedmultiplepartnumbersforthedifferentlocationsandthefrontbearingisslightlywiderthantheother2-7locations.TheCumminsPart3904369whichislistedasanoversizerepairbushingforthefrontisactuallythesameasthelatemodelstandardsizefrontcambearing.Refertothechartbelowinselectingthebearingsrequired.LocationStandardPartOversizePartYearsUsedFront390130657.25mm390436958mm1985-1996394005959.24mmNA1997-20122-7NA390324257.25mm1985-2012394005959.24mm1985-2012Toinstalloversizerepairbearingsfirstdeterminea.0020-.0025interferencefitbeforealignboringthecamshafthousingboretofitsize.MeasurethecamshaftboreswithoutthecamshaftbushinginstallednotingtheStormBlockhasathickerlargeroutsidediameterbushing.StormBlockCamshaftBoreDiameterwithoutcamshaftbushingmminCamshaftBore59.248mmMAXcamshaftbushingpreviouslyinstalled2.3326inchesCamshaftBore54.164mmMAXcamshaftbushingNOTpreviouslyinstalled2.1324inchesPre-STORMBlockCamshaftBoreDiameterwithoutcamshaftbushingmminCamshaftBore57.248mmMAXcamshaftbushingpreviouslyinstalled2.2539inchesCamshaftBore54.164mmMAXcamshaftbushingNOTpreviouslyinstalled2.1324inchesIfacamshaftboreinwhichacamshaftbushingwasnotpreviouslyinstalledisdamagedoroutofspecificationthecamshaftborecanbemachinedoversizetoinstallastandardcamshaftbushing.Torepairadamagednon-bushedboremachinethedamagedboretoamaximumdiameterof57.248mm2.2539or59.248mm2.3326toacceptastandardbushing.TB2619LubricationSystemDescriptionfor2007-2010GM6.0LVINKEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingthelubricationsystemfor2007-2010GM6.0LVINKengines.Thisinformationshouldbeconsideredanytimetheblockisbeingservicedoroilpressureanalysisisbeingperformed.Enginelubricationissuppliedbyagerotortypeoilpumpassembly.Theoilpumpismountedonthefrontoftheengineblockanddrivendirectlybythecrankshaftsprocket.Thepumpgearsrotateanddrawoilfromtheoilpansumpthroughapick-upscreenandpipe.Theoilispressurizedasitpassesthroughthepumpandissentthroughtheengineblockloweroilgallery.Containedwithintheoilpumpassemblyisapressurereliefvalvethatmaintainsoilpressurewithinaspecifiedrange.Pressurizedoilisdirectedthroughtheengineblockloweroilgallerytothefullflowoilfilterwhereharmfulcontaminantsareremoved.Abypassvalveisincorporatedintotheoilfilterwhichpermitsoilflowintheeventthefilterbecomesrestricted.Asecondvalvetheoilpressurereliefvalveisincorporatedintotheoilpan.Theoilpressurereliefvalvelimitsoilpressuredirectedtotheupperoilgalleriesto379-517kPa55-75psimaximum.Whenmainoilpressureexceeds379kPa55psitheoilpressurereliefvalveexhaustsexcessoiltothesump.Oilisthendirectedfromthefiltertotheuppermainoilgalleries.OilfromtheleftupperoilgalleryisdirectedtotheLegend200-Camshaft209-ValveLifter234-CamshaftPositionCMPActuatorSolenoidValve235-CMPActuator407-OilPumpScreen413-OilPump437-OilFilter455-OilPressureReliefValve555-ValleyCover706-OilPressureSensor752-CMPMagnet crankshaftandcamshaftbearings.Oilthathasenteredboththeuppermainoilgalleriesalsopressurizesthevalvelifterassembliesandisthenpumpedthroughthepushrodstolubricatethevalverockerarmsandvalvestems.Anoilpassageatthenumbertwocamshaftbearinglocationpermitsoiltoflowintothecenterofthecamshaft.OilentersthecamshaftflowtothefrontwhereitexitsintothecamshaftpositionCMPactuatorsolenoidvalve.TheCMPvalvespoolpositioniselectronicallycontrolledbytheenginecontrolmoduleECMandCMPmagnet752.WhencommandedbytheECMtheCMPmagnetrepositionstheCMPactuatorsolenoidvalvespooldirectingpressurizedoilintotheCMPactuatortocontrolvalvetiming.Oilreturningtothepanisdirectedbythecrankshaftoildeflector.Theoilpressuresensorislocatedatthetoprearoftheengine.TB2620ReplacementCamBearingson2005-2013GMLSV-8EnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingreplacementcambearingsfor2005-2013GMLSV-8engines.Therearetwodifferentgroupsofbearingsusedwhichcanbecategorizedasearlyenginesuptomid-year2009andlateengineswhicharelate2009andlater.Refertothegraphsbelowforspecificmodelyearinformation.Ithasbeenreportedthatundercertainconditionsthecamshaftandbearingsmaycomeintophysicalcontactwitheachotherwithoutsufficientlubricationassistanceavailable.Toofferresistancetosuchasituationcausingaseizureconditionanalternativecoatedbearingsurfaceisnowavailable.NewservicecambearingsforGenIVV8engineshaverecentlybeenreleased.ItisthereforeadvisedwhenreplacingcambearingsforanLSenginetoreplaceallfivecambearingswiththenewlyreleasedserviceparts.Thenewcambearingshaveapolymercoatingandwillappeardifferent.Thebearingsurfacelooksblackduetothecoating.Figure1.NewPolymerCoatedBearingNOTEIftheblackcoatingwearsoffitdoesnotmeanthatthebearingisbad.Thereisstillaleadliningmaterialunderneath.Iftheliningisdamagedorwornbeyondspecificationsthenreplacementwouldberequiredusingthefollowingguidelines.Themaximumcamjournaltobearingoilclearanceis.005.127mmwiththeservicebearingsinstalledonengineswithAFMorCMP.Themaximumcamjournaltobearingoilclearanceis.006.152mmwiththeservicebearingsinstalledonengineswithoutAFMorCMP.FirstDesignCamshaftwithAluminumBlocksandIronBlocksUptoearly2009PartNumberDescription19260874ReplacesPN19167383position1and52005-2013GenIVEngineswithAluminumBlock2007-2009GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandFirstDesignCamshaft19260875ReplacesPN19167382position2and42005-2013GenIVEngineswithAluminumBlock2007-2009GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandFirstDesignCamshaft19260876ReplacesPN19167218position32005-2013GenIVEngineswithAluminumBlock2007-2009GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandFirstDesignCamshaftSecondDesignCamshaftwithIronBlockOnlyLate2009toPresentPartNumberDescription19260877ReplacesPN19167383position1and5200912-2013GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandSecondDesignCamshaft19260878ReplacesPN19167382position2and4200912-2013GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandSecondDesignCamshaft19260879ReplacesPN19167218position3200912-2013GenIVEngineswithIronBlockandSecondDesignCamshaftTB2621LubricationSystemDescriptionFor2001-2011GM8.1LVINEGEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingthelubricationsystemfor2001-2011GM8.1LVINEGengines.Thisinformationshouldbeconsideredanytimetheblockisbeingservicedoroilpressureanalysisisbeingperformed.Thegear-typeoilpumpisdriventhroughanextensiondriveshaft.Theextensiondriveshaftisdrivenbytheoilpumpdrivewhichisgeardrivenbythecamshaft.Theoilisdrawnfromtheoilpanthroughapickupscreenandtubeintotheoilpump7.Pressurizedoilflowsthroughtheoilfilterintotheoilcooler5backintotheengine6uptotheoilpressuregageport2andrearcrankshaftbearingandisthendistributedtotheupperoilgalleries.Oilmustflowaroundtheoilpumpdrive1inordertoreachtherightsidevalveliftersproperly.Theoilisdeliveredthroughinternalpassagesinordertolubricatecamshaftandcrankshaftbearingsandtoprovidelashcontrolinthehydraulicvalvelifters.Oilismeteredfromthevalveliftersthroughthevalvepushrodsinordertolubricatethevalverockerarmsandballpivots.Oilreturningtotheoilpanfromthe92JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionaltech engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP93cylinderheadsandthefrontcamshaftbearinglubricatesthecamshafttimingchainandthecrankshaftandthecamshaftsprockets.Therearetwobypassvalveslocatedintheengineblockabovetheoilfilter.Theoilfilterbypassvalve4andtheoilcoolerbypassvalve3.TB2621Figure2.1OilFilterBypassValveLocationIftheoilfilterbecomespluggedthepressurizedoilisdivertedaroundthetopoftheoilfilter.Theoilfilterbypassvalve1isforcedopenallowingtheoiltocontinueontotheoilcoolerandengineoilpassages.Nooilfiltrationoccursbecausetheoilisnotallowedintotheoilfilter.TB2621Figure3.1OilCoolerBypassValveIftheoilcoolerflowbecomesblockedeitherfromapluggedoilcoolerorblockedorkinkedoilcoolerlinetheoilcoolerbypassvalve1isforcedopenallowingoiltoflowdirectlyintotheengineoilpassages.Oildoesnotflowintooroutoftheengineoilcooler.TB2621Figure4.1OilCoolerBypassValve2OilFilterBypassValveIfboththeoilfilterandtheoilcoolerarepluggedthepressurizedoilisroutedaroundthetopoftheoilfilterthroughtheoilfilterbypassvalve2throughtheoilcoolerbypassvalve1anddirectlyintotheengineoilpassages.Lubricationstilloccursbuttheoilisnotfilteredordirectedthroughtheoilcooler.TB2622EngineChecklisttoUseBeforeStartingYourFreshRebuiltEngineTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowingchecklistofquestionstobeaskedandsuggestionsbeforeenginestartuponrebuiltengines.Theminimalguidelinefortoolsthatyoushouldhaveon-handbeforestartupoftheengineisasfollowssafetyglassesfireextinguishervacuumandpressuregaugestiminglightadigitalvolt-ohmmeterDVOMandmiscellaneoushandtools.AnothernecessarytoolisaWBO2formeasuringtheairtofuelAFratio.Someofthisinformationdoesnotapplytonewerenginesthatprovidenoadjustmentsofcertainsystems.NOTEDoeveryoneafavorandtuneyourolderenginefortodaysgasoline.IfyouveaddedastepupcamshaftyoullnowneedtoadjustuntilyouhavethecorrectairtofuelratiousingaWBO2WideBandOxygenSensor.TuningissosimpletodayusingtheseportableWBO2unitsthatcanevenrecorddatawhenyouaredriving.Nodistractionswhileyouaredrivingjustpulloverandreadtherecordeddata.Figureoutwhatyouhaveistheengineleanorrichanddecideonyournextcorrectionadjustment.NotonlycanyoumakesurethattheidleiscorrectbutmoreimportantlyAFunderaloadcanbecheckedandthenperformacorrectionadjustment.ByhavingthecorrectAFratioandcorrectignitiontimingyoucanreducefailuressuchasblownheadgasketsbrokenormeltedpistonstulipedintakevalvesoverheating.Propertuningwillalsoreducecomplaintsaboutlackofpowerpoormileageandmeltedorbrokensparkplugs.continuedTB2621Figure1.GM8.1LEngineLubricationSystemDiagram 94JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionaltechBEFOREYOUTURNTHEIGNITIONKEYONAskyourselfthefollowingquestionswhileworkingwiththischecklistbelow.Youcanrecordresponsesandmakenotationsonitemsthatmustbefixed.AERAsuggestsmakingcopiesofthischecklistaftercompletingitandkeepingforyourrecordsandwarrantyinformation.Youmayliketogivethecustomeracopywhichindicateseverythingwasokayonbreak-in.1.FullychargethebatteryCheckgroundcablesastheycompletetheallcircuits.2.SeeAERATB-2626.Oilpressureduringpre-lubewithOEMoilfilterWriteitdown.3.EngineoillevelfullwiththecorrectweightoilCautiondonotoverfillcrankcase.4.IstheentiresetofvacuumhosescorrectlyconnectedConnectvacuumgauge.5.SeeAERATB-2291TB-2466.InitialignitiontimingspecificationLeavetiminglightconnected6.SeeAERATB-2465.Freshgasolineinthetankthreeweeksoldorless7.Gasolineupintothecarburetorordidyoufillthefloatbowl8.SeeAERATB-1905.Coolantcheckedoratleastchanged9.SeeAERATB-1693.RadiatorcheckednotjustforflowingallonsperminbutforheattransferIfyouhaveanydoubtabouttheradiatorsimplyreplaceit.Youhavetoomuchmoneyinvestedintheenginetotakeachance.10.Fireextinguisherisithandyandfullycharged11.Checkalloftheaccessorydrivessuchasthewaterpumpalternatoridlersandcoolingfanhubsbearings.Makesurethepulleysarenotworn.12.IstheexhaustsystemfullyintactandcompletelyinplacewithnoleaksThisissoyoucanhearanypossibleenginenoisesrightawayInstallapressuregaugetocheckexhaustbackpressurerightafterinitialstart-upanda15minuteruntimeifallseemsnormal.ENGINERUNNINGCHECKTHEFOLLOWING1.DONOTIDLEENGINERevup2000RPMandreadcoldoilpressure.Writeitdownnow.2.SeeAERATB-1118.HydraulicliftervalvetrainisitquietSomeenginestakeafewminutestoquietdownbecausethehydrauliclashadjustershavetoletalltheairout.3.WhatistheenginevacuumRPMWritethembothdownnow.4.WhatistheignitiontimingnowRPMWriteitdownnow.5.Keeplookingeverywhereforanygasolinecoolantoroilleaks.Ifaleakisfoundstoptheengineandfixanyproblems.6.SeeAERATB-1644.Checkoilpressureandcoolanttemperatureoftenduringbreak-incoolanttemperatureshouldbehigherthanoiltemperature.7.IsthechargingsystemworkingLowvoltagecancausestrangeproblems.8.DidthecoolantleveldropCheckfillingprocedureforvehicleandtopoff.9.SeeAERATB-1650andTB-1733.DoyouhaveglowingcherryredexhaustmanifoldsAnenginerunningwithretardedignitiontimingwillburnthefuellaterinthecycle.Advancingtheignitiontimingshouldcoolofftheexhaustgastemperaturerightnow.Alsocheckforanyvacuumleaks.10.WhatistheRPMandhotoilpressureafterrunningforatotaltimeof30minutesNoteOilpressureidlewillbelowerafterdrivingthevehicle.Break-incouldbedonein10-minutesegmentsatatimeaddinguptoatotalof30minutes.Thisallowsthecamshaftandflatliftertobreak-in.Noteittakesquiteawhileforoiltemperaturetoevenmatchcoolanttemperatureunlessyouaredrivingthevehicle.11.SeeAERATB-1650andTB-1733.WhatisthetotalmechanicalignitiontimingwiththevacuumadvancedisabledHowoldisthevehicleyouareworkingonGasolineitselfhasbeenthroughmanychangesovertheyears.Youmighthavetore-jetthecarburetorandre-curvethemechanicalignitionadvanceinthedistributorfortheenginetooperatecorrectlyontodaysgasoline.ThisisbecauseoftheheavyengineloadsplacedonMotorHomesandHDtrucksalongwitheveryotherstyleofvehicleincludingmarinegasolineengines.12.SeeAERATB-1650andTB-1733.DoesthevacuumadvanceifequippedfunctionproperlyandisitconnectedtothecorrectportImproperignitionadvancecausesdrivabilityandengineproblems.13.SeeAERATB-1650andTB-1733.IsyourenginesEGRExhaustGasRecirculationsystemworkingproperlyTheEGRsystemcoolsthecombustionchamberbychangingtheairfuelratio.TheadditionofEGRgasenteringthecombustionspacedisplacesairwhichrichenstheairtofuelratiotherebyeliminatingpinging.PlusEGRisaround1000-1200Fandthecombustionprocessisabout2500-2700FsoyounowunderstandhowtheEGRwillalsocooldownthetemperatureinthecombustionchamberspace.AERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlineAERAmailsEngineProfessionalmagazinequarterly.ThetechnicalbulletinsinEnglishandSpanishcanbefoundontheAERAwebsiteatwww.aera.orgep.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorifyouneedtechnicalsupportsendane-mailtoinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.www.aera.orgep PEGGYGREENCall507-457-0755or866-457-8975peggybigrivergmail.comRepresentinganumberofqualitylinestobringyouthebestvalueforallyourshopsupplyneeds.HOMEOFREGISNORTH35517SkyviewDriveWinonaMN55987HOMEOFREGISNORTHCallengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP95IPDHeavyDutyEngineRepairParts800299-4248310602-5399salesipdparts.comwww.ipdparts.comMORETHAN75YEARSSTRONGOriginalqualityreplacementenginepartsforclassicBritishvehicleswww.gosnays.co.ukemailsalesgosnays.co.ukTel4401708748320MARKETPLACEYOURADHEREBusinessCardAd3.5x21xRate2004xRate170FormoreinformationseetheMARKETPLACEAdFormonthefollowingpage.ToadvertiseinMARKETPLACEyoumustbeanAERAmember.Seepage97inthisissuetolearnmoreaboutallthebenefitsofanAERAmembership.Formoreinformationgoonlinetowww.aera.orgorcalltoll-free888-326-2372. 96JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalMARKETPLACEAttentionAERAMembersAdvertiseyourbusinesscardwithEngineProfessionalmagazineandcapitalizeonthefastestgrowinghardcoreenginepublicationintheaftermarketMarketplaceBusinessCardAdOrderFormNameCompanyAERAIDAddressCityStateZIPPhoneFaxE-mailRate____________xofinsertions______Total__________________NOTEPleasemailpaymenttoKarenatAERAseeaddressbelow.E-mailelectronicartworkJPGorPDFtomariamcreative.usIVisaIMasterCardIDiscoverIAmericanExpressIfyoudonothaveanelectronicfilemailbusinesscardalongwithpayment.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIExpirationDateMMYY________________3-digitCSC________PrintCardholderNameCardholderSignatureFaxtoll-free1-888-329-2372OrmailwithyourpaymenttoEngineProfessionalMagazineAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.QuestionsPleasecontactKarenatAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600karenaera.org.HalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comorJimRickoff507-457-8975jimrickoffgmail.comE-mailartworktomariamcreative.usBusinessCardAd3.5x21xRate2004xRate170Alladsrunfullcoloratnoextracharge.ToadvertiseinthissectionyoumustbeanAERAmember.Fordetailsonhowtojoinvisitwww.aera.org.Fourtimesayearover15000copiesofEngineProfessionalaresenttoanauditedlistofengineprofessionals.MARKETPLACEisforAERAmembersonly.ItwillbefeaturedineveryissueofEngineProfessionalmagazine. OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonthenextpageandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP97AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraep 98JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalAPPLICATIONFORU.S.ACTIVEMEMBERSHIPELIGIBLITYREQUIREMENTSApplicantshouldbeaproprietorshippartnershiporcorporationthathasadequateautomotiveshopequipmentandperformseitherenginemachiningenginemodificationengineassemblyorengineinstallationandwhoseprincipalbusinessservestheautomotivetrucktractormarinedieselandotherclassesofretailindustrialandcommercialaccountsandnotprimarilysellusedpartswhichtermdoesnotincluderemanufacturedpartsintheirmainplaceofbusiness.1.Pleaseremitasheetofcompanyletterheadcompanybusinesscardorcompanyinvoicewithapplication.2.Ifyourbusinessmeetstheabovecriteriapleasecompletetheformbelow.Pleaseprintlegiblyortype.COMPANYINFORMATIONCompanyNameDatebusinessstartedContactPersononenameonlyBusinessAddressCityStateZipPhoneFaxEmailWebsiteHowmanypersonnelinyourshopincludepart-timepersonnelPleasechecktheappropriatecategoriesforlistingintheAERAMembershipDirectoryIACCustompassengercarandlighttruckenginerebuildingIADDieselheavy-dutyandindustrialenginerebuildingIAFForeignmotorcycleandsmallenginerebuildingIAHHigh-performanceenginerebuildingIALDrivelinerebuildingIAMMarineenginerebuildingIAPProductionenginerebuilding100permonthIAYCylinderheadrebuildingspecialistIAIEngineinstallationIOtherPAYMENTMUSTACCOMPANYAPPLICATIONIENTIREAMOUNTENCLOSEDMONTHLYPAYMENTPLANSAVAILABLEContactAERAfordetails.CREDITCARDIVISAIMasterCardIAmericanExpressIDiscoverICHECKPleasemakecheckpayabletoAERACardholderNamepleaseprintCardNumberExpirationSecurityCodeCardholderSignatureIattestthatmyfirmmeetstheaboverequirementsandgiveAERApermissiontoverifytheinformation.SignatureTitleRECOMMENDEDFORMEMBERSHIPBYSendapplicationandpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.Orfaxyourcompletedapplicationwithpaymentto888-329-2372toll-freeor815-526-7601.Youmayalsoapplyonlineatwww.aera.org.IfyouarealreadyanAERAmemberpleasegivethisapplicationtoafriend.CallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372ordirect815-526-7600withanyquestions.AERAMEMBERSHIPDUESSelecttheappropriatepersonnelcategoryforyourshop.NumberofshoppersonnelI1-3........................................37030.83monthI4-8........................................45337.75monthI9-24......................................58548.75monthI25ormore............................69157.58month 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100JULY-SEPT2013engineprofessionalANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONTHECUTTINGEDGEThestandardforenginebuildingequipmentsince1923Over20F79ACNCMachiningCentersinstalledworldwidein2012RottereivssomuchfCaliforniBradAndDennisineoringorouptesaretpaceacyanccudvantagefavemathiuction.pnaveeasytoashingtonUSAWInc.BGMachineidBiDrtingsooeeantoeutespi.aeccuequipmenottlerRashingtonUSAInc..mteirsourwicismostimportaiacisiontemacineteirpsequipmentistechnologicallyadvancedandextrwhichismostimportantwhenyouvensaveprmeynextEnglandManagingDirectoridLeD.sizeenginesLHGroupSertaffordshirEnglandLHGroupServicesManagingDirectorrmeiumJohannesburgSouthAfricatomoMetrcrDaryJohannesburgSouthAfricaeEngineeringutomotivbuildingeqbuildingeqandarThestuipmentsince1orenginedfandar923uipmentsince1orengine923emailcontactrottlermfg.com.facebook.comrottlermfgwww.youtube.comrottlermfgwwwottlerrwTHECUTemailcontactrottlermfg.com.facebook.comrottlermfg.youtube.comrottlermfgmfg.comottlerTINGEDGETHECUT1-800-452-0534125387270502entW8029South200thStreet1-800-452-0534