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High-PerformanceEngineBearingsModerntrendsinmaterialsAirScoopsSizelocationdesignpressurebalanceValveSeatsFixesforfailuresUNDERSTANDINGANDSELECTINGCONNECTINGRODS2014LS77.0LV-8FORCHEVROLETCAMAROZ28GENERALMOTORSANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONAPRIL-JUNE2014 2APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional4FROMTHEEDITOR6INDUSTRYNEWSWelcometonewAERAmemberscalendarofeventsnewsandviews162014CAMAROZ28ByDaveHagen22SCOOPSARESIMPLEByDavidC.WoodyWoodruff28UNDERSTANDINGANDSELECTINGCONNECTINGRODSByMikeMavrigian41THENEWCOLORADOANDCANYONByDaveHagen48MODERNTRENDSINMATERIALSFORHIGHPERFORMANCEENGINEBEARINGSByDr.DmitriKopeliovich52FORDMUSTANGCELEBRATESBIRTHDAYByDaveHagen56CRITICALENGINEFASTENERSBySPSTechnologies62SPEEDREADByJohnSatterfieldPerceptionvs.realityforallcarbtuners64TECHSKILLSCONFERENCERECAPBySteveFox66PRO-SISCORNERBySteveFox68TECHSIDEByMikeCarusoandSteveFoxValveSeatFailureson3.74.75.76.1LChryslerEngines74AERAAUTOMOTIVEMACHINISTONLINETRAINING76PRODUCTNEWS78TECHBULLETINS86ONTHESAMEPAGEEnginebuildingbookreviewsbyAERATechnicalSpecialistMikeCaruso87MARKETPLACECONTENTSEngineProfessionalmagazineISSN1945-7634ispublishedquarterlybyAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERA.Copyright2014AERA.Subscriptionrates70peryearoutsidetheUnitedStates90singlecopy20.Publicationedito-rialandbusinessoffice500CoventryLaneSte180CrystalLakeIL60014.Editorial815-526-7600Advertising815-526-7600Circulation815-526-7600.Sendchangeofaddresstotheabove.TheopinionsbeliefsandviewpointsexpressedbythevariousauthorsinthismagazinearethoseoftheindividualauthorsandnotoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationwhichdisclaimsallresponsibilityforthem.VOLUME7NUMBER2PUBLISHERAERA-EngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014815-526-7600815-526-7601faxChairmanoftheBoardRonMcMorrisMapleRidgeBCCANADAFirstViceChairmanSteveSchoebenBloomingtonMNSecondViceChairmanRexCrumptonTulsaOKTreasurerDwayneDugasNewIberiaLAPresidentJimRickoffCrystalLakeILEDITORJimRickoffjimaera.orgTECHNICALEDITORSDaveHagendaveaera.orgSteveFoxsteveaera.orgMikeCarusomikeaera.orgGaryLewisenginesmsn.comCONTROLLERMelissaRizzimelissaaera.orgGRAPHICDESIGNMariaBeyerstedtmariamcreative.usADVERTISINGSALESJimRickoffjimaera.orgHalFowlerhalfowlersales.comCIRCULATIONKarenTenderingkarenaera.orgINTERNATIONALLIAISONYolandaCarranzayolandaaera.orgCHIEFTECHNOLOGYARCHITECTRichardRooksrichardaera.org22285668 .. 4APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFHiTeamIamsadtoannouncetheresignationofAERAPresidentPaulHauglieeffectiveMarch312014.EveryonehereatAERAwouldliketothankPaulforalloftheenergyandgoodthathebroughttoourassociation.WewishhimthebestofluckwithhisfutureendeavorsandIknowwellstayintouch.ThanksagainPaulItiswithgreatpleasureandpridetointroducemyselfasthenewAERApresident.Itsamazingtothinkthatinour92ndyearofexistenceIamonlyoursixthpresidentofourassociation.ThisfactIbelievespeaksloudlyforthestabilityofourassociationandneedfortheservicesweprovide.Wearethesourceforinformationandyouhavemycommitmentandpromisewewillremainthissourceformanyyearstocome.Thefollowingstatementisadirectquotetakenfromthe1922-1924recordsofourassociationtolearnthetruecostofdoingtheworkandhandlingthepartsusedinthisservicetolearnhowtomerchandiseandsellandtodevelopmethodsthatwillproducebetterworkandmakeitpossibletoturnitoutmoreefficientlyandatalowercosttotheconsumer.Itsamazingtoreadaquotelikethisonefromtheearly1920sandrealizethatmanyoftheconcernsthatourforefathershadarestillconcernstoday.Thatsnottosaymanyoftheseissueshavenotbeenresolvedbutratherthattheconcernsstillexistandtheneedformoretechnicalinformationispresent.Itsasimplefactthatinternalcombustionenginesarentgoingawayanytimesoonandneitherarewe.Weareveryfortunatetohaveaveryexperiencedstaffwithinourassociationwithatonofknowledgeandyearsofprovenservice.Youhaveourguaranteethisassociationwillcontinuetogrowandimproveitsdatabaseofenginespecificationsandsolutionstoenginerelatedissues.Inadditionwewillcontinuetogrowthemediuminwhichweconveyourtechnicalinformationtoourmembersandindustry.Providingenginetechnicalinformationtoengineprofessionalsiswhatweareallabout.Weworkforourmembersandthebettermentofourindustry.Manyofyouknowmybackgroundinthisindustry.IamproudtosayIvebeeninitsinceIgraduatedfromcollegeandhaveelectedtostay.WhenpeopleaskmewhyIlovethisindustryitsaverysimpleanswerthepeopleThisindustryhasthebestmosthard-workingintelligentfriendlydedicatedandfunpeople.Iamtrulyblessedtohavefoundsuchagreatindustrytoworkin.Ihavebeenservingthisassociationinsomecapacitysince1992andplanonservingitevenlongerwithmynewresponsibilities.Ilookforwardtostrengtheningmycurrentrelationshipswhilecreatingnewoneswithothers.Icertainlyhaveanopendoorpolicyandextendittoyou.Pleasefeelfreetocontactmeatanytime.Iwouldlovetohearfromyouandhowwecangrowtogether.IJimRickoffAERAPresident815-526-7343jimaera.orgAERAAnnouncesNewPresidentJimRickoff CumminsISB5.924valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1185CylinderHeadComplete.............................1395CrankshaftSteelforged................................895GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................79CumminsISC8.324valvesCylinderHeadBare.......................................1980CylinderHeadComplete.............................2385CrankshaftSteelforged...............................995GasketKitUpper..............................................198GasketKitLower..............................................198ConnectingRod.......................................................95ProudmemberofandsupplierofKMSGBuyingGroupCummins8.3L6C6CT6CTACummins5.9L6B6BT6BTA6BTAACummins3.9L4B4BT4BTACompleteHead995eachBareHead680eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead355eachCompleteHead465eachBareHead350eachORDERLINE1-866-210-9251ACCESSINDUSTRIESCO.ORDERLINE1-866-210-9251E-MAILnewcasting1998gmail.comCUTANDSAVETOFILECylinderBlocksCrankshaftsCamshaftsGM6.5truckvan.......................................1185eaCummins3.94BTOEM....................................950eaCummins5.96BT.............................................995eaCummins8.36CT...........................................1795eaCaterpillar3306DI..........................................2780eaCummins4BT....................................................575eaCummins6CT8.3..............................................780eaCummins6BT5.9..............................................695eaCaterpillar3306.................................................998eaCummins3.9.....................................................158eaCummins5.9.....................................................138eaCummins8.3.....................................................188eaCYLINDERHEADGM6.5TruckVan..................198eaChevy350Vortec......................228eaChrysler318360........................228eaChrysler3.9................................180eaCaterpillar3306PC8N1187......730eaCaterpillar3306DI8N6796.......730eaCaterpillar3406DINEW..........1580eaCaterpillar3406PCNEW.........1580eaCYLINDERHEADCaterpillar3304PCDI...............580eaJeep4.0331..........................375eaFord4.0EarlyLate...................138eaLONGBLOCKCummins5.9OEM..................5980eaCummins3.94BTOEM...........3980eaCummins8.36CTOEM...........6980eaCONNECTINGRODCummins5.93.96BT4BT...........68eaCummins8.36CT.......................86eaGM6.5NEW.................................55eaOILCOOLERCummins3.9................................98eaCummins5.9..............................108eaCummins8.3..............................138eaGASKETKITCummins3.9UpperKitOEM......88setCummins3.9LowerKitOEM.....88setCummins5.9UpperKitOEM......98setCummins5.9LowerKitOEM.....95setCummins8.3UpperKitOEM....128setCummins8.3LowerKitOEM...108setCALLFORCOMPLETEPRICELIST.NEW AERAwelcomesnewmembersACTIVEAdvancedMachineWorksAnchorageAKAhmansMotorslipABSWEDENAutoEngineeringModestoCAAutomotiveTruckIndustrialMachineShopLancasterOHAvroMarineEnginesNobelONCANADABatteryIgnitionDistIncCharlotteNCBeattyBrothersOshawaONCANADABurcoCorporationNoblesvilleINCarquest-HopkinsHopkinsMNCawthonsMachineLLCPoloMOCHSPerformancePlainViewVAEnglishAutoIncCamasWAGrattonCouleeAgriPartsLtdIrmaABCANADAHainesEngineRepairWeldingMyersvilleMDHerbertPerformanceCoRenoNVHurstDieselRepairEEarlPAIndependentVariablesSabulaIAIngeMotoresSASCaliValleDelCaucaCOLOMBIAKSEngineServiceTampaFLKennysMachineMolallaORKraushaarMachineServicesTillsonburgONCANADAMadMotorsandMachiningSanMarcosTXMidlandEngineIncMidlandMIMikeTaylorMachineIncSomersetKYnFlowMotorsportsEvansvilleINPiedmontTruckCenterIncGreensboroNCPriceAutomotiveMachineShopShepherdsvilleKYRMEnterpriseLLCAustinCORebelCustomsLLPTaylorNDShipworxEngineeringLLCMorganvilleNJSRCAutomotiveIncSpringfieldMOWestCarletonAutomotiveCarpONCANADAWinchesterAutoworksPerformanceLLCWinchesterVAXREPerformanceEnginesMooresvilleNCASSOCIATEMCKAutomotiveSaoPauloSPBRAZILSPSTechnologiesValenciaCAInmemoryofEdCoatesAERAissadtoannouncethepassingofmemberEdCoatesfounderandownerofLordcoPartsLtd.ofMapleRidgeBritishColumbiaCanada.EdpassedawayFebruary182014surroundedbyhislovingfamily.EdstartedLordcoin1974alongwithhisfoundingpartnerRoyLordwithamodest900squarefootstoreinMapleRidge.LordcohasgrowntobecomethelargestprivatelyheldautomotivepartsdistributorinCanadawithover100retaillocationsmachineshopservicesandinternalenginepartsdistributionspanningacrossBritishColumbiawithover1800employees.EdissurvivedbyhiswifeMarlynandtheirchildrenSamanthaSarahIanandCandace.IElginIndustriesReceives13thConsecutiveJASPERSupplierAwardElginIndustrieshasreceivedits13thconsecutivesupplierawardfromJASPEREnginesTransmissionsNorthAmericaslargestremanufac-turerofgasolineanddieselpowertrainanddrivetraincom-ponents.Elginwhichiscele-bratingits95thanniversarythisyearhassuppliedinternalenginecomponentstoJASPERformorethan60years.Elginreceivedthe2014JASPERServiceAwardwhichispresentedtomanufacturerswhoprovideexceptionalserv-iceineachofseveralcriticalbusinessareasincludingproductqualityfillrateaccu-racyinbillingandcreditprocessesandoverallrespon-siveness.WehavehadthehonorofworkingwithJASPERfornear-lytwo-thirdsofour95-yearhistorywhichspeaksvolumesabouteachcompanyscom-mitmenttoproductandserv-iceexcellencesaidElginIndustriesPresidentBillSkok.JASPERisoneofthetrans-portationaftermarketsmostsuccessfulandprogressivecompaniesandwearedeeplyproudtohaveearnedtheirtrust.Elginmanufacturesawiderangeofvalvetraincompo-nentsforJASPERincludingpushrodsrockerarmsliftersandvalvesprings.AmajorityofthesepartsaredesignedandmanufacturedinElginIll.InadditiontoservingJASPERandotherleadingaftermarketbusinessesElginIndustriesisaTierOnesuppli-eroforiginalequipmentengineandchassiscomponentstoorganizationssuchasChryslerDeereCo.FordGeneralMotorsHarley-DavidsonMackandNavistar.Thecom-panyisaleadingall-makesall-modelssupplierofreplace-mentautomotiveandheavy-dutypartstodistributorsthroughouttheworld.Elginhasearneddozensofqualityawardsandhasreceiveditscertificatesofreg-istrationtotheISOTS169492009QualityManagementSystemandISO140012004EnvironmentalManagementSystem.ItalsohasreceiveditsFordQ1QualityCertification.IIindustrynewscalendarMAY16AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbySunnenSt.LouisMOJUNE20AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyEPWISaltLakeCityUTOCTOBER3AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyRoushYatesandMahleCharlotteNCOCTOBER16-17ROTTLEROPENHOUSEKentWANOVEMBER4-6AAPEXSHOWSandsExpoCenterLasVegasNVwww.aapexshow.comNOVEMBER4-7SEMASHOWLasVegasConventionCenterLasVegasNVwww.semashow.comDECEMBER11-13PRISHOWIndianapolisConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.performanceracing.com6APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional ernerMSwwwOEformtandfVictorReinzthparallelwithorigfromplasticsandmTARM.mahle-aftermarket.comwwwdfunctheraninaleqdmetaT.mahle-aftermarket.comernTARerMAHLEOriginalringsprovideuneandfatigueresistaSAEunequaleanceetalengineure100lead-iliconandareith60moreomparableeplacements.gextendsringlifemwearandreducesrminimisringbictorReinztrademarkarepropertictorReinztrademarkarepropertyofDanaLimitedandusedunderlicensetoMAHLEAttermarketInc.ictorReinztrademarkarepropertyofDanaLimitedandusedunderlicensetoMAHLEAttermarketInc. 8APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalHastingsToughGuyRacingRingstoSponsorMustSeeRacingXtremeSprintSeriesHastingsManufacturingCompanyanearly100-year-oldglobalmanufacturerofpistonringsjoinstheEngineProDistributionGroupasaperformancepartssponsorofMustSeeRacingXtremeSprintSeriesMSRXSSin2014.TheMustSeeRacingXtremewingedsprintserieswillstartitsfifthyearofracingonApril112014atsomeofthebestcircletracksinthenationincludingAndersonSpeedwayLucasOilRacewayandBerlinRaceway.WeareveryexcitedtobeasponsorofthisracingseriessaidHastingsVicePresidentofBusinessDevelopmentJeffGuenther.OurfamousHastingsPistonRingHighPerformancebrandsymbolizedbyouriconicToughGuycharacterisagreatfitwiththeracersinthisseries.HastingsToughGuyRacingRingsareavailableinfourproductgroupsClaimerSeriesPremiumDuctileSeriesSteelMolyandSteelChromeSeriesandtheStainlessSteelNitrideCeramicPVDSerieseachservingincreasinglevelsofengineperformance.ToughGuyRacingRingsareofferedthroughprofessionalenginebuildersanddistributorslocatedaroundtheworld.HastingsManufacturingCompanydesignsandmanufacturespistonringsfortheworldwideenginemanufacturingandremanufacturingindustries.FormoreinformationcontactHastingsManufacturingCompanycall800-776-1088orgotowww.hastingsmfg.com.IRottlerOpenHouse2014Rottlers7thAnnualOpenHousewillbeheldThursdayandFridayOctober1617th2014.TheRottlerOpenHousehasturnedintoapremiereventforindustryleaderstosocializenetworkandshareknowledge.Itwillincludetwodaysoftechnicalseminarstabletopexhibitorslivemachinedemonstrationsentertainmentandgreatmeals.Formoreinformationgotowww.rottlermfg.comopenhouse.IIindustrynewsTECHN1.866.611.1820DRIVENRACINGOIL.COMScanthisQRCodetolearnmoreaboutCarbDefenderandthegrow-ingproblemofEthanolcorrosion.THEPROBLEMEthanolCorrosionInCarburetedVehicles---THESOLUTIONDrivenCarbDefenderFuelAdditive-CarbDefenderisproudlymadeintheUSAandsoldinconvenient6-packcartons70041.EthanolKillsCarbsEthanolCorrosionAttacksCarburetorsEthanolCorrosionIsAMajorProblem.PROTECTYOURENGINEWITHCARBDEFENDEREthanolCorrECTPROosionIsAMajorPrEthanolCorrWENINGEOURoblem.osionIsAMajorPrEFERBDACTHINoblem.RDENEoblemofEthanolcorringpraboutCarbDefenderScanthisQRCodetolearosion.oblemofEthanolcorr-owandthegraboutCarbDefenderenmorScanthisQRCodetolear www.engineprofessional.com9 AreyouanengineguyWeareContactusbecausewehavetheanswersforengines.Formoreinformationgoonlinetowww.aera.orgorcalltoll-free888-326-2372.JointodayGotopage90foramembershipapplication.500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepIindustrynews10APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalAERAcongratulatesthosewhohavecompletedtheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramAsofApril12014297peoplehaveenrolledintheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramforCylinderHeadandEngineMachinistcertificates.Foracompletelistofgraduatesgotowww.aera.orgaera-universitycertificates.JimGravespicturedLabAssistantfortheAdvancedAutomotiveTechnologyProgramAAUTattheNewEnglandInstituteofTechnologyNEITrecentlycompletedAERAsonlinetrainingcourse.In2010theNationalInstituteofAutomotiveServiceExcellenceASEdiscontinuedtheirEngineMachinistcertificationexamsduetothelownumbersoftechniciansnationallyattemptingthesehigherleveltests.AllNEITautomotivetechnologyinstructorsandlabassistantslikeJimmustbeASEcertifiedintheareasinwhichtheyteachorassist.ASEtestA1EngineRepairistheacceptedcertificationforinstructorsteachingEngineRepairinquarterone.EngineMachinistwasamorein-depthanddifficultsetofthreeexamscoveringtheinternalrebuildingandreassemblyoftheengineblockcylinderheadandenginereassembly.In2011AERAcreatedtheEngineMachinistandCylinderHeadcertificationcoursean18modulecoursecoveringthediagnosisdisassemblymachiningandreassemblyoftheengineaswellasthecylinderhead.Eachmoduleconsistsofreadingassignmentscompletewithillustrationsandaddition-alstudyactivitiestoreinforcethelearning.Eachmodulecon-cludeswitha20to30questiontimedtest.Youmustachieveascoreof80topassontothenextmodule.Onceyouregisterforthecourseyouhaveoneyeartocompleteall18modulesandtwofinalexams.JimbeganthisprocessinMayof2013andcompletedthefinalexamsovertheholidaybreak.Whatyoumaynotknowisthishasbeenalifelongpas-sionforJim.HebegantinkeringwithcarsasateenagerinWarwickRhodeIsland.AfterhighschoolheattendedRhodeIslandTradesSchool.Sincethattimehehasworkedasatechnicianindealershipsasashopforemananinsur-anceclaimsinvestigatorandasatechnicaladvisorforFordMotorCo.claimsarbitration.JimhasbeenanASEcertifiedtechnicianforover25yearsandsince2007hassharedhisknowledgewiththestudentsatNEIT.IndividualslikeJimGravesleadthewayformanyotherdedicatedenginemachinistsinterestedinprovingwhattheyknow.FormoreinformationabouttheAERAOnlineTrainingProgramseepage74.IAERAOnlineTrainingProgramIfyouareinterestedinaddingtoyourresumeofengineexperiencecallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenTenderingore-mailkarenaera.org.Shecanansweryourquestionsandwhenreadyregisteryoutobegintheprogram. www.engineprofessional.com11Thebardesignisusedtore-alignthetunnelscavitiesinalloycylinderheadsin5minutesafterweldingandstraightening.Thebarsprovideaverysubstantialcostreductionwhilstensuringanexactnonerroreaseofrettingthecamshaft.Atthenormaltimeof1-2hourssettingupandlineboringbyskilledstafftimecanbereducedtolessthan5minutes.Thebar800-1000mmlongismerelyplacedalongthelengthoftheheadandmovedbackandforthtwistingthebarwiththemovementofyourwrist.Oncethebarseatsthejobisnished.Diamondcoatingspiralleddownthebarwillprovideanimmediatenishedsurface.Thediameterofthebarsareexactlythedimensionsofthetunnelcavitiesandcomeinarangeofdifferentsizes.Mainsizedbarsfullrangeofcurrentengines.Othersizescanbemadetoyourrequirements.EachbarisUS1500whichincludesairfreighthandlingandinsurance.TESTIMONIALSBeforeDownunderbarscametoourrescueeveryOHCheadwiththesmallestbendortwistcausedushoursofworktorestoreasmoothturningcamshaft.Nowallheadsgetalightrubinthetunnelsandweareassuredofalighttightcamshaftfeel.OurBercoline-borerisnowredundantbecauseevenafullline-borecanbedonesoquicklywiththesediamondbars.Downunderbarshaveexcellentdurabilityandlastthousandsofheads.Idontseehowaheadshopcouldoperatewithoutthesebars.PeterCookGeneralManagerHEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdTel610892271055HeadExchangeHEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdwasoneoftherstcompaniestousetheDiamondcamshaftAlignmentToolandthatwasover10yearsago.ToQuotePeterCookagainOurBercoline-borerisnowredundantbecauseevenafullline-borecanbedonesoquickly.PtyLtdwww.camshafttools.comEmailinfocamshafttools.comT5MINUTECAMSHAFTALIGNMENTTOOLNEWTOTHEUSANEWOTHEAweaalightrubinthetunnelsandcamshaft.NowallheadsgettotwistcausedushoursofworkwiththesmallestbendortoourBefoTESTIMONIALSedofalighteassualightrubinthetunnelsandcamshaft.NowallheadsgetningeasmoothtutwistcausedushoursofworkwiththesmallestbendoryOHCheadescueeveeDownunderbarscameTESTIMONIALSthesebars.shopcouldoperatewithoutheads.IdontseehowaheaddurabilityandlastthousandsofDownunderbarshaveexcellentwiththesediamondbars.ecanbobecauseevenafullline-line-botightcamshaftfeel.OurBercothesebars.shopcouldoperatewithoutheads.IdontseehowaheaddurabilityandlastthousandsofDownunderbarshaveexcellentwiththesediamondbars.ecanbedonesoquicklybecauseevenafullline-dndanterisnowtightcamshaftfeel.OurBerco-Thebaeducedtolessthan5minutes.rtimecanbeAtthenormaltimeof1-2hourssettingupandlineboringbyskilledstaoreasenonerovideaverysubstantialcostrThebarspin5minutesafterweldingandstraightening.Thebardesignisusedto800-1000mmlongismeeducedtolessthan5minutes.Atthenormaltimeof1-2hourssettingupandlineboringbyskilledstaettingthecamshaft.oreaseofrovideaverysubstantialcostin5minutesafterweldingandstraightening.e-alignthetunThebardesignisusedtoelyplacedalongthelengthoftheheadeducedtolessthan5minutes.Atthenormaltimeof1-2hourssettingupandlineboringbyskilledstaeductionwhilstensuringanexactrin5minutesafterweldingandstraightening.e-alignthetunnelscavitiesinalloycylinderheadsAlignmentelyplacedalongthelengthoftheheadffAtthenormaltimeof1-2hourssettingupandlineboringbyskilledstaeductionwhilstensuringanexacte-alignthetunnelscavitiesinalloycylinderheadsusetheDiamondcamshaftoneoftherstcompaniestoHEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdwasHeadExchangeel610HEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdGeneralManagePeterCookAlignmentusetheDiamondcamshaftoneoftherstcompaniestoHEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdwasHeadExchangeel610892271055HEADEXAustraliaPtyLtdrGeneralManagePeterCookUS1500whichincludesairfengines.OthersizescanbemadetoyourandcomeinarangeofdiThediameterofthebarsasurface.DiamondcoatingspiralleddownthebarwillpOncethebarseatsthejobisnished.andmovedbackandforthtwistingthebarwiththemovementofyourwrist.ThebaihthnlUS1500whichincludesairfengines.Othersizescanbemadetoyourentsizes.MainsizedbarsfullrangeofcurrfefandcomeinarangeofdieexactlythedimensionsofthetunnelcavitiesrThediameterofthebarsaDiamondcoatingspiralleddownthebarwillpOncethebarseatsthejobisnished.andmovedbackandforthtwistingthebarwiththemovementofyourwrist.800-1000mmlongismeeighthandlingandinsurance.ements.Eachbarisrequirengines.Othersizescanbemadetoyourentsizes.MainsizedbarsfullrangeofcureexactlythedimensionsofthetunnelcavitiesovideanimmediatenishedrDiamondcoatingspiralleddownthebarwillpandmovedbackandforthtwistingthebarwiththemovementofyourwrist.elyplacedalongthelengthoftheheadements.Eachbarisentrentsizes.Mainsizedbarsfullrangeofcureexactlythedimensionsofthetunnelcavitiesovideanimmediatenishedandmovedbackandforthtwistingthebarwiththemovementofyourwrist.elyplacedalongthelengthoftheheadyquicklfullline-boedundacoline-borOurBeouoteover10yearsago.Alignmentecanbedonesorfullline-boedundantbecauseevenaerisnowrcoline-booQuotePeterCookagainover10yearsago.AlignmentUS1500whichincludesairfeighthandlingandinsurance.US1500whichincludesairfeighthandlingandinsurance.Emailinfocamshafttools.comwwwEmailinfocamshafttools.com.camshafttools.comwEmailinfocamshafttools.com.camshafttools.com 12APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional2014CamaroZ28poweredbyracing-provenLS7V-8BYDAVEHAGENPHOTOSGENERALMOTORSLightweighthigh-flowfeaturescontributetobalancedperformanceestimated500hpTheracing-provenLS77.0LV-8powerstheall-new2014CamaroZ28themosttrack-focusedproductionmodelinthecarshistory.ItsmatchedwithaTREMECTR6060six-speedmanualtransmissionwithuniquegearingtailoredtotheLS7sperformancecharacteristicsforoptimaltrackperformance.TheZ28engineisadaptedfromtheLS7usedintheC6CorvetteZ06whichwasdevelopedinconjunctionwithCorvetteRacing.Itisratedatanestimated500horsepower373kWand470lb.-ft.oftorque637NminthenewCamaroZ28withamaximumenginespeedof7100rpmabroadrpmrangethatcontributestohigherpowerandallowsthedrivertoholdgearslongerbetweenshiftsonthetrack.Thathelpskeeptheengineatpeakpowerforquickerlaptimes.TheLS7livesonintheall-newZ28extendingaperformancelegacywhiledeliveringgreatpowerdensityinalightweightpackagetogivethisexcitingnewCamaroagreatfeelingofcontrolandbalancesaidJohnRydzewskiassistantchiefengineerforsmall-blockengines.Itintroducedexoticmaterialsandracing-influencedsolutionsthatkeepitattheforefrontofhigh-performancetechnology.TheLS7isthemostpowerfulnaturallyaspiratedproductionengineeverfromGeneralMotorsanduponitslaunchinlate2005wasthefirstGMenginetoreceiveSAE-certifiedpowerratings.IntheCamarolineupitcomplementsarangeofgreatV-8choicesstartingwiththe426-horsepowerLS3intheCamaroSSandendingwiththesuperchargedLSAratedat580horsepowerintheCamaroZL1saidRydzewski.TheLS7slowmassandhighrpmcapabilitymakeittheperfectchoiceforthelightweighttrack-capableZ28exemplifyingallthestrengthsandattributesofthesmall-blockarchitecture.continued www.engineprofessional.com13 Hand-assembledatGMsPerformanceBuildCenterinWixomMich.theLS7sharesthebasicGenIVV-8architectureastheCamaroSSs6.2LLS3enginebutitusesauniquecylinderblockcastingwithpressed-insteelcylinderlinerstoaccommodatetheengineslargerdiameter104.8mmcylinderboreswithdeck-plateboringandhoningforoptimizedboregeometry.Italsousesadry-sumpoilingsystemtoensurefulllubricationduringthe1.05-gcorneringloadstheZ28iscapableofproducing.InternallytheLS7sreciprocatingcomponentsuseracing-derivedlightweighttechnologyincludingtitaniumconnectingrodsandintakevalvestoboosthorsepowerandrpmcapabilityandreduceoverallenginemass.Thetitaniumconnectingrodsprovideperhapsthemostdirectlinkfromtheracetrack.Theyweighjust464gramsapiecealmost30percentlessthantherodsintheLS3.Besidesbeinglightweightwhichenhanceshigh-rpm14APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional2014CAMAROZ28BYDAVEHAGENThe2014ChevroletCamaroZ28isthemosttrackcapablefactorybuiltCamaroeverproduced.continuedTheBestPre-LubeTankInTheIndustry1-800-533-8010www.goodson.comtwitter.comGoodsonToolsfacebook.comGoodsonToolsAndSuppliesSAVE35WhenYouOrderTheOptionalWallHangerIncludesAluminumWallPlateStorageBinforsmallpartsDecimalEquivalencyChartConnectingRodTowelHolder1RollHeavyDutyBlueShopTowelsOrderNo.EPL-WHJobber74.99YOURPRICE39.99whenorderedwiththeEPL-120.UseKeycodeREB2whenordering.12QuartCapacityCorrosionResistantAluminumTankIntegralPressureGaugePop-offPressureReleaseValveLarge134FillHole8Long14FillHoseIncludes3Fittings1814LSEngineOrderNo.EPL-120Jobber279.99 Therightstu.Preciselyformulatedcopperleadandtinbackedbyasubstantialsteelalloystrip.ExactlywhatsrequiredforbearingdurabiliyandreliabilityinGMFordandChryslerV8s.OrbitTrimetalrodsandmainsaretheperfectmatchforcranksthataredrivenbyeightpistons.Hundredsofhoursofdynotestingandmillionsofmilesofactualroadusehaveprovedtheirdependabilitybeyondquestion.OrbitTrimetalbearingsprovidetheseexceptionaldesignandmetallurgycharacteristicsexcellentload-carryingcapacitydurabilityconformabilityanti-wearembedabilityandanti-corrosion.AvailableforpopularGMFordandChryslerV8engines400427327350302etc..OrbitisaregisteredtrademarkofACLDistributionInc.OrbitTrimetalBearings.comwww.engineprofessional.com15 16APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional2014CAMAROZ28BYDAVEHAGENperformanceandrpmrangetitaniummakestherodsextremelydurable.AdditionalenginehighlightsincludeForgedsteelmainbearingcapsForgedsteelcrankshaftTitaniumconnectingrodswith101.6-mmstrokeAluminumflat-toppistons11.01compressionHigh-liftcamshaftRacing-derivedCNC-portedaluminumcylinderheadswithtitaniumintakevalvesandsodium-filledexhaustvalvesHydro-formedtri-YexhaustmanifoldsHigh-capacityliquid-to-liquidoilcoolingsystemUniquecold-airinductionsystemwithlow-restrictionKNairfilterUniqueenginecoverwithCamaro427identification.continuedLOSINGMONEYONENGINEPARTSFeaturedProductReplacementBearingswww.goenginepro.comENGINEPROBRANDENGINEPRODUCTSDiscovertheprofit-buildingpowerofEngineProbrandengineparts.INNENDiscovertheprofit-buildingpowerofEngineProbrandengineparts.MNEINETaprofitandyourcustomergetsmoreorexceedcompetitorsfeatures.AndtheyrepricedsoyoumakevailableonlyfromengineprofessionalsEngineProproductsmeetAyingcapacitythan20greaterloadcarrtri-metalmaterialatvaluepricesandhaveaMostV8applicationsareavailableineplacementBearingsRtturedProduceaFaprofitandyourcustomergetsmoreyingcapacitythantri-metalmaterialatvaluepricesandhaveaMostV8applicationsareavailableineplacementBearingsorteeatures.AndtheyrepineproessionalsEnginbi-metalaluminumbearings.yingcapacitythan20greaterloadcarrENIPRbi-metalaluminumbearings.yingcapacitythanRANDENIRDT www.engineprofessional.com17 2014CAMAROZ28BYDAVEHAGENTheLS7exhaustsystemfortheZ28isuniqueandfeaturesatri-YheaderdesigntotakeadvantageoftheV-8sfiringorder.Primarypipepairingsjoincylindersoneandfivethenthreeandsevenontheleftbankwithcylinderstwoandfourandsixandeightpairedontherightbank.AteachbanktheprimarypairingscollectintoasecondaryYdeliveringacombinationofpulseseparationofadjacentfiringcylindersandimprovedscavengingfortheenginesfiringorderof1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3.Adual-modeexhaustsystemandlargethree-inch-diameterpipescomplementthemanifoldstuningandlowrestriction.TheoptimizedheaderandexhaustsystemimprovestorqueandsoundqualityfromtheLS7engine.High-flowheadsTheLS7sCNC-portedaluminumcylinderheadsaredesignedtomeetthehighairflowdemandsoftheengines7.0-literdisplacementasitingestsmorethan100cubicfeetmoreairperminutethantheLS3V-8anearly20-percentincreaseinairflow.Toprocessthatairflowcapabilityahydraulicrollercamshaftwith15mmintakeandexhaustvalveliftisusedtoallowplentyofairtocirculateinandoutoftheengine.ToensureoptimaluninterruptedairflowtheLS7sheadshavestraighttunnel-likeintakerunners.Verylargebyproduction-vehiclestandardsevenracingstandardstheyaredesignedtomaintainfastairflowvelocityprovidingexcellenttorqueatlowrpmandexhilaratinghorsepowerathighrpm.Theheadsfeature70cccombustionchambersthatarefedby56mmtitaniumintakevalveswhicharelargeryetlighterthanthevalvesintheLS3.Theyarepartneredwith41mmsodium-filledexhaustvalveswhichfeaturehollowstemspartiallyfilledwithaspecialsodiummaterialthatmeltsandliquefiesaround205degreesF96C.Theinertiafromthevalvesopeningcausestheliquefiedsodiumtomoveupinsidethestemdissipatingheatbetterthanaconventionalexhaustvalve.ToaccommodatethelargevalvefacediameterstheheadsvalveseatsareSiamesedandtakenfromexperiencewiththeenginesofCorvetteracecarstheLS7svalveanglesareheldat12degreesvs.15degreesfortheLS3toenhanceairflowthroughtheportstogetitintothecombustionsquickerandwithlessturbulence.Dry-sumpoilingsystemAdry-sumpoilingsystemisusedwiththeLS7andisdesignedtokeeptheenginefullylubricatedduringthehigh-corneringloadstheCamaroZ28iscapableofproducing.A10.5-quartreservoirdeliversoilataconstantpressuretoaconventional-styleoilpumppick-upatthebottomoftheengine.Thepressurizedoilfeedkeepstheoilpick-upcontinuallyimmersedinoilatcorneringloadsexceeding1.05g.continued18APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional THELEADERINVALVESEATGRINDINGOrder50ormoreRegisValveSeatWheelsmaybeassortedtake10off.CALL1-800-527-7604www.regismanufacturing.comYellowMagnumValveSeatWheelsforSiouxandKwik-Waygrindandfinishheavy-dutyorhardseatsinjustonestepRegisHeavy-dutyUniversalValveSeatWheelDressingStandSioux-StyleValveSeatWheelAirDriverKwik-Way-stylealsoavailableREGISMFG.1500CorinthStDallasTX75215800-527-7604214-421-5171Fax800-535-8414214-565-1704RegisoffersallthepopularsizesinGeneralPurposeStelliteNickel-ChromeRubyandFinalFinishforBlackDeckerKwik-WayandSioux.Regisalsocarriesdriversstoneholderspilotscoolantseverythingyouneedtogrindseats.www.engineprofessional.com19 2014CAMAROZ28BYDAVEHAGENOilcirculatesthroughtheengineanddowntotheoilpanwhereitissentbacktothereservoirviaascavengepump.Thelarge-capacityreservoircombinedwithahighefficiencyair-to-oilcoolerprovidesnecessaryengineoilcoolingunderthedemandsoftheenginespoweroutput.Withthedry-sumpsystemoilisaddedtotheengineviathereservoirtankwhichincludestheoilleveldipstick.ThenandnowTheengineintheoriginal1967Z28wasa302-cubic-inch4.9Lsmall-blockratedat290horsepowerand290lb-ftoftorque.ItwascreatedbymarryingtheironcylinderblockofChevrolets283V-8whichhad4.00-inchboreswiththecrankshaftofthelarger-displacement327enginewhichdelivereda3.00-inchstrokecreatingthe302-cubic-inchdisplacementthataccommodatedtheengine-sizeregulationforSCCAsTransAm-2class.WithitsaluminumcylinderblockandheadsaswellasacompositeintakemanifoldandnoheavycarburetortheLS7engineinthe2014CamaroZ28weighsapproximately20percentlessandproducesnearly73percentmorehorsepowerthanthe302enginefirstusedin1967.Ifyouthoughtitwasfuntodriveoneforty-sevenyearsagoyoullbetrulyamazedattheeaseofthisnewrideGMengineerscallitflyingcarlogic.OnMay25thofthisyearthree-timeIndianapolis500winnerDarioFranchittiwilldrivea2014ChevroletCamaroZ28topacethe98thrunningoftheIndianapolis500.ItstheeighthtimeaCamarohasbeenthepacecarstartingin1967andthe25thtimeaChevrolethaspacedtherace.I20APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalAERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenhasover41yearsofexperienceinourindustry.AsanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistDavespecializedincylinderheadworkandcompleteengineassemblyforthefirst17yearsofhiscareer. EXPERIENCE.EXCELLENCE.APASSIONFORYOURBUSINESS.GlobalOEManufacturerComprehensiveCoverageStockPerformanceNO.1SUPPLIEROFTOTALVALVETRAINSOLUTIONS2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.www.elginind.comsaleselginind.comContactYourElginDistributorTodayorCall1-800-323-676412-47www.engineprofessional.com21 22APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalInpastissuesofEngineProfessionalIhavewrittenotherarticlesonusingComputationalFluidDynamicsCFD.HereisanexampleofanotheruseforthistoolwegaveyouthescooponCFDsonowyoullgetsomeCFDonascoopWewererecentlycommissionedtodoacoupleofenginescoopsforsomeBonnevilleSpeedWeekhotrods.Wehavedoneseveralquickscoopstudiesbeforebutneveranyin-depthanalysis.Manyscoopsareavailablecommerciallybutunfortunatelythereisnoreliableinforma-tionastotheirtrueeffectivenessandtheF-1guysjustwonttellusmuchSowestartedwiththehotrodsofthe1940sfighterplanesTherearelotsofNACApaperson-linefromthattimeperiodwhichhavealotofgreatinformationoneverykindofscoopyoucanimagine.BepreparedtoreadTheprimaryfunctionofanyscoopanditsassociatedductingistodirectairintotheengine.Todothisitmustfirstprovideaninletandthentypicallyturntheairflow.FluidinthiscaseairwillfindawaythroughanyholesprovidedforitbuthowefficientlycanitdothisRememberallthattimeandmoneyyouspentonthecarbsportsandmanifoldWellthescoopisjustanextensionofthose.WantthesamegainsFirstissueiswhatsizetomaketheinlet.IfyouexaminetheentireinlettractfromtheinletvalvetothescoopinletwhichisthesmallestareathatisdirectlydownstreamfromthescoopinletSinceairflowdoesntlikemajorchangesinsec-tionordirectiondoesntitmakesensetomakethescoopinletequaltoorslightlylargerthanthatsmallestareaSecondissueiswheretoplacethescoopinletYoudontwantinternalsepa-rationThirdissueisthescoopsize.Thefrontalareaofthescoopwillhaveanasso-ciateddragHPpenalty.ThisisbasicAerodynamics101.SlipperyandsmallerisbetterFourthissueishowtodotheturn.Typicallysomearrangementofturningvanesisutilized.Refertoissuenumbersix.Fifthissueisthepressurerecoveryfreeboostfromthedynamicpressureoftheairflow.Ifwecouldbringtheairflowtoacompletestopthatwouldgiveusthemostpressurerecoveryfromthescoopairflowbutthennothingcouldentertheengine.Buttheengineispullingtheairthroughthecarbswhilewearepushingitinwiththescoopsoitisactuallypossibletoobtainmorethan100pressurerecoveryifyoucanstriketheproperbalance.AndnoImnottellingyouhowtodoallthathereyoulljusthavetoreadallthoseoldNACAreportsandrunafewtestsasyouwillseeSixthandlikelythemostimportantissueisthebalanceofpressuretotheengineinlets.Inthisparticularcasewithtwo4bblcarbswearetryingtosupplyeightventurisandboosterswithequalpressuresignals.CarbslikethatRefertoissuenumberfour.Sotheinvestigationwentasfollows.Firstwelookedatascoopthatjustwentstraightwithoutaturntoseewhathap-penedwhenwetrieddifferentinletssizesandtestconditions.Thesetrialsgaveusabestcasewithouttheturnforabaselineandalsohelpedtodetermineourfinaltest-ingconditionsforthesubsequentdynoruns.Whenraceenginesarehighlytunedwesaytheyhaveahighervolumetricefficien-cy.Inotherwordsbecauseoftherammingpressureeffectstheengineappearstobebiggerthanitis.ForscooptestingwesettheengineflowtothatCubicFeetperMinuteCFMbecausethatishowmuchtheenginecanflow.WhathappenswithascoopistheCFMdoesnotincreasebeyondthatvaluetheengineortechni-callytheleakischokedatthatCFMWhatincreaseswiththepressureriseistheScoopsaresimpleBYDAVIDC.WOODYWOODRUFF Callusoremailusatsalesuempistons.comforapersonalresponseabouthowUEMpistonscanmakeyourbuildsmoreprofitableandsuccessful.TOLLFREE800.648.7970Checkoutthefullselectionwww.uempistons.comWhetheryourebuildingasmallblockabigblockoravintageflathead-UEMhasyourpiston.AsNorthAmericaslargestpistonmanufacturerourtechnologyprocessesandequipmentfeaturethelatestdesignsforOEreplacementorhigh-performancepistonsforeverytypeofengineyouarebuilding.Wehavebeenmanufacturingaftermarketpistonsforautomotivelighttruckpopularimportandheavydutyapplicationssince1922.Whygoanywhereelsewww.engineprofessional.com23 SCOOPSARESIMPLEBYDAVIDC.WOODYWOODRUFF24APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalairdensitymassflowwhichjustmeanstherearemoreairmoleculesineachcubicfootsowewillalsoneedmorefuelbyweightwhichequalsmoreHPthankyouverymuchNextwetriedfourdifferentbasicscoopconfigurationsontheCFDvirtualdyno.Theycomprisedaconstantsectioncontractingsectionandtwoexpandingsectioninlets.WhatwesawwithoutanyturningvaneswastheyallhadpoorboosterbalanceandlostHPatrestbecausetheengineisdrawingdownthepressureinsidethescoop.HoweverdependingontheparticularscoopdesignyoumayrecoverthelostHPatsomefor-wardvelocity.IfyouhavealargeairboxthatwillminimizethateffectbutiftheentirescoopandplenumhastosetonthehoodofavehiclethenthatisnotverydesirablebecauseofthedragHPpenaltymentionedinissue2.ChangetheinletdiametertwototallydifferentflowpathsConsideringtheabovesixfactorswethenchosethebestconfigurationforthevehicleunderinvestigation.NowwewereconfrontedwithsixdesignfactorsappliedtoaninteractingthreedimensionalfluidairAndyouthoughtscoopswerereallysimpleThisrequiredsomecomprehen-sivetestingTestdontguessSoeightyfourvirtualdynorunslaterwhatdidwefindOncewedeter-minedtheinletsizeandscoopinternaldimensionsweappliedtraditionalstream-liningtotheexteriortominimizethedragHP.Thenweturnedtotheinternalstreamliningandvariousvanearrange-mentstogetthebestboosterbalance.Thisprovedtobethemostdifficultasittook51ofthe84totaltrialstoaccom-plish.Somethatyouthoughtmightbereallygreatwerereallyrottenandvice-versaButtheyallprovidedcluesforthefinalsolution.Thelasttrialsweremountingthescooponthevirtualvehiclesuspectingthatwouldinfluencethescoopperform-ance.ThisturnedouttobemuchmoreofadrasticchangethanevenweexpectedThescoopdesignwehadselectedhadapressurerecoveryof99withaboosterpressurespreadof5.Whenweputitonthevehiclethepressurerecoverydroppedto71andboosterpressurespreadjumpedto126Afterreviewingprevioustestresultswemadefourincre-mentaladjustmentsandendedupwith109pressurerecoverywitha6boosterbalance.Thinkwecanrunwiththatcontinued www.engineprofessional.com25 26APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalSCOOPSARESIMPLEBYDAVIDC.WOODYWOODRUFFForeach500HPthisisthepotentialHPat100pressurerecovery.Thechartonpage26saysthatat200mphyouwouldget525HP.Thatisa5increasewhichdoesntsoundlikealot.Butwhenyouaremaxedoutat500HPwhatthenAndifyourcurrentscoophasa71pressurerecoveryanda126boosterpressurespreadthenawelldesignedscoopgetsyou34andmoreThatsoundanybetterHeresonewithrelativelygoodpressurerecoverybutlousyboosterbalanceandaprettyhighdragHPhitOfcourseIHADtotestitwouldntyouAllofthescoopdimensionsandkeydesigncriteriaareuniquetoaparticularengineandvehicleconfiguration.Youcouldtrytocopyonebutasyoucanseeyourperformancepotentialwilllikelyvary.OfcoursethereisevenmoredetailtothisstorythanthisreportrevealsbutwhatsthatlastXXHPreallyworthtoyouIDavidC.WoodyWoodruffCMfgEispresidentofDesignDreamsLLC.Formoreinformationcall513403-3165emailDesign_Dreamscinci.rr.comorvisithiswebsiteatwww.designdreams.biz. 800-841-5405www.jamisonequipment.comSaenzS-250FlowbenchusedIntakSaenzS-250FlowbenchusedxhausteandeIntakayModel200WKwikWItemNumber3250.00Price220voltsinglephasecenteringvgaugeetMagCabinetayModel200W12853ItemNumber3250.00220voltsinglephasecenteringvgaugeIntakItemNumber250cfm28inc220voltsinglephasePricexhausteandeIntak12838ItemNumberhesofh20250cfm28inc220voltsinglephase2995.00PriceetersonBake-Blast-TPBk-17oAB-604BlasterwithdustcollectorTshotrSRvendimensionsodeepblasterdimensionstheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasterarumbleSystemetersonBake-Blast-TvenBk-17oAB-604BlasterwithdustcollectoralvemoTshotrwidex24heightx40.530.5vendimensionsdeepwidthcapacityinside42blasterdimensionstheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasterarledumRulcanScStormVWithnewCBNcuttingheadThissurfacesuptoa36cbncuttinghubwitha12orkheightcapacityw27.5hineweighs2700lbsmac220volt3phasewidex24heightx40.5widthcapacityetheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasteraracer-17yResurfTledumRWithnewCBNcuttingheadkheadorblocThissurfacesuptoa36cbncuttinghuborkheightcapacityhineweighs2700lbs220volt3phaseeareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmentWtheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasterar29eareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenttheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasterarappartindiameterand42eareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmentetheroundendplatesthatrotateintheblasterareareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipment-4-5454www.jamisonequipment.comwww.jamisonequipment.comwww.engineprofessional.com27 28APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalTYPESOFRODSConnectingrodsareavailableinawideselectionofdesignandmaterials.Whilemanyearlyrodsweremadeofcastironthisstyleshouldneverbeconsideredforanyperformancebuild.Todaysmaterialchoicesincludepowderedmetalforgedsteelaluminumandtitanium.ThetwobasicstylechoicesincludeI-beamandH-beamwhichwelldiscusshere.RODBEAMDESIGNThethreebeamdesignsincludeI-beamH-beamandX-beamconstructionwithIandHstylesbeingthemostcommon.Thetermsrefertotheshapeoftherodbeamscrosssection.IfyoucutanI-beamrodatthecenterofthebeamthecrosssectionresemblesthecapitalletterI.IfyoucutanH-beamrodthecrosssectionlooksliketheletterH.AnI-beamrodfeaturessmoothsideswithabiggrooverunningthelengthofthefrontandrearbeamfaces.AnH-beamrodfeaturesflatsmoothfaceswithgroovesoneachsideofthebeam.AmoreexoticandlesscommonstyleistheX-beamrodwhichfeaturesgroovesonfacesandsidesforweightreductionwhileretainingstrength.HowdoyouchoosebetweenI-beamandH-beamrodsAllothervariablesbeingequalI-beamrodstendtobeabitlighterthanH-beamrodsandareperfectlyadequateformildtowildstreetengines.DependingontherodmanufacturersratingsforaspecificrodlengthandengineapplicationI-beamrodscanhandleupwardsof500to700HP.H-beamrodstendtobeslightlyheavierbutofferincreasedrigidityforhigherRPMandtorqueapplicationssincethisdesignismoreresilientagainsthighercompressiveforces.Formildtowildstreetpowerplantseitherstyleisacceptable.Asmorestressisimposedhighercompressionratioforcedinductionetc.amovetoH-beammakessense.Wecouldalsoconsiderfactorssuchaswindageandparasiticoilclingbutthenweregettingintoseriousracingapplicationswhereeveryounceofpowercanbeagamechanger.PMRODSThevastmajorityofcurrentOEconnectingrodsareofthepowdered-metalPMtype.ForexampleallofthefactoryGMLS-platformenginesfeaturePMrodswiththeexceptionoftheLS7andLS9whichfeatureforgedtitaniumrods.Powderedmetalrodsarepressurecastwithaspecially-formulatedmetalpowderthatsplacedintoamoldthenheatedtoameltingpointandpressurized.Onceoutofthemoldthesmallandbigendsarehonedtosizeandrodboltthreadsarecut.Therodisthensecuredinafixtureatthepartinglineareaandthecapisthensnappedoffwithnolossofmaterial.TheresultisafracturedpartinglineonboththerodandcapPMrodsareoftenreferredtoascrackedcaprods.Whilethisprocessmayatfirstseemabitcrudeitcreatesaveryprecisematingsurfaceinterlock.Thecapfitstotherodpreciselymirrorimagesurfacesforperfectcap-to-rodalignment.BecauseofUnderstandingandSelectingConnectingRodsBYMIKEMAVRIGIANH-beamrodsfeatureflatbeamfaceswithaweight-reliefstrengtheninggrooveonthesidesofthebeam. www.engineprofessional.com29thismatingdesigneachcapmustalwaysremainwithitsoriginalrod.WhileaPMrodbig-endborecanbeslightlyoversizehonedandmatedwithoversize-O.D.bearingstheserodscannotbere-sizedinthetraditionalmannerwherematingsurfacesaregroundflattocreateasmallernon-roundboreandthenhonedroundagain.CaremustbetakenwhenhandlingPMrodssoasnottodamagetheirregularmatingsurfaces.PMrodsaresurprisinglystrongandperfectlyacceptableforstreetusebutifyourbuildisdestinedtospitoutoverabout400HPIdrecommendedanupgradetostrongerrodsforgedsteelbeingthemostcommonupgrade.IfyoudoplantoretainoriginalequipmentPMrodsIstronglysuggesteliminatingtheOErodboltsinfavorofmuchstrongerperformancerodboltssuchasthosemadebyARP.OEPMrodswhilesatisfactoryformoststreetapplicationshavetheirlimitationsintermsofhorsepower-relatedstressthereareafewperformanceaftermarketPMrodsthatarenowavailablethatfeatureamuchmoresophisticatedmetalalloymixthatiscookedandpressurizedtohigherlevelsthatarereportedlycapableofhandlingupwardsof800horsepowersortofahybridapproachofbothPMtechnologyandforging.IvenothadachancetousethesenewPMrodsyetbutwhatIveheardsofarhasbeenverypositive.WhilePMrodshavetraditionallybeenusedonlyattheOElevelwerenowalsostartingtoseehighperformanceaftermarketPMrods.HowardsCamsasanexampleteamedupwithGKNandnowoffersforgedpowdermetalrodtechnologywithanextremelydenseandnon-directionalgrainstructure.Ahigh-techbasepowderisblendedwithselectalloyelements.Meltingatomizingandannealingarecontrolledtoexactingstandards.Themetal-mixiscompactedindiesundertremendouspressureatover1500degreesF.Hotforgingwitha750-tonpressfinalizesthestructureofthemetal.ThisnewgenerationofPMrodsrepresentsahybridofbothPMandforging.WhileOEM-levelPMrodsareasstatedearliergoodforaroundthe400HPareaandmaybeevenamaxof500HPalthoughthatspushingit.HowardsnewPMrodsrepresentanewlevelinOMtechnologyandevenwith516ARP2000rodboltstheirrodsareratedfor585HP.ReportedlywhenfittedwithL19rodboltstheserodshaveevensurvivedat800HPlevels.WHYTHEOEsAREUSINGTHESERODSTheOEsareusingpowderforgingsforanumberofreasons.Tightertolerancescanbemaintainedinbothdimensionandweightandtheuseofapowderforgingprocessmakesconnectingrodswhichareeasiertomachinerequirelessstockmaterialandtheprocesseliminatesasmanyassixmachiningoperations.AccordingtoMascoTechaprimarymanufactureroftheserodsfortheOEstheincreasedmachinabilityofpowderforginghasreducedtoolingperunitcostfromabout0.22toabout0.04.DESIGNADVANTAGESOFPOWDERMETALFORGINGEvendistributionofstressovertheentiresideoftheI-beamarea.IncreasedI-beamrigidity100increaseinstiffnessoverconventionalforged.Improvednoisevibrationharshnesslevelwhichimprovespistonandringaction.Noboreoffsetbetweenrodandcap.Increasedborestiffnessandgeometry.Increasedbearingreliability.Reducedweight.Crankshaftmassreduction.Singleweightgrade-2gon400grod.Reducedmassvariationforimprovedbalance.Fulldensityacrossentirerod.Lowercostcarbonsteel.ProvenfracturesplitmethodnocrankboreelongationduringcrackingHighmachinability.continuedThedeepgrooveonthebeamsidesofanH-beamrodreduceweightandprovideextrarigidityforhigherhorsepowerandtorqueandhigher-RPMapplicationsascomparedtoI-beamrods.I-beamrodsfeaturesmoothbeamsidesandfacerecesses.I-beamrodsaretypicallylighterthanH-beamdesigns.DependingonmateriallengthandapplicationforgedsteelI-beamrodsaregenerallyviablefor500-700HPapplications. RECONDITIONINGPMRODSAmajorconcernwhentryingtoreconditioncrackedcaprodsinthetraditionalmannerrelatestotheirregularmatingsurfacesoftherodandcap.Whentheserodsaremanufacturedtheyareformedasasinglepiece.Thecapsarethenseparatedbyfracturingthecapfromtherodwhichleavesanirregularanduniquematingsurface.Thisirregularsurfaceprovidesanaccuratelocatingofthecaptotherodpreventinganymisalignmentofthecapduringassembly.Howeverifthematingsurfacesaremachinedorgroundflatinordertoreducetherodslargeendboreinpreparationofre-honingtosizeyouloseallcenteringability.Asdescribedearlierthiswoulddestroytheuniquecap-to-rodinterlockthatwascreatedwhenthecapwasbrokenawayfromtherestoftherodduringmanufacturing.Sincenointerlockmatingremainsandsincetherearenopositioningtangstousethismakesitpossibletoinstallthecapslightlyoff-centerduetothesmalltolerancerangeoftheboltstothecapsboltholes.Asaresultthecapmightthenbeinstalledoff-centerleft-to-rightlaterallyoratananglerelativetotheaxisofthelargeendbore.Ifonlyforthisreasonitisnotadvisabletorefacetherodandcapmatingsurfaces.Theotherreasonthatanattempttoresizetheserodscancreateaproblemisduetotherelativelythincapmaterial.Oncethematingsurfacesaregroundflatthenewsmallerandnon-roundlargeendboremayrequiresomuchenlargementinordertocreatearoundholethatthecapmaterialmaybereducedenoughtocreateapotentialweakarea.Weneedtonotethatintheprocessofcreatingflatmatingsurfacesitmaybenecessarytoreducethematingsurfacesbyasmuchas.040ormorewhichcouldresultinacombinedreductionoftheholebyasmuchas.080ormore.Preciouslittlecapmaterialmaybeleftafterresizinginthisinstance.Thebestapproachifresizingisnecessaryistoavoiddisturbingtheirregularcrackedmatingsurfacesaltogether.Insteadhonethebigendtoanoversizethatwillaccommodatethefittingofoversized-O.D.rodbearings.Unfortunatelytheseoversizedbearingsarenotyetavailableforallcrackedcapapplicationssocheckwithyourbearingsuppliersbeforecommittingtothis.IfavailablethoughbearingsmaybeobtainedthatfeatureastandardsizeI.D.anda.002.003largerO.D.orinanundersizedI.D.toaccommodateanundersizedgroundcrankandanoversizedO.D.toaccommodateanenlargedconnectingrodbigend.FORGEDSTEELRODSForgedsteelrodsareconstructedstartingwithaningotofsteelalloygenerallyusing5140orthestronger4340chromemolysteel.Thesteelisheatedandhammer-forgedunderenormouspressureofaround240000lbsataround2200degreesF.Thisproducesatightinternalgrainstructurewhereinthemoleculesaremoretightlycompacted.Thisisfollowedbyheat-treathardeningfinalmachiningandstressrelieving.OnsomeearlyOEforgedrodsyoumaynoticewhatfirstappearsasacastingmoldseamwhichissimplyatraceoftheouteredgethatremainedaftertheinitialforgingwasstamp-trimmedtoremoveanyexcessmaterialthatsqueezedoutofthestampingpattern.Todaysaftermarketperformanceforgedsteelrodsrarelyfeaturethisasforgingtechniquesandfinishmachininghavebecomemuchmoreadvanced.Individualmanufacturersoftenemploytheirownproprietaryformulasbutgenerallyspeakingduringconventionalsteelforgingasteelingotisheatedinanoventoabout2200degreesFatwhichpointthesteelveryformablenotyetaliquidbutveryeasytomovearoundandshape.Theingotisthenplacedinaforgingdieandsqueezedintotheapproximateshapeofthedesiredprofile.Thissqueezingisperformedeitherbyahammeringorpressingprocess.Either30APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalCONNECTINGRODSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANPowdermetalrodsarepressuremoldedasonepiece.Thecapsarethenseparatedbyacontrolledfracturingorcrackingprocesswherethecapissnappedoffoftherod.Theresultingirregularmatingfacesthenregisterbacktogetherveryprecisely.Theirregularmatingsurfacesatthepartinglineisuniquetoeachrodsmatingarea.Whentherodboltsaretightenedtospecificationthepartinglinedisappears.Itscriticaltoalwayskeepeachcapwithitsoriginalrod.PMrodscannotberesizedinthetraditionalmanner. www.engineprofessional.com31waythegoalistocompressthealloymixnotonlytopreciselyfillthediebutalsotoincreasethestrengthofthealloybycompactingthemoleculesandaligningandstrengtheningthegrainstructure.Basicallythesizeoftheingotismuchlargerthanthevolumerequiredinthediegenerallythiswillstartwithaningotthatweighsabouttwiceasmuchasthedesiredfinalproduct.Duringtheforgingcompactingprocesstheexcessmaterialisforcedoutofthedieatitsmatinglines.Thisexcessislatershearedoffinatrimmingdie.Thetrimmedrough-shapeforgingisthenquenchedandtempered.Heattreatingisbestdonebeforemachiningsincetheheattreatingtemperingprocesscandeformthepartsshapebyasmuchas0.060.Manufacturermethodsmayvarybutthismightinvolvequenchingthepartinaglycolsolution.Thepartisthenmachinedtoitsfinalshape.Oncemachiningiscompletedtherodisstressrelievedtoremoveanystressesthatmighthavebeeninducedbythemachiningprocess.Thismaybedoneinanovenheatingtherodstowithin400-600degreesF.Boththeheatingandcool-downtimesarecarefullycontrolled.Therodisthenfinal-machinedforsmallandbig-endboresize.Thefinalstepinvolvesachievingthedesiredsurfacehardness.ALUMINUMRODSThebenefitofaluminumrodswhetherforgedorcutfromextrudedbilletstockinvolvesweightreduction.Howevereventhoughaluminumrodsaregenerallyfabricatedusing7075or7075-T6aluminumalloyinordertoperformathighstresslevelsaluminumrodsarethickerandbeefierrequiringmoreclearancingwithregardtoblockandcamshaftclearances.Duetothehighercostofaluminumrodsitreallydoesntmakesenseforastreetengine.BILLETRODSBilletrodsasthetermimpliesaremachinedfromdensematerialblankstockforgedandorextruded.Billetrodsascomparedtoforgedrodsmaybelighterbutaremoreexpensiveduetothecostofthehigh-gradestockandtheCNCmachining.Forevenanultra-strongstreetenginethisisslightoverkillunlessbudgetingisntaconcern.TITANIUMRODSIfyouwantthelightestrodswiththebeststrength-to-weightratiotitaniumisthechoice.Howeveritspricey.Sinceyoullonlyrealizetheweightbenefitfromthe5000rpmanduprangeyoureallydontneedtitaniumrodsforanystreetengine.Titaniumrodsarebillet-machinedfromTi6AL4Vstockandareabout33lighterascomparedtoasame-applicationforgedsteelrod.Howevertitaniumrodsaremuchmoreexpensive.SinceyoureAluminumconnectingrodsalthoughmadeofhigh-densityaluminumforgingsorcutfrombilletstockarebeefierandcommandmoreroom.Extraattentiontoclearancesbetweentherodbigendandtheblockandcamshaftiscritical. 32APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalreallyonlygoingtoseefeeltheadvantageatenginespeedsoveraround5000rpmorsoitsreallyawasteofmoneyforastreetengine.Alsotitaniumforallofitsstrength-to-weightfeaturesisafragilematerialthatissensitivetoscratches.Smallscratchesinthesurfacecanleadtostresscrackswhichleadstorodfailure.Alsotitaniumfromafrictionmachiningstandpointisrathergummyandlikestogallwhenrubbedinthecaseofconnectingrodsthisconcernexistsattherodbig-endsidessotitaniumrodsmustbepolishedandorcoatedwithahard-surfacecoatingsuchaschromiumnitride.WHICHRODMATERIALForgedorbilletsteelissuitedforthevastmajorityofstreetandraceapplications.Wherefurtherweightreductionisdesiredforgedbilletaluminumrodsareavailablebutatahighercost.Forhigh-RPMengineswhereweightsavingsarereallycriticaltitaniumrodsareanoptionbuttheytendtofatigueovertimeascomparedtosteel.Whenusedinracingapplicationstheywilllikelyneedtobereplacedmoreoftenascomparedtosteelrods.Titaniumrodsarealsoveryexpensivewhichisamajorfactorwhenyoureonareal-worldbudget.Aluminumrodsarelighterthansteelbutcostlessthantitaniumandmorethansteel.Aluminumrodstendtobemoreonthechunkysideandgenerallyrequiremoreattentiontoblockclearance.CENTER-TO-CENTERLENGTHRodlengthreferstothedistancebetweenthecenterlinesofthesmallendpistonpinboretothebigendrodpinbore.Rodlengthisafactorindeterminingthecombinationrequiredtoachieveaspecificstrokerelativetotheblockdeckheight.Forexampleletssaythatyouwanttoachieveazero-deckclearancewherethepistontopisflushwiththeblockdeck.ThecrankstrokerodlengthandpistonCDcompressiondistanceallstackuptocomparetotheblockdeckheight.Theblockdeckheightisthedistancefromthecrankmainborecenterlinetotheblockscylinderheaddeck.Whenconsideringstrokeweonlyneedtofactorhalfofthecrankstotalstrokesinceweneedtoconsiderthedistancefromthecenterlineofthecranksrodjournalattop-dead-centerposition.Ifyourcrankhasa4.00strokeweonlyneedtofactor-inhalfoftotalstrokewhichinthisexampleis2.00.PistonCDismeasuredfromthecenterlineofthepistonspinboretotheCONNECTINGRODSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANSomehigh-dollarracingaluminumrodsfeatureveryprecisecapmatingsurfacessuchasthebroachcutsseenhere.Theradiusgroovebroachcutsregisterthecapstotherodswithextremelyhighprecisioneliminatinganychanceforthecaptomoveinrelationtotherod.Connectingrodlengthalwaysreferstothedistancefromthecenterlineofthesmallendboretothecenterlineofthebigendbore.IllustrationcourtesyLunati. www.engineprofessional.com33topdeckofthepiston.IfyouknowtheblockdeckheightandthecrankstrokeyoucanchoosethecombinationofrodlengthandpistonCDthatwillplacethepistondeckattheblocksdeckortodeterminewherethepistonwillbeatTDCrelativetotheblockdeck.EXAMPLEIftheblockdeckheightis9.980andyouplantousea4.150strokecranka6.760rodandapistonCDof1.113thetopofthepistonwillbe0.032belowdeck.IfyouwantthepistonflushwiththeblockdeckthepistonCDwouldneedtobe0.032higheror1.145.IfyoudesirethatthepistonisflushwiththeblockdeckBLOCKDECKHEIGHTstrokerodlengthpistonCDOnehalfofthecrankstrokelengthoftherodandthepistonscompressiondistanceareaddedtogetherandcomparedtotheblocksdeckheight.RODCLEARANCESTherearesixbasicareastoconsiderrelativetoconnectingrodclearancetoothercomponentsBigendoftherodtotheblockwhenstrokeisincreasedcheckclearanceatthepanrailsandatthebottomofthecylinders.Withmainbearingscrankrodbearingsrodsandpistonstest-installedslowlyrotatethecrankandobservehowcloserodbigendsaretothelowerareasoftheblock.Aminimumofabout0.080isrecommended.Bigendoftherodtothecamshaftwhenusingincreasedstroke.About0.070clearanceistheminimum.Withthecamandtimingsysteminstalledslowlyrotatethecrankandobserveclearanceatallrodbigendareas.Smallendoftherodtotheundersideofthepistononlyaconcernifusingrodsthathaveweightpadsatthesmallend.Minimumisabout0.060.Smallendoftherodbetweenthepistonpinbosses.Minimumisabout0.080.Especiallyifusingthickaluminumrodscheckingthisismorecritical.FEL-PROONLYExhaustiveRDFELPRO-ONLY.comFordPowerstroke6.0LNavistarFel-ProPermaTorqueMLSHeadGasketThe6.0LPowerstrokeengineistoughonheadgaskets.Itrequiresagasketthatbenetsfromthousandsofman-hoursofengineeringdedicatedtosolvingaspecicsetofproblems.Agasketyoucantrusttoreliablysealthisdemandingengine.hEiustRP-LEFRahxEYNLOORDRviustaeokrtsrewoPL0.6ehTk.Aglbfprpegasnivloosdtetacidedeneingefosrhou-namfoausohtmorsftenbetahtsgaaseriuqertI.tseksgadahenoghoutisneingecicpengiresdnateksT1P47362mrePorP-lFetsrewoPdrFo.neingengidnamdealteyslbaileorttusrntaceksa.Agsmelbofprtoesm8T1teksadGLMeuqorratsivL0.6eroksihaltuotyesrthgilrl.AnoitaroprolCugoM-laredefFokramedardteretsigesaroirP-le4F102T2P57362T1P47362ORPLEFdevresesrm0T2mdm8T1omNO-OTodayshighperformanceaftermarketconnectingrodsaremadewithveryhighstandardsandclosetolerances.Typicallyasetfromaleadingmanufacturerwillbelessthan2gramsintermsofweightvariation.Typicallythereisnoneedtomachinetheserodsforweightmatchingpriortocrankbalancing.continued 34APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalCONNECTINGRODSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANRodbearingclearancethiswilllikelybeinthe0.0025to0.0035rangebutalwaysrefertoyourenginesspecs.Beawarethatforcedinductionapplicationsmayrequiregreaterbearingclearanceasopposedtonaturally-aspiratedapplicationsRodsideclearance.Thisistheclearancebetweenthebigendsofapairofrodsonacommonjournal.Withrodsandbearingsinstalledspreadtherodbigendsapartandinsertafeelergaugebetweenthebigends.Clearanceforsteelrodsshouldbeinthe0.0140.020range.AluminumrodsmayrequireslightlygreaterclearancerefertotherodmakersspecsSmallendoftherodbushingassumingyoureusingfloatingpinstothewristpinsandpistonpinbores.Refertotherodandpistonmakersspecs.AnoteregardingrodtocamclearanceIfclearanceisrequiredyouhavetwochoicesremovematerialfromtherodorchangetoacamshaftthatfeaturesasmallerbasecircle.Ifyouswapouttoasmallerbasecirclecamyoullneedlongerpushrods.ConsideringtodaysCNCArodboltstretchgaugeallowsyoutomonitoreachrodboltslengthfromfree-statetofullytensioned.Withtherodboltplacedontothegaugethedialgaugeiszeroedtoestablishareferencepoint www.engineprofessional.com35FEL-PROONLYStrengthInnovationFELPRO-ONLY.comFordPowerstroke6.0LNavistarFel-ProPermaTorqueMLSHeadGasketThe6.0LPowerstrokeengineistoughonheadgaskets.Itrequiresagasketthatcombinessuperiormaterialsandpatentedtechnologies.Agasketyoucantrusttodeliverabetterstrongerseal.treSthRP-LEFnnIntreSYNLOORnoitthgneokrtsrewoPL0.6ehTrabeilodyetskagA.seigohnolcetdetnetadpnsaaliretamroirepussneibmocthatsgaaseriuqertI.tseksgadahenoghoutisneingeouyteksT1P47362mrePorP-lFetsrewoPdrFo.alersegnortsttrabeevileodttusrntacm8T1teksadGLMeuqorratsivL0.6erokretsrthgilrl.AnoitaroprolCugoM-laredefFokramedardteretsigesaroirP-le4F102T2P57362T1P47362ORPLEFdevresesrm0T2mdm8T1omNO-Ocapabilitiesmostcammakerscanproducewhateveryouneedinanywherefromaweektoamonthdependingontheirworkload.Ifyoudecidetorelievetherodsdothiscarefullyattheupperbigendshouldertoavoidweakeningtherodboltfemalethreadedareas.Alsothegrindingneedstobefreeofsharpedgesandgrindscratchmarks.Oncetherodshoulderhasbeenrelievedre-assembleandre-checktheclearance.Onceyouresatisfiedwithclearancecarefullypolishtoremoveanypotentialstressrisers.Manyoftodaysperformancerodsaredesignedwithradiusedslopedshoulderstoaddressincreasedstrokeissuesbutnonethelessyoushouldalwayscheckforclearanceespeciallywhenusinganincreased-strokecrank.BEAWAREIfanymaterialisremovedfromtherodsthismustbedonepriortocrankbalancingNUMBERINGYOURRODSANDCAPSDuringinitialassemblyandduringdisassemblyitscriticaltokeepeachrodorganizedwithitsoriginalcapduetoalignmentandbearingclearanceconcerns.Eachrodandcapshouldbeidentifiedadjacenttothepartingline.ThismightinvolvenumberingbycylinderlocationorinthecaseofWithoutdisturbingthegaugesettingthegaugeisthenusedtochecktheboltlengthduringthetighteningphase.Therodboltandorrodmakerwillprovidearecommendedboltstretchspecification.Thisprovidesmorepreciseawarenessoftheboltselasticstateascomparedtousingonlyatorquewrench.Ifundertightenedtheboltwontenteritselasticstaterequiredforproperclampingforce.Ifovertightenedbeyondtheboltselasticrangetheboltisweakenedandcaneasilyfail.Thestretchmethodallowsyoutomeasurehowmuchstretchhasbeeninduced. 36APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalSpecializinginUsedRebuiltEngineRebuildingEquipmentFARRISEQUIPMENTSALESisoneofthelargestdealersofusedrebuiltenginerebuildingequipmentintheUnitedStates.WehavebeenblessedtoshipourequipmenttonearlyeverystateintheUSAandtoover40othercountriesaroundtheworld.Weinviteyoutovisitourwebsiteforphotosandpricingwww.farrisequipment.comThephotoswillgiveyouanideaofthequalityofourmachinesandalsoshowyouourfacilitiesandpeople.Warrantyprovidedwitheveryrebuiltmachinewesell.ContactSAMFARRISorDONSTONE3001Interstate27LubbockTX79404E-mailsamfarrisequipment.comBuytheRightpieceattheRightpriceFROMTHERIGHTPEOPLECall800-882-1808fortheFARRISTDEALaroundCONNECTINGRODSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANqualityaftermarketperformancerodsmatchingserialnumbersmaybelaser-etchedontoacommonsideofeachrodandcap.Ifyourrodsarenotnumber-labeledbesuretolabelthempriortodisassembly.Whileanold-schoolcommonlyinvolvedtheuseofanumberpunchtrytoavoidthismethodsincedependingonthetypeofmaterialandmaterialthicknessthismaydistortthebigend.Apreferablemethodistouseasimpleandinexpensiveelectricengravingpen.RODBOLTSIfyourerunningstockOErodsinanyenginethatsgoingtospitoutaround350ormoreHPupgradetherodboltstohightensilestrengthperformanceaftermarketrodbolts.Ifyoupurchasequalityperformanceaftermarketconnectingrodstheyllcommonlyalreadyincludethesehigherqualitybolts.Thecriticalaspectthatyouneedtounderstandinvolvesthehandlingofyourrodbolts.PAYATTENTIONtotherodboltorconnectingrodmanufacturersRodboltsmustbelubricatedaccordingtotherodboltmakersinstructions.Lubricationwillallowmoreaccuracyandconsistencywhentightening.Beawarethatadifferenttorquespecificationwillapplydependingontheuseofengineoilversusamolylube.Becauseamolylubegreatlyreducesfrictionthetorque-tighteningspecwillbelowerascomparedtotheuseofengineoil.ItscriticaltofollowtheproductsinstructionsWhenapplyinganylubricanttorodboltslubeboththethreadsaswellastheboltsunder-headarea. www.engineprofessional.com37FEL-PROONLYThe6.0LPowerstrokeengineistoughonheadgaskets.Itrequiresagasketthatcanendurehighhorsepowerpressureandtemperatures.Agasketyoucantrusttosolveproblemsandsealperfectly.SuperiorSealingFELPRO-ONLY.comFordPowerstroke6.0LNavistarFel-ProPermaTorqueMLSHeadGasketSiorRP-LEFaeSpuSYNLOORglinaiorrepeokrtsrewoPL0.6ehTlbltyeksa.AgserutrapemetnaerusseprrewpoesrohhgiehrudnneactahtsgaaseriuqertI.tseksgadahenoghoutisneingeuotydnteks.yltcefralpeedsnamelboprevloosttusrntacT1P47362mrePorP-lFetsrewoPdrFosmm8T1teksadGLMeuqorratsivL0.6eroksrthgilrl.AnoitaroprolCugoM-laredefFokramedardteretsigesaroirP-le4F102T2P57362T1P47362ORPLEFdevresesrm0T2mdm8T1omNO-Oinstructionsandspecificationsforlubricatingandtighteningtherodbolts.Dependingonthespecificengineapplicationthetighteningmethodmayinvolvetighteningbytorquetighteningbyboltstretchmonitoringorwithsomelatemodelapplicationsatorque-plus-anglemethod.GenerallyspeakingatorqueangleprocedurewillonlyapplywhenusingOErodbolts.Mostperformanceaftermarketrodboltandrodmakerswillprovidebothatorquespecificationandastretchrangegivingyouachoiceoftighteningmethods.Ifyouintendtousethetorquespecboltmakerswillusuallyprovidetwodifferenttorquevaluesonewiththeuseofengineoilasalubricantandonewiththeuseofaspecificmolylube.Torquevaluewillalwaysbeabitlowerwithmolybecausemolydecreasesthreadandunderheadfrictionifyouusemolybuttightentotheoilspecyouruntheriskofover-tightening.Theuseofmolyispreferredsinceitgreatlyreducesfrictionandprovidesamoreaccurateandconsistenttorquevalue.Whenyoulubricatetherodboltpriortoinstallationbesuretoapplylubebothontheboltthreadsandtotheundersideoftherodbolthead.Tighteningbymonitoringstretchismoretime-consumingbutmoreaccurate.Thisinvolvesusingadedicatedrodboltstretchgaugetofirstobtainarelaxedfreelengthofthebolt.Thedialgageisthensettozero.Duringinitialtighteningthegaugeisplacedontotherodbolttomonitorhowmuchtheboltisstretched.Forinstanceifthetorquespecis70ft-lbtherodboltcouldbeinitiallytorquedtosay60ft-lb.Checklengthwiththegauge.Tightenabitmorere-checkwiththegaugeetc.untiltherecommendedamountofstretchhasbeenachieved.Notethismustbedonewitheachboltthegaugemustbezerodtoeachboltsfreelength.Ifyoudontwanttobotherwithmonitoringstretchsimplyfollowthetorquespecprovidedbytherodboltorrodmakerandyoushouldbefineforastreetapplication.Thestretchmethodissimplymorepreciseandiscommonlyusedbyproraceenginebuildersbutitsalsoagoodwaytocreatearecordofrodboltinstallationforfuturereference.Ipreferusingtworodboltstretchgaugeswithonededicatedtoeachrodonacommonjournal.ThisallowsmetoverifyboltstretchasItightenbothoftherodsbolts.Rememberthatboltsaredesignedtostretchwhentheyentertheirelasticstateyouwantthisaliveelasticstateinordertoprovidesufficientclampingforce.Howeveriftherodboltisovertightenedandexceedsitsdesignedelasticstatetheboltimmediatelyweakens.IfarodbolthasbeenWheneveryouusealongerstrokecrankshaftforagivenenginealwaysperformatestpre-assemblytocheckforpossibleclearanceissues.Inthisexamplethebottomofacylinderborewasslightlyrelievedtoprovideaddedclearancebetweentherodboltandblock. CONNECTINGRODSBYMIKEMAVRIGIAN38APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalQualityControlledExpansionPlugsSince1921BrassStainlessSteel800-433-64141335WFULLERTONAVEADDISONIL60101630953-1000FAX630953-0174EMAILINFOUSTOOLANDMFG.COMU.S.TOOLANDMFG.CO.stretchedbeyonditselasticrangeitmustbereplaced.Regardlessofwhichtighteningmethodyouchooseitsagoodideatotakeadvantageofastretchgaugeevenifyouintendtotightenwithtorqueonly.RegardlessofwhattypeofrodboltsyouhaveOEoraftermarketusingastretchgaugefirstmeasureeachrodboltsoverallfree-lengthwhennewanduninstalledandrecordthislength.Besuretorecordwhichrodeachboltwillbeinstalledtocyl.1cyl.2etc..Duringanyfutureengineteardownsorwhentheopportunityarisesre-measureeachboltsfreelengthandcompareittotheoriginalnewfree-lengththatyourecorded.Ifthebolthaselongatedstretchedbymorethan0.0005one-half-thousandthsreplacetheboltsinceithasbeguntoloseitselasticproperties.Neverjustassumethatausedrodboltisstillserviceable.RODBOLTFRICTIONFACTORIfaboltistightenedbyaddressingonlytorquevalueyoumaynotnecessarilyachievethedesiredpre-loadduetothevariableoffriction.SincewecantpredictthefrictionallossmeasuringrodboltstretchprovidesthemostaccuratemethodofensuringthattheclampingloadswillbebothsufficientforthetaskandthateachpairofrodboltswillachieveEQUALloads.Boltstretchisgeneratedbyanumberoffactorsincludingtensilestrengthandmassincludingthelengthdiameteroftheboltbeingstretched.Forexampleletsconsidertwo38x1bolts.Onefeaturesa1longshankwiththreadsonthefull1oftheshanklength.Theotherboltfeaturesofshanklengththatisfull-diameterandsmoothandonlyofthreadlengthatthetip.Theboltwithpartialthreadwillstretchlessbecausetheshankareabetweentheheadandnutengagementareahasathickercross-section.Thepartial-threadboltwillhavea.375diametershankwhiletheall-threadboltwillhaveonlya.324shankduetothesmallerrootdiameterinsidethethreadpath.AccordingtoARPasanexampletheycalculatestretchnumberforeveryboltshankdiameterandmaterialgrade.Ifyouserviceenginesonafrequentbasisadedicatedrodviseisessential.Acomposite-linedvisewillpreventnickingdamagedtotherodholdingthebigendsecurelyduringeitherboltremovalortighteningduringtestfittings. www.engineprofessional.com39THEONLYHEATTABMADEINU.S.A.DONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITATIONSSILVERSEALCENTERMATERIALISCERTIFIEDMADEINTHEU.S.UNDERU.S.STANDARDS.p800-521-2936f800-521-0580silver-seal.comSilverSealProducts19224AllenRd.TrentonMI48183silversealKEEPAMERICAWORKINGPREMIUMHIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPLOW-TEMPDIESELMARINEU.S.PATENT5482000250-255F121-124C250-255F121-124C225-230F107-110C187-192F86-89CFRONTBACKPERSONALIZEDHEATTABSAVAILABLEHEATTABADHESIVEEXCLUSIVEFORMULAMADEINTHEU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHEATTABSPARTHT1MELTINGPOINT250-255F121-124CWecertifythatthematerialsuppliedpursuantorderissuedbyyouandnumberedaslistedaboveconformstoapplicablespecificationsorrequirements.ForCompleteProtectionsilversealBatch100612GeoffreyA.HavensSr.PresidentCertificationofCenterMeltMaterialAMUSTforEngineBuilders-LargeorSmallCourtCasesWonwith100ResultsDONOTRiskYourHardWorkUsingOffShoreImitationsMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGKEEPAMERICAWORKINGMADEINTHEU.S.A.MADEINTHEU.S.A.KEEPAMERICAWORKINGTHEU.S.MADEINEREALENIDONTBEFOOLEDBYCOPIESFROMOFFSHOREIMITHEHEONLENTP.S.UUNDERU.S.THEU.S.TIFIEDERIALIETERMPIEFRMFFHREIMIABMADEINU.TTIONSABMADEINU.S.A.HIGH-TEMPHIGH-TEMPPREMIUM121-124C250-255F121-124C250-255FEMARINEDIESELLOW-TEMPHIGH-TEMP121-124C250-255F107-110C225-230F86-89C187-192FFRONTEeeuetratthk.ishatengineteonstarTINGO1-124CatabevidenachaofoftheheatvismpletePWhenanentltoprachesthgihece50-255F1NINythereabouiFeas.rementrAttachOnEachHeadBothSidesofBlock.lnsoterissuedbplescabantolipoaprmsedpunterialsuptabWeceranouyrdsulipftih100612.0HIGHMEL1TEMPARP580tBMI4818ENTORD.CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKUsingOffShoreImitationsorkWurHardDONOTRiskonwith100ResultsWCourtCasesLargeorSmallAMUSTforEngineBuilders-CertificationofCenterMeltMaterialBACKonwith100ResultsCertificationofCenterMeltMaterial19224AllenSilverSealProductssilver800-521-2936fpsilveVERO-EAL.O70TentedisyA.HafreGeo734.479225SI.WWOCALP734.479.47AXF800.521.2936FREEPHONL8.FALLEN.TRENTON192vensSr.MI48183entonRd.19224Allen-seal.comsilver800-521-0580800-521-2936favUsingOffShoreImitationsMI48183800-521-0580Onthespecsheetthatisincludedwitheveryboltsetthemaximumallowableamountofstretchislistedinadditiontoatorquevaluebutthetorquevalueshouldbeusedasaguideonly.Themakerdoesnotwanttheinstallertouseatorquevalueasthefinalindicationofboltstretch.Rathertheboltsshouldbeindividuallymeasuredforstretchduringtighteningtoassurethateachboltisinstalledatitsoptimumelasticclampingload.IArodcapsplittertoolisanotherhandydevice.Thebigendisplacedona2-pieceanvil.Withtherodboltsbackedoffasthetoolhandleisturnedtheanvilgentlyandcontrollablyseparatesthecapfromtherodwithouttheneedtobangtheboltheadswithahammerandpotentiallydroppingtherodintheprocess.Shownhereisaviewofablockscamshaftbore.Noticehowclosetheproximityoftherodboltshouldertothecamtunnel.Ifyoureusingahigh-liftcamandoryoureoverstrokingandorusingthicker-than-stockrodsalwayscheckrodtocamlobeclearance.MikeMavrigianhaswrittenthousandsoftechnicalarticlesoverthepast30yearsforavarietyofautomotivepublications.InadditionMikehaswrittenmanybooksforHPBooks.ContacthimatBirchwoodAutomotiveGroupCrestonOH.Call330435-6347ore-mailmikebirchwoodautomotive.com.Websitewww.birchwoodautomotive.com www.engineprofessional.com41ChevroletandGMCrecentlyunveiledtheall-new2015ChevroletColoradoandGMCCanyonwhichwillredefinethemidsizetruckandofferrealtruckcapabili-tyandversatilitytocustomerswhodontrequireafull-sizetruck.ThisnewtruckisbuiltwiththeDNAofatrueChevyGMCtruckexpectedtodeliverclass-leadingpowerpayloadandtraileringratings.ColoradosandCanyonsgoesonsaleinfall2014asa2015model.OurstrategyissimplemeettheneedsofthebroadestpossiblecustomerbaseandletthemchoosepreciselytherighttrucktomeettheirneedssaidMarkReussGeneralMotorsexecutivevicepres-identandpresidentofGMNorthAmerica.Theall-newColoradobenefitsfromthesolidfoundationestablishedbytheSilveradoanditreinventsthemidsizetruckwhilereinvigoratingthesegmentatthesametime.ThenewColoradowasdevelopedfortheNorthAmericantruckcustomerwithdistinctivedesigncomfortandconnectivi-tyfeaturesincludingsegmentfirstssuchasavailableforwardcollisionalertandlanedeparturewarning.GMexpectsthesetruckstobethemostpowerfultruckinthesegmentallowingownerstohaulandtowmore.A2.5LI-4isstandardanda3.6LV-6isavailable.Eachengineistunedtestedandvalidatedfortruckuseandeachfeaturesdirectinjectionandvariablevalvetimingtomakethemostofpowerandefficiency.Eachismatchedwithasix-speedautomat-ictransmissionandthe2.5Lisavailablewithasix-speedmanualtransmissiononextendedcab2WDWorkTruckmodels.WhenproperlyequippedtheColoradoisexpectedtoofferclassleadingpayloadcapacityandtraileringcapacityofmorethan3039kilograms6700lbs..ThatismorethanenoughcapabilitytothrowaGMredefinesthemidsizetruckBYDAVEHAGENPHOTOSGENERALMOTORSTheall-new2015ChevroletColoradoZ71isbuiltwiththeDNAofatrueChevytruckandisexpectedtodeliverclass-leadingpowerpayloadandtraileringratings.Coloradogoesonsaleinfall2014. 42APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalweekendsworthofcampinggearinthebedandtowaboattoafavoritelake.GMwillalsoofferthesegmentsonlydieselengineinitssecondyear2016aprovenDuramax2.8LL4turbo-dieselalreadyofferedinglobalmarkets.ThedieselenginewillexpandColoradospow-ertrainlineuptocoverthebroadestrangeofneedswiththreeengineoptions.WedesignedtheColoradotobethemostversatileandmostcapableinitsseg-mentbarnonesaidJeffLukeexecutiveengineerGMTrucks.Noteveryoneneedsfull-sizecapabilitybuttheystilldeservethestrengthandtrue-truckattrib-utesthatcomeinlargermodels.TheColoradodeliverscapabilitywithconfi-denceandafun-to-drivespiritthatcomplementsactivelifestyles.COLORADOANDCANYONBYDAVEHAGEN3200ArrowheadDriveCarsonCityNV89706TEL800227-8360FAX775883-9497Visitusonlineatwww.dura-bondbearing.comKILLERBEEValveSeatLineQualityCamshaftBearingsSince1947VALVESEATTECHNOLOGYHASCHANGEDApplicationPartActualODIDIDTopTaperDepthSeatAngleApplicationysler4.0LChrysler4.0LChr1.19972419CExhaustysler4.0L1.47272420Intakeysler4.0LPartApplication45.3221.0760.96045.3101.3721.250neGeneralMotors6.2LLS3GeneralMotors6.2LLS3ysler5.7LEagleChrysler5.7LEagleChrysler4.7LCorsairChrysler4.7LCorsairChr1.63272444CExhaustGeneralMotors6.2LLS32.19472443CIntakeGeneralMotors6.2LLS31.60272432CExhaustysler5.7LEagle2.18672431Intakeysler5.7LEagle1.50272405CExhaustysler4.7LCorsair2.00172401Intakeysler4.7LCorsair45.4131.34045.4131.90053.7.2761.5041.32253.2.3382.0071.82057.8.2551.4081.21949.2641.9061.730continuedTheall-new2015GMCCanyonisexpectedtodeliverclass-leadingcapabilitieswiththebrandssignaturerefinementallinanefficientlysizedmaneuverablepackage. www.engineprofessional.com43 Truck-tunedpowertrainsdesignedforworkefficiencyThe2.5Land3.6LenginesofferedintheColoradoandCanyonarebasedonprovendesignsfoundinotherChevroletvehiclesbuttuneduniquelyfortruckdutyincludingmoretorqueatlowerrpmforamoreconfidentfeelingofpowerwhentheColoradoisloadedorpullingatrailer.The2.5Lfourisestimatedat193horsepower146kWand184lb-ftoftorque253Nmwithapprox-imately90percentofthepeaktorqueavailablefrom2000rpmto6200rpm.The3.6Lengineisesti-matedat302horsepower224kWand270lb-ftoftorque366Nm.SAEcertifi-cationofthepowerratingsispending.Aluminumblocksandforged-steelcrankshaftsalongwithdual-overheadcamshaftswithvariablevalvetimingdirectinjectionandjet-spraypistoncoolingarefeaturessharedonbothengines.Anumberofextended-lifecomponentscanhelpreducemaintenanceinter-valsandreducethecostofownership.Mostmodelsarematchedwithasix-speedautomaticthatcomplementsthetruck-tunedengineswithfeaturesthatmakehaulingandtrai-leringeasierandmorecomfortableinclud-ingautogradebrakingandatowhaulmode.Theextendedcab2WDWTmod-elsequippedwiththe2.5Lenginearealsoavailablewithasix-speedmanualtrans-mission.Whenwelaunchedthefirstgenera-tionDuramaxfour-cylinderturbo-dieselenginesmorethantwoyearsagoboththe2.5-literand2.8-litervariantsdeliveredbestinclasspowerandtorqueoutputssaidNicolaMenariniGlobalChiefEngineerGMPowertrain.Thenew-generationMY14DuramaxenginesjustraisedthatbarevenfurtherwithunprecedentedlevelsofoutputfromaCOLORADOANDCANYONBYDAVEHAGEN44APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalIntroducedintheColoradoCanyonin2016isa2.8LL-4DuramaxDiesel.compactandhighly-efficientconstruction.Whenweweredevelopingthesecond-generationDuramaxengineoutrightpowerandtorqueoutputswerenotthemainprioritiesMenarinisaid.The2.8Lhasseveralnewpartsname-lyanewwater-cooledvariable-geometryturbochargeranewhigh-pressurecom-mon-railfueldeliverysystemanewExhaustGasRecirculationEGRsystemanewintakemanifoldanewcylinderheadanewcylinderblockanewbal-ancershaftunitandanewEngineControlModuleECM.The2ndGenDuramaxfoursarealsoverycleanGMsaysbothenginesareEuro-4compliantandcanbeupgradedtomeetEuro-5-6andU.S.emissionstandardsifnecessary.ThenewDuramaxengineswereengi-neeredinEuropeandtheUSwithglobalapplicationasoneofitsdevelopmentalobjectives.Theyarebeingbuiltinthe200millionGMPowertrainThailandplantwhichistheirmostadvanceddiesel 46APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalenginefacility.GMsThailandmarketingnumberssaythatthefirstgenerationina44ChevroletColoradoprovidesfueleconomyof25.57mpgandthenewversionis6per-centbetter.BothengineswillbeshowingupintheThailandandSoutheastAsianColoradopickuptruckandTrailblazerSUVtwoofChevroletsmostpopularoverseasmodelssoon.Duramax2.5L2.8LKeyComponentsCommonRailSystemThehighpressurefuelpumpofthesecondgenerationDuramaxengineoperatesatpressuresupto2000barenablingincreasedengineefficiency.ItprovidesahighpressurefuelinthecommonrailsystemandafinevaporissprayedintotheenginebasedoninputfromtheECMtoensureefficientcombustionandper-formancewhilereducingCO2andfuelconsumption.Turbo2.8LTheimprovedvariable-geometryturboincor-poratesawater-coolingsystemintheturbinehousingtoreduceheatwhenoperatingathighspeedsandfullload.ThisfeatureextendsthelifeoftheturboandtheengineEGRValveandEGRCoolerThenewEGRsystemDecreasesexhaustemissionsoxidesofnitrogenNOxbyreducingchargetemperatureandreducingexcesslevelsofO2inthecombustionchamber.ThenewDuramaxengineusesanElectricEGRvalveforgreaterprecisionandalargerEGRcoolertofurtherreducerecirculatedexhaustgastempera-ture.IntakeManifoldThenewengineusesanenhancedlighterandhigherefficiencyintakemanifoldwhichhelpsimproveoverallengineperformance.Theredesignedandimprovedintakemanifoldallowsincreasedexhaustgasrecirculationandincreasesairintakeefficiency.Incon-junctionwiththenewEGRsystememissionsarereduced.CylinderHeadAnimprovedandredesignedcylinderheadhasalargerexhaustportandwaterpassagetoenhancecoolingefficiency.Thenewenginecomeswithanimprovedoildistributionchanneltoenhancelubricantsupplyinthecylinderhead.Thesecondgenerationcylin-derheadislighterandincreasesoverallengineefficiency.CylinderBlockNewwaterjacketandcoolingcircuitdesigninthenewcylinderblockhelpsimproveheatexchange.ThenewcylinderblockisalsolighterwhichcontributestoimprovedvehicleefficiencyBalanceShaftUnitReducesvibrationandnoisecausedbycrankshaftandreciprocatingparts.Aredesignedcompo-nentinsidethebalancershaftandanimprovedproductionprocessreducesenginevibrationandnoise.EngineControlModuleECMNewsoftwareandhardwarewasdevelopedbytheGMengineeringteamforquickerresponseimprovedaccuracyandprecisionofoverallenginecontrol.Thesecondgenerationengineoffersbetterfueleconomyperformanceandloweremissions..Thesenewvehiclecombinationsshouldoffersomelongawaitedfuelcosteconomytomid-sizedtruckownerswhileprovidingthedieselenginepowerthathasbecomesopopu-laramongtruckenthusiasts.ThecompetitorshelloFordwillbewatchingcloselyandmonitoringmarketsharestohelpthemdeterminefuturepowerforthenextversionsoftheirtrucks.Staytuneditsstartingtogetinteresting.ICOLORADOANDCANYONBYDAVEHAGEN www.engineprofessional.com47 48APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalThedesignofinternalcombustionengineshasbeencontinuouslymodified.Engineoutputandefficiencyhavedramaticallyincreasedduetothegreateffortsofengineersandthelatesttechnologicalachievementsinmaterialsengineeringelectronicsandcomputercontrol.EngineevolutioniswellillustratedbythehistoryoftheChevroletsmall-blockV8.Thefirstgeneration1955hadadisplacementof265cu.in.andanoutputof180hp.Thismeansthateachcubicinchofdisplacementproduced0.68hp.50yearslaterGMoffereditsLS9superchargedsmallblockenginehavingadisplacementof376cu6.2Landamaximumof638hp.Thisisequivalentto1.7hpcu.in.anincreaseof150.Ofcoursetheconditionsunderwhichtheenginebearingsoperatehavealsochanged.Greateroutputhighercombustionpressuresandenginedownsizingresultinhigherspecificloadsbeingappliedtothebearings.InparallelthereisatrendtowardsloweroilviscosityandreducedZDDPcontentinmotoroils.Thusbearingsinmodernenginesworkinaregimeoflowerminimaloilfilmthickness.Asaresultthereisagreaterprobabilityoffatigueabnormallyfastwearandseizure.TraditionalTri-metalBearingsOneofthemostpopularenginebearingconstructionsisthetri-metalbearing.Itiscomposedofasteelbackcopper-leadintermediatelayernickeldiffusionlayerandasoftoverlayformingthebearingtopsurfacemadefromalead-tin-copperalloy.Tri-metalbearingswereinventedin1947andhavenotbasicallychangedsincethen.Howeverinordertomeetthedemandsofincreasedloadstheoverlaythicknesshasbeenreduced.Thinneroverlaythicknessproducesbetterloadcapacityhigherfatiguestrength.Originallyoverlaythicknesswas0.001-0.002.Nowitisaslowas0.0005-0.0007.Unfortunatelythereducedthicknessofthesesoftoverlaysdecreasesbearinglife.Traditionalthinoverlayswearoffmorequicklyincreasingthethreatofseizurebetweenthecrankshaftjournalandtheexposedbronzeoftheintermediatelayer.Overlaythicknessisalwaystheresultofacompromisebetweentherequiredloadcapacityandthebearingsanti-frictionproperties.Howeverinmanymodernenginestherequiredcompromiseisunachievable.Thetraditionaltri-metalenginebearingwhichhasbeenusedfordecadesbecomesunsuitablefortheseapplications.pMaxBlackBearingsKingEngineBearingssolutionforthisproblemliesindevelopingbearingmaterialsthatperformasstrongeroverlayswithgreaterfatiguestrengthandbetterwearresistance.KingEngineBearingshasdevelopedaneffectivemethodofproducingsuchamaterialbymeansofasurfacehardeningprocessthatstrengthensleadbasedoverlays.Thisinnovativetechniqueenablestheformationofanultra-thinhardenedshieldontheoverlaysurface.Thisshieldofnano-scalethicknessissufficienttoeffectivelysuppresstheformationoffatiguecracksonthesurface.Itmeasures18.1HardnessVickerscomparedto14H.V.orlessfoundinotherperformancebearings.Thisresultsinaminimum29strongeroverlaysurfacethatwithstandsgreaterloadsanddelaysorpreventstheformationoffatiguecracksanddistress.Atthesametimethepropertiesofexcellentseizureresistanceconformabilityandembedabilitywhicharecharacteristicsofsoftoverlaysarepreserved.ModerntrendsinmaterialsforhighperformanceenginebearingsBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICHFig.1KingXPbearingswithpMaxBlackoverlay www.engineprofessional.com49ThisnewoverlaycalledpMaxBlackhasprovenitseffectivenessinincreasingthefatiguestrengthofhighperformancetri-metalbearings.AllKingXPserieshighperformancebearingsaremanufacturedwiththishardenedpMaxBlackoverlay.ThesebearingsareeasilyrecognizablebytheirdistinctivedarkcolorFig.1.Thenewmaterialhasbeentestedincomparisonwithtraditionaltri-metalbearings.TheresultsofthecomparativetestsconductedinKingsTestRigarepresentedinFig.2.Thetestswereperformedunderabearingloadof10200psifor4300000cycles.BothconventionalandpMaxBlackbearingshadthesamedimensions.ThetestresultsareasfollowsTheconventionalhighperformancebearinghasalargeareaabout30ofthesurfaceareawithoverlayfatiguecracks.KingpMaxBlackhasnofatiguecracks.NextGenerationMaterialsForExtremeLoadTheloadappliedtothebearingsinsomeboostedhighperformanceenginesmayexceed10200psi.ThebearingsparticularlytheupperrodshellsshouldbemadefrommaterialsthataremuchstrongerthanevenpMaxBlack.ForsuchapplicationsKinghasdevelopedbearingsmadeofastrongintermediatelayercopperalloyandhighstrengthmetallicoverlay.Thefatigueresistanceofthesebearingsis17400psi.Theoverlaypairsextremelyhighfatiguestrengthandwearresistancewithhighseizureresistance.Thisisduetothecombinedpropertiesofitsbasemetalandspecialsolidlubricantadditives.Bi-metalBearingsBi-metalbearingswithaliningmadeofaluminumalloyhavesomeadvantagesovertri-metalbearings.Themostimportantadvantageistheabsenceofthinoverlayswhichallowsforgreaterwearwithminimumriskofseizure.continuedFig.2RigTestedbearingsTraditionaltri-metalbearingleftandKingpMaxBlackbearingright.Fig.3Kingnextgenerationbearingafteroneseasonracing. ENGINEBEARINGSBYDR.DMITRIKOPELIOVICH50APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalBi-metalbearingshavebeentraditionallyusedinlowandmediumloadedengines.Howeverdevelopmentsinenginedesignrequirebearingswithgreaterloadcapacity.Traditionalaluminum-tinbearingscannotbeusedinsuchengines.Neweraluminumalloyscontainstrengtheningadditivesandareprocessedwithspecialthermo-mechanicaltreatments.Theyhaveanenhancedfatiguestrengththatexceedstheloadcapacityofconventionalbi-metalbearingsby25-30.PolymerCoatingsPolymercoatingsarecomposedofapolymerandadditivesintheformofsmallparticlesofsolidlubricantsmolybdenumdisulfidegraphitePTFE.Polymercoatingsappliedontotheoverlaysofconventionalhighperformancetri-metalbearingsarequitepopular.Themainpurposeofcoatingsinexistingapplicationsistoprovidesomeprotectionfromweartotheoverlayduringmixedlubricationregimesmetal-to-metalcontactwiththejournalduetoanabsenceofoilfilm.Forexamplecoatingspreventcoldstartwiping.Coatingsprolongbearinglifewhenoperatingwithverythinornegligibleoilfilm.Todaycoatingsareconsideredbysometobenothingmorethanasacrificiallayerhelpfulbutnotnecessary.Webelievethatthetruepotentialandbenefitsofcoatingsarequiteunderestimated.Theycanplayamuchmoreimportantroleinpreventingseizureofhighlyloadedbearings.Extensiveresearchandtestingisbeingconductedwithparticularemphasisonimprovingwearresistanceandextendingtheservicelifeofcoatings.MuchmoreisyettobedevelopedandintroducedinthisregardstaytunedformoreIDr.DmitriKopeliovichisregardedasoneoftheforemostauthoritiesonenginebearingresearchanddevelopment.HeearnedhisPh.D.inmaterialsengineeringandservesasresearchanddevelopmentmanageratKingEngineBearings.AsthemanagerandteamleaderofKingsadvancedmaterialsresearchanddevelopmentunitDr.KopeliovichisknownastheEngineBearingDoctorforhisextensiveinvestigationsintothecauseandpreventionofprematureenginebearingfailure.ToaskDr.Kopeliovichaquestionvisitwww.kingbearings.comandclickonAskDr.Dmitri.DontLetYourEnginesFLAT-LINEByUsingAnythingButGenuineMellingOilPumps.MellingwarnsallenginerebuilderstoavoidRiskyOilPumpsfoundinsomeenginekits.TheoilpumpistheHeartoftheengine.DontgambleonaHeartAttack.Withmorethan60yearsofprovenqualityanddurabilityMellingurgesyouandyourcustomerstodemandaNEWHeartGenuineMellingOilPumps2620SaradanDriveJacksonMichigan49204800-635-5464TEL517-787-5304FAXVisitusonlineatwww.melling.comALERT SUPERIORLoadCapacityPerformanceNEWAdvancedFeatures24StrongerOverlayAchieving18.1HV17GreaterFatigueResistanceUniqueGeometricDesignMaximizesSurfaceLoadAreaBullsEyeWallToleranceEnsuresPerfectOilClearanceinEverySetFormoreabouttheNEWFeaturesofKingXPHPvisitwww.KingRaceBearings.com1-800-772-3670PerfectclearanceineverysetBullsEyeToleranceImprovedoilingressElliptiXGreaterloadsurfaceU-GrooveSuperiorloadcapacitypMaxBlackwww.engineprofessional.com51 52APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalNowhereweareattheendofthe50yearhistoryoftheFordMustang.Whilethebasicfront-enginerear-wheel-drivefour-seatconfigurationhasremainedaconstantalmosteverythingelsehaschangedfromgenerationtogeneration.Startingwitha181.6-inchlengthona108-inchwheelbaseMustanghasbeenasshortas175inchesandaslongas189.5incheswithwheelbasesfrom96.2inchesto109inches.Engineshaverangedfrom2.3-literfour-cylinderunitsallthewayuptoa7.0-liter429-cubic-inchbig-blockV-8withavarietyofsix-cylinderandV-8enginesinbetween.Manyoftheseenginescontinuetoberebuiltwithpowerenhancingaftermarketproductsonadailybasis.Trulyafuncartodriveandownfromgenerationtogenerationnotmanynameplatescanmakethatacclaim.Theveryfirstengineoptionsin1965werea170cubicinchL-6cylindera260cubicinchV-8anda289cubicinchV-8.The6cylinderwasaprovenenginewhiletheV-8swhererelativelynewtothemarket.The260boostedan8.81compressionratiowhilethe289hada9.019.21andaspecialhighperformance10.51engineavailable.TheV-8swheretheenginesofchoiceastheymademorenoiseandspunthetiresmucheasier.Over418000Mustangssoldinitsveryfirstyeararecordatthattimeforanypreviousnewcarmodel.Overthepast50yearsofthemorethan9.2millionMustangsproducedandsoldmostofthemhaveoriginatedclosetoFordshomebaseinDearbornMichigan.FromtheracetracktothesilverscreentotheairwavestothetoyboxMustanghasbecomeanenduringpartofpopcultureanditcelebratedits50thbirthdayonApril172014.Therehavebeenmanyvariationsofthosemillionsofenginesspreadacrossthefollowingcubicinchdisplacementsincluding140141170200226244250260289289SOHC289DOHC302351390428and429.Therehavebeensomanydifferentengineoptionsthroughtheyearsandthisnextyearwillbenodifferent.TheMustangwillbeofferingthreeengineswhichofferabroaderpowerofchoiceamorepowerful5.0-literV8a3.7-literV6andanall-newfuel-efficient2.3-literEcoBoostengine.TheupgradedV6andV8arejoinedbyanall-new2.3-literEcoBoostenginethatbringsstate-of-the-arttechnologytoMustang.MustangGTcontinueswiththelatesteditionofthethroaty5.0-literV8nowfeaturinganupgradedvalve-trainandcylinderheadsthatyieldmorethan420horsepowerand390lb.-ft.oftorque.Anewintakemanifoldimproveslow-speedbreathingforbetterfueleconomyidlestabilityandemissions.ThisEcoBoostenginedeliverswhereaMustangdriverexpectsittowithabroadflattorquecurvethatpoursoutwhenyoustandonitforeasypassingorhustlingdownatwistyroadsaidDavePericakFordMustangchiefengineer.WealreadysetaveryhighstandardforMustangsdynamicswithBoss302andourgoalwastogoaboveandbeyondthatwiththisnewcar.TheMustangEcoBoostengineusesdirectinjectionvariablecamtimingandturbochargingtodeliverplentyofusableperformanceandprojectedsegment-leadingfuelefficiency.AuniqueintakemanifoldandturbochargerhousingenableittodelivertheperformanceMustangdriversexpectwithoutputFordMustangCelebrates50thBirthdayBYDAVEHAGEN 2014ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.1-800-323-6764www.elginind.comsaleselginind.com1InperformancestockCOVERAGETheressimplynobetterchoicethanELGIN.AftermarketVALVETRAINmanufacturer1AftermarketROCKERARMmanufacturer1OEaftermarketPUSHRODmanufacturer1wwwl--ginind.comsaleseginind.comwww.engineprofessional.com53 projectedatmorethan305horsepowerand300lb.ft.oftorque.ThenewestmemberofFordsglobalfamilyofEcoBoostenginesthe2.3-litercontinuestotakeadvantageofstate-of-the-arttechnologiesincludingdirectfuelinjectiontwinindependentvariablecamshafttimingandturbochargingtoproducebig-enginepowerandtorquewithimprovedfuelefficiency.ThisisthefirstFordenginetoutilizealow-inertiatwin-scrollturbochargerthatprovidesquickerboostresponsewhileenablingloweremissionsandimprovedefficiency.Thecylinderheadfeaturesanintegratedexhaustmanifoldthatseparatestheinnerandouterpairsofcylindersintoeachinletpassagetotheturbo.Keepingtheexhaustpulsesseparatedfromthenextcylinderinthefiringordereliminatesmixinglossesandmaximizespulseenergytotheturbinewheel.Theresultisquickertorquedeliverywhenthedriverneedsitforpassingmaneuversandsimilarperformancetoatwin-turbochargerconfiguration.Theseparatedexhaustportsalsoenabletheexhaustvalvestostayopenlongerforreducedpumpinglossesthatimprovespecificfuelconsumptionbyabout1percent.Withtheprojectedhorsepowerandtorquebeingpumpedoutfromsuchasmallengineinacarwheredriversaremoreinclinedtouseitensuringdurabilitywascritical.EnhancementstotheMustangEcoBoostenginetowithstandtheaddedstressesincludeForged-steelcrankshaftPiston-coolingjetsSteelpistonringcarriersPremiumbearingmaterialsUpgradedvalveseatmaterialsForged-steelconnectingrodsHigh-pressuredie-castaluminumcylinderblockwithladder-framebearingcapsDeep-sumpdie-castaluminumoilpanAndthebeatingheartofaponyNeedmorecylindersWellcheckoutthestandard3.7-literV6withatleast300horsepowerand270lb.-ft.oftorque.Thisonemaybethemostaccessible2014Mustangwhichdeliverstheperformancecustomerswantandexpectwhileofferingsomesurprisingfueleconomy.TheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyclaimsthecoupeisgoodforupto19milespergalloncityand31highway.Itwouldbehardtoarguethatthiscarthroughsomanyyearshasbeenanythingbutastonishingintheprevious50yearsandthefutureshowsonlycontinuedsuccess.SosuccessfulthatarecentBarrett-Jacksonauctiongot300000foracovetedfirstretail2015MustangGTtorollofftheassemblylinethisfall.Asaspecialfeatureeach2015modelcelebratesthemilestonewithabadgeontheinstrumentpanelthatincludesthegallopingponylogoandthewordsMustangSince1964.TrulyFordissettingthestageforanother50yearsofnameplateexcellence.I54APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalFORDMUSTANGBYDAVEHAGENHigh-performancevalveseatmaterials.High-strengthforgedsteelconnectingrodswithfullfloatingpins.Pistoncoolingjetsfordurability.High-pressuredie-castaluminumcylinderblockandstructuralladderframewithintegratedmainbearingcaps.Deep-sumpstructuraldie-castaluminumoilpanwithbafflestohelpmaintainoildeliveryduringspiriteddriving.All-newFordMustang2.3-literEcoBoostHigh-flowcylinderheadwithintegratedexhaustmanifoldmovesairinandexhauseoutforbetterperformance.Lightweighthigh-strengthpistonswithlow-frictionskirtcoatingsteelringcarriersandincreasedcompressionratio.Forgedsteelcrankshaftwithpremiumbearingmaterials.Balanceshaftforsmootheroperationatallspeeds. www.engineprofessional.com55 56APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalProductimprovementsandtheneedtoreducecostsareconstantintodayscompetitivemarket.Asenginesbecomelighterfastermorepowerfulandmoreefficientcustomersdemandhigherperformancedurabilityreliabilityandreducedcosts.Thiscontinuousevolutioninthedevelopmentofenginesincreasesthemechanicalrequirementsofthecomponentsandjointsandthereforethefastenersfollowingthetrendtobesmallerandcarryinghigherdynamicloads.Inthisscenariofatigueandcreepremainseriousconcernsforspecialenginebuilders.SPSTechnologiesestablishedin1903hascompaniesspecializedinmanufacturingofcriticalautomotivefastenerssuchasconnectingrodboltscylinderheadboltsmainbearingboltsforbothgasolineanddieselengineswithseverallocationsintheUnitedStatesandabroad.SPSTechnologiesisasubsidiaryofPrecisionCastpartsCorp.NYSEPCPaworldwidemanufacturerofcomplexmetalcomponentsforaerospaceautomotiveandindustrialapplications.SPSTechnologieshascompletefastenerlaboratoriesandengineeringteamsthatcandevelopnewproductstomeetcustomerneedsandup-gradeexistingprojects.ExtensiveresearchanddevelopmentalongwithsuperiormanufacturingfacilitiesandstrictqualitycontrolhasmadeSPSTechnologiesaleaderinthecriticalengineeredfastenerindustry.Whenaboltedjointworksunderanexternalloadthefastenermustbesuitablydesignedandtightenedinordertoassureproperclamploadduringanytimeoftheworkingcycleavoidingissuessuchasjointopeningleakageetc.Howeverifthisexternalloadishighanddynamictheboltwillworkunderhighalternatingstressandthenthefatiguestressactingontheboltmustbelowerthanitsendurancelimittoavoidfailurebyfatigueduringthelifeofthejoint.TheendurancelimitoftheboltdependsonthecombinationofseveralfactorssuchasMaterialHeattreatmentFormingdesignandprocesscoldwarmorhotThreadrollingprocessSuperficialdiscontinuitiesCoatingClamploadachievedduringassemblyAllofthesefactorsmustbecarefullydefinedthroughproperdesignandaccuratelycontrollingthemanufacturingandassemblyprocesses.Criticalenginefastenershavefeaturessignificantlydifferentfromnon-criticalfasteners.Asaconsequenceitrequiresfurtherknowledgeimproveddesignandtestcapabilitiesspecialtoolsandmodifiedshapesspecialmanufacturingprocessesandqualitycontroltechniquesinordertoguaranteejointperformancefortheexpectedlifeoftheengine.Theseconditionsusuallyrequireadedicatedplanttoproducesuchcriticalfasteners.FatigueCalculationThebasisforaproperdesignofboltedjointsispresentedonVDI2230.Threadedfastenerfatigueresistanceiscalculatedfortwothreadrollingconditions.ThesetwomethodsAandBshownbelowweredevelopedbyGermanresearchersKloosandThomalaaThreadRollingBeforeHeatTreatmentbThreadRollingAfterHeatTreatmentandwheredNominalsizeoftheboltthreadKRatiobetweentheassemblyclamploadafterrelaxationFVandtheyieldlimitforceF0.2ofthebolt.continuedCylinderHeadBoltsMainBearingBoltsConnectingRodBoltsCriticalEngineFastenersBYSPSTECHNOLOGIES SPECIALIZINGINREPLACEMENTPARTSFORBENDIXCARRIERCATERPILLARCUMMINSDETROITDIESELHINOISUZUMIDLANDNAVISTARTHERMO-KINGTRANE...yourFriendlyalternativeDieselenginepartsESCOINDUSTRIESINC.TOLLFREE1-800-372-6872FAX951-782-2136SALESESCOUSA.COMWWW.ESCOUSA.COMALLOTHERCOMPANYBRANDPRODUCTANDSERVICENAMESAREUSEDHEREINFORIDENTIFICATIONPURPOSESONLYANDMAYBETHETRADEMARKSSERVICEMARKSORTRADENAMESOFTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.THEREISNOAFFILIATIONORSPONSORSHIPBETWEENTHESECOMPANIESANDESCOUNLESSEXPRESSLYSTATED.CARRIERBENDIXAREPLASPECIALIZINGINTERPILLARCARRIERBENDIXARTSFORCEMENTREPLASPECIALIZINGINTHERMONMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINS-KINGRMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINSTERPILLARTRANE-KINGTHERMOiend...ourTRANE-KINGyalternativeDieselenginepartsyalternative...yourFDieselenginepartsyalternativeED.XPRETHESECOMPBETWEENSPONSORSHIPTHEREISNOTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.OFVICEMARKSORTRADEMARKSSERTHEBEAREUEDHEREINFRIDENTIFIBRANDPROOTHERCOMPALLANDESCOUNLESSANIESTHESECOMPINRAFFILITHEREISNOTRADENAMESVICEMARKSORANDYTIONPURPOSESONLVICENAMESANDSERBRANDPRODUCT 58APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalENGINEFASTENERSBYSPSTECHNOLOGIESFig.1StandardValuesofFatigueResistanceforQuenchedandTemperedBoltswithPropertyClasses8.810.9and12.9accordingtoKloosandThomala.Thefatigueresistanceofboltswiththreadsrolledafterheattreatmentishighercomparedtoaboltwiththreadsrolledbeforeheattreatmentbecauseofthecompressiontensioninducedonthesurfaceduringthethreadrollingprocess.Thefigure1abovepresentsthefatigueresistanceasafunctionofthethreadrollingtypeandtheboltsizeasperKloosandThomala.ToachievethefatigueresistanceaccordingtoKloosandThomalaformulaisnecessarytofollowspecificproceduresonalldesignmanufacturingqualitycontrolandassemblystepsthatwillassurethesuperiorperformancerequiredbyhighperformanceequipmentandthatisSPSTechnologiesexpertise.TheabilitytosimulateanassemblyunderworkingconditionsandtestforthefatiguelifeofaboltisaccomplishedthroughtheuseofaFatigueTestMachineliketheoneinfigure2andatestbenchthatwillsimulatethetighteningmethodaspresentedinfigure3.Fig.2INSTRONFatigueMachine250kNFig.3aboveTestBenchFig.4rightFatigueFailureFig.5belowStrainGaugeConceptsWhatisfatigueFatigueistheprocessofprogressivelocalizedpermanentstructuralchangeoccurringinamaterialsubjectedtoconditionsthatproducefluctuatingstressesandstrainsatsomepointorpointsandthatmayculminateincracksorcompletefractureafterasufficientnumberoffluctuationsasperASTME1150.HowdoescreeporelongationoccurCreepoccurswhenaboltissubjectedtoastressatahightemperaturewhichcausesplasticdeformationandhighlossofpreload.Elongationisaplasticdeformationwhichmayoccurduetoexcessivetorqueoraninadequatefrictioncoefficientforassembliescontrolledjustbytorque.Howeverasmallandacontrolledamountofelongationisexpectedanddesiredforfastenerstightenedwithyieldoranglecontrolasinmostofthe www.engineprofessional.com59 60APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalENGINEFASTENERSBYSPSTECHNOLOGIESTheBestSurfacerOnThePlanetPrecisionsurfacingthatyoucanrelyontolastmanygenerations.Bercohas90plusyearsofmanufacturingqualitymachinesthatlastalifetimeJointhethousandsofshopsthathaveexperiencedthequalityofBercobutnowatanaffordableprice.criticalboltsofenginesheadmainbearingconrodflywheelanddamper.WhataretheconsequencesoftoomuchelongationToomuchelongationmaytakethebolttonarrowingofitsshaftbeyonditsmaximumtension.Whenthishappensthefastenerisconsideredfailedbecauseinthisexcessivelyelongatedregiontheclamploadandendurancelimitareseverelyreduced.HowandwhatdoyoulookforinmaterialorprocessingtopreventelongationSPSusesthecorrectalloysteelandintensivequalitycontrolwhencoldformingthreadrollingheattreatingandcoatingprocessestoensurethebestboltforthedesiredapplication.Aco-designoftheboltboltedjointassemblyparameterswiththecustomersengineeringteamisalsoimportanttopreventundesirableelongationbecauseitdependsontheinteractionbetweenboltandboltedjointsurfacesandthecombinedresilienceofthejoint.WhatshouldanenginecompanylookforwhenselectingavendorEngineerswithdeepknow-howondesignofoptimizedcriticalboltsandjointsfullyequippedlaboratoryforfullstudiesandtestsofboltsandboltedjointscapablemanufacturingprocessforcriticalcharacteristicssuchasunderheadbearingandthreaddimensionssurfacediscontinuitiescontrolthreadrollingheattreatingandcoatings.SummarySPSisaleadingcompanyindesignandmanufactureofcriticalfastenersanddifferentiatesitselfbyhavingskilledengineersusingspecialresourcessuchasFiniteElementAnalysesFEAsoftwarestraingageverificationforstressandstrainfatiguetestmachinesbenchtestforassemblysimulationandtodeveloptighteningparameterstorque-tensionmachinestodeterminefrictioncoefficientsvibrationmachinetotestvibrationresistanceultrasoundequipmentmodernheadingandthreadrollingmachinesspecialtoolingandqualitycontrolprocedurestoguaranteefastenerswithoutsuperficialdiscontinuitieslikelapsoncriticalareasand100sortingmachineswithmetallurgicalanddimensionalchecksamongothertechniques.IFastenerDivisionofSPSTechnologiesaPCCCompanyAutomotiveOperationFormoreinformationpleasecall215-572-3000orgoonlinewww.spstech.com. www.engineprofessional.com61 62APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalPerceptionvs.realityforallcarbtunersThefueldeliveryholeintheboosterbanjohasagreateffectonjetresponseandsize.InFigure1Iamshowingthemostpopularbanjoswiththedrillsizetheyuse.TopisDown-legwith.160I.D.2nddownisAnnularBanjowith.180I.D.3rddownisour4150SSbanjowith.250I.D.4thdownisour4500SSbanjowith.250I.D.5thdownisHolley4500banjowith.161I.D.Bottomisamodifiedbigcarbbanjowith.161I.D.Thecustomstainlessbanjosthatweusearetheonlycurrentlyusedbanjowitha.250I.D.Iamusinga500ciProStocktogiveyouanexampleofjetsizeandresponse.Usingourstandardinsertthejetsizewouldbe.110averagewitha.042H.S.airbleed.ThenormalaverageforHolleyuseinProStockis.152witha.032H.Sairbleedthemainjetbeingalmostthesizeofthebanjoretainerusinganadditionalthirdcircuitof.0625.ManymodifiedcarbsthatwemeasuredrunaboutthesameastheHolley.152averageanda.032H.S.airbleedusinganadditionalthirdcircuitof.0625.Themainisagainalmostthesizeofthebanjoretainer.SeeFigure2.Jetsina1.7504150wouldbesimilarinsizereductionboostersignalnotwithstanding.Thechangeininsertscangreatlyeffectthistoo.Togetthesameairfuelratiothejetscanchangegreatly.SeeFigure3.Downleg.083annular.080ourcustomSSwithinsert.070.ISPEEDREADBYJOHNSATTERFIELDJohnSatterfieldbecameahighlysuccessfulenginebuilderduringhisyearsasadragracer.Hehasmadethescienceofefficientcombustiontechniquesaconsumingpassionwhichhasresultedinhisgainingahighlyregardedreputationinallareasofracing.Formoreinformationgoonlinewww.damBEST.com.123 LiftTablewithAGITATIONTouchScreenPLCControlsDualFiltrationSystemOpposingHorizontalTransducersUltraSoniccleanfromTWOdirectionsStainlessSteelConstructionInsulatedTankandLidAutomaticCyclesLOWERLABORCOSTINCREASEPROFITSEMPLOYEEFRIENDLYReducereplacehazardoussolventsOptionsOilSkimerAutoWaterRe-FillUltra3800FLTMainScreenManualOperationScreenULTRA3800FLTCustomUnitsandPLCMulti-StageSystemsAvailableengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP63 64APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalCONFERENCERECAPBYSTEVEFOXOnMarch15LibertyEnginePartshostedthefirstAERATechSkillsRegionalConferenceof2014attheirLouisvilleKentuckywarehouse.Theseone-daycon-ferencesaredesignedtogivemachineshopownersthechancetohearsomegreattech-nicalpresentationsvisitwithtabletopexhibitorsandnetworkwithotherengineprofessionals.WiththehelpofLibertyEnginePartsthisconferencewasahugesuccess.Thedaystartedwiththeattendeeshav-ingachancetotalkwiththetabletopexhibitorsbeforethefirstpresentationbegan.Thisisagreatchancetoseenewproductsfromaftermarketcompaniesaswellastalktothecompanyrepresentativesonhand.ThefirstpresenterofthedaywasDuaneBoesofCalliesPerformanceProducts.Duanedidagreatjobonthepresentationinformingthegrouponmini-mizingfailuresincrankshaftsconnectingrodsandenginebearings.Hisinformationoncrankshaftfailuresandwhatcausesthemhadtheattendeesaskingquestionsandtalkingaboutthepresentationthrough-outtheday.ThesecondpresentationhadchangeofpresentersasRichardMaskinofDartMachinerybecameillandwasunabletomakethetriptoLouisvillesoRichardZwiegpresentedinhisplace.Richarddis-cussedwiththegroupthattheheartoftheengineistheengineblocksandcylinderheads.HealsointroducedandtalkedabouttheDartLSNextblocksandsomeofthedesignchangesthatmadetheblocksbetter.AfteragreatKentuckylunchfriedchickenpotatoesgreenbeansrollsetc.everyonewasreadytogoforthenextpres-entationbyDaveClintonofDartonSleeves.Davespresentationwasexcellentinformingthegrouponmoderndaysleevesandthetechnologybehindthem.ThegrouphadsomegreatquestionsforDavewhichheansweredandhadagroupofguysstilltalkingtohimthroughouttheafternoon.Manywalkedawaywithdoorprizesthatweredistributedthroughouttheday2014conferenceschedulekicksoffinLouisvilleSavetheDateMAY16SUNNENSt.LouisMOJUNE20EPWISaltLakeCityUTOCTOBER3ROUSHYATESANDMAHLECharlotteNCCONFERENCEHOSTINGOPPORTUNITIESIfyouareinterestedinhostingaconferencenextyearpleasecontactJimRickoffat815-526-7343oremailjimaera.org.OnMarch15LibertyEnginePartshostedthefirstTechSkillsConferenceof2014attheirwarehouseinLouisvilleKentucky. www.engineprofessional.com65andIamsurethateveryonewalkedawaywithinfor-mationthattheycouldtakebacktotheirshopandusetoday.AERAwouldliketothankallthestaffatLibertyEnginePartstheexhibitorsandtheattendeesthathelpedtomakethiseventahugesuccessOurnextregionalconferencewillbeheldonMay15hostedbySunneninSt.Louisandwehopetoseeeveryonethere.IfyouhavenotregisteredyetcallAERAat888-326-2372orvisitourwebsiteandtodownloadthebrochureandfaxyourcompletedregistrationform.LookforthemostrecentconferencescheduleupdatesandinformationontheAERAwebsiteatwww.aera.orgconferences-events.ThedaybeforetheconferencebeganwehadtheopportunitytovisitsomeAERAmembershopsinthearea.OurfirststopofthedaywasvisitingwithSteveandMattGettelfingerofRepublicDiesel.Theshopisaheavy-dutymachineshopthatworksonsomeofthelargerdieselenginesandhasaround35employ-ees.AccordingtoMattoneofthelongestemployedpeopleintheshopisGidFieldswhoworksintheconnectingroddepartment.HehasbeenworkingforRepublicfor43years.Alongwithdoingengineworktheyalsododriveshaftassemblyandbalanc-ingwhichhasdevelopedintoagoodmarketforthem.AfterRepublicDieselweheadedfiveminutesdowntheroadtovisitwithlongtimememberTomBellofBellMotorMachine.TomhasbeenamemberofAERAsince1984andworksprimarilyonlight-dutygasengines.PersonallyIhavespokentoTomonthephonequiteabitsoitwasnicetostopandvisitwithhimandseehisshop.AfterlunchweheadedovertoseelongtimeAERAmemberLeonardNettofAtlasMachineCompany.Atlasservicesalltypesoflargeenginesincludingheavyequipmentmarineandover-the-roadenginesandemploysover100people.Theirfacilityisoutstandingandnotonlydotheydomachineworkonenginesbuttheyhavetheabilitytodoseveralindustrialmachiningoperationsfromthesmallesttothelargest.ItwasgreattohavethechancetovisitwithAERAmembersandseetheirfacilities.IAERATechnicalSpecialistSteveFoxhasover25yearsexperienceintheenginebuildingindustrywith10ofthoseyearsspentworkinginthemachineshop.SteveisanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistaswellasalongtimememberofthedragracingcircuit.LongtimeAERAmemberTomBellofBellMotorMachineinLouisville.GidFieldsfromtheconnectingroddepartmentatRepublicDieselinLouisville.GidhasbeenaRepublicDieselemployeefor43yearsRichardZwiegfromDartMachinerywasoneofthepresentersattheLibertyEnginePartsregionalconferenceheldonMarch15inLouisvilleKentucky. 66APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalPRO-SISCORNERBYSTEVEFOXSearchingforacastingnumberusingWebPRO-SISHaveyoueverhadsomeonebringaheadorenginecomponentintheshopandnotknowforsurewhatitisWellwiththePRO-SISprogramyoucansearchandtrytoidentifyit.ThewebversionofPRO-SIShasthisfunctionasdotheothertwoversionsPRO-SISandPRO-SISSA.SearchesinallversionsarebasicallythesamehowverthisarticlewillfocusonthestepsusingWebPRO-SIS.WhenyoufirstlogintothewebversionyouwillwanttoselectfromtheverytopofthewindowSearchseeFigure1.YouwillseeyouhaveacoupleofoptiontosearchBulletinsCastingsandModel.SincewearetryingtoidentifysomethingtheCastingoneistheoneyouwillwanttoclickon.AfteryouhaveselectedCastingthecastingsearchboxwillappear.Inthetopboxyouwillwanttoenteryourcastingnumberandthenyouhaveoptionsonhowyouwanttosearchandwhatyouaresearching.IwillgiveyouatipthatIgivememberswhenIhavethemonthephoneinthetechdepartment.Letssaythecastingnumberyouwanttosearchis3782012.WithsomeoftheseolderenginescastingnumbersmaybehardtoreadsoIrarelyeverusethewholecastingnumberwhensearchingtoidentifythecasting.Iwilltrytotakenumbersinconsecutiveorderthatwouldlikelynotlookthesame386isabigoneItrytoavoid.ForthisexampleIentered2012asmysearchnumberandthenclickedoncontainswhichwillsearchthebeginningmiddleandendofthecastingnumberdatabaseaslongasthosenumbersareinconsecutiveorder.Becausewearenotsurewhattypeofcastingitisweleavethecastingtypeasall.Onceyouhavealltheinformationenteredclickthesearchbuttonatthebottomandyouwillgetyoursearchresults.ThefarrighthandcolumnofthescreentypewilltellyouwhatthecomponentisRRodHHeadBBlocketc.SeeFigure2.NowthatwehavelearnedthatourcastingnumberisaChevroletblockandyoucanletthecustomerknowwhattypeofcomponentitis.Fromthisscreenwestilldonotknowexactlywhattheengineisliter-orcubicinch-wiseandnothingshowsustheyears.Allyouneedtodoisclickonthecastingnumberandaboxwillopenupwithadditionalinformationabouttheengine.IfyouwanttolookatthespecsforthisengineallyouneedtodoisclicktheViewSpecificationsbuttonanditwilltakeyoutoallthespecsforthiscastingnumber.SeeFigure3.Figure1UsingWebPRO-SISselectSearchthenchoosefromBulletinsCastingorModel.Figure2Searchresultsforthecastingyouaretryingtoidentify.Figure3Byclickingonthecastingnumberadditionalinformationabouttheenginewillappear.NowyouknowhowtoidentifyacastingnumberusingWebPRO-SIS.AsstatedearlierthestepsforsearchingacastingnumberinPRO-SISorPRO-SISSAarebasicallythesame.I OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonpage90ofthisissueandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepwww.engineprofessional.com67 68APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalTECHSIDEBYMIKECARUSOANDSTEVEFOXHaveyoueverhadasetofcylinderheadscomeintotheshopfromaChryslerDodgeorJeepapplicationandthecus-tomersayswhenItookthevalvecoveroffIfoundtherockerlyingontopofthecylinderheadortheenginehasavalve-trainissuewithit.Wellthatseemstobeacommonproblemwiththeabovemen-tionedapplicationsthathavethe3.74.75.7and6.1Lengineandwebelieveweknowwhattheproblemis.WhileresearchingthisproblemAERAhasfoundnodocumentationfromtheOEstatingwhatiscausingthistohappen.WehavereceivedseveralcallsfromAERAmembersregardingthisissueandtheAERATechnicalDepartmentcanonlyspeculatethatthecauseofthisproblemisthevalveseatdoesnothavesufficientpressfitintothecylinderhead.WhatisthefactorypressfityouaskWellthatwedonotknowallwebelieveisthatthepressfitbeingusedisnotenoughtokeepthevalveseatinthecylinderhead.WiththehelpofanAERAmemberwhosupplieduswithsomepictureswehopetoclarifytheproblemandexplainitsothatthisinformationcanbegiventothecustomerasawaytobetterunder-standtheproblemandwhyreplacementofthevalveseatsisrecommended.WhenAERAmemberscallthetechlineandsaythattherockerislyinginthetopofthecylinderheadortheyhaveavalve-trainissueweimmediatelythinkthatthevalveseathascomelooseinthecylinderheadorthevalveseathasexploded.Theywillfliptheheadoverandlookatitandallseemstobefinebyvisuallyinspectingthevalveseatiftheseathasnotexplodedwhichcouldbecorrect.Thereasonthisiswebelievethatovertimewiththecom-bustiontemperaturesinthecylindersandthesmallamountofpressfitontheseattheseatwillfalloutholdingthevalveopentherockerwillcomeoffbecauseoftoomuchclearancebetweenthevalveandrocker.Whenthepistoncomesbackupinthecylinderborethepistonwillmakecontactwiththevalveanddrivetheseatbackintoplace.AsyoulookatFigure1youwillseethechamberoftheheadisallbeatenupbydebrisfromthevalveseatbouncingaroundinthecylinder.Inthisinstancethevalveseatactuallyexplodedandpiecesofthevalveseatstayedinthecylindercaus-ingdamagetothehead.Thisisanotherscenariothatcanhappenasthevalvewillfalloutandbecomejammedinbetweenthecylinderheadandthevalve.WhenthishappensthepowderedmetalseatshaveonlyoneoptionandthisistobreakintoFigure1Damagecausedbyvalveseatdebris.ValveSeatFailureson3.74.75.76.1LChryslerEngines www.memorialmachine.comForover40yearsithasbeenourgoaltoprovidethehighestqualityenginecomponentrepairavailable.OurTulsaplantat43000sq.ft.isoneofthelargestmostmodernintheindustry.PlusourOklahomaCityplantwith23000sq.ft.givesustheabilitytolimitcriticaldowntime.IEngineBlocksWehavethelargestandmostmodernengineblockrebuilddepartmentsintheindustry.Wehave8CNCboringmachinesandhavethecapacityofmachining3600CaterpillarandATWaukeshaengineblocks.MemorialMachinealsohasaroboticmetalsprayingsystemtoreclaimdamagedmainboresandworntopdecks.ICylinderHeadsOurcylinderheadrepairservicemakesuseofthelateststate-of-the-artmachinesavailablespecificallydesignedtoproducethefinestqualityofwork.Allheadsarebuiltwiththehighestqualitypartsavailablematchedtoexactspecificationsforbothlandfillandnaturalgasapplications.AllheadsarebuiltwithNewPartsnotrefurbishedorreuseandsalvageguidelines.IConnectingRodsandAccessoriesWehavethemostuptodateconnectingroddepartmentintheindustry.Wehavedevelopedprocessestorebuildnearlyalltypesofhighspeedconnectingrodsincludingmanywithserratedcaps.CompleteReconditioningServiceavailableforwaterpumpsoilpumpsrockerarmassembliesfuelvalvesandmanyotheraccessoriesforhighspeedengines.WespecializeinthefollowingenginesWaukesha704270441179817AT-25AT-27WhiteSuperior6G-8258G-82512G-82516G-825Caterpillar379398399Caterpillar3508351235163520Caterpillar36063608361236166303S.40thW.Ave.TulsaOK74132Toll-free800-437-7986Phone918-446-1828Fax918-446-1504SpecializinginRebuildingNaturalGasandLandfillGasEngineComponentswww.engineprofessional.com69 70APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionaltinypiecesthosepieceswillcausedam-agetothehead.IfyoutakealookatFigure2youwillseewherethevalvehasbeenremovedfromthecombustionchamberandthereisasmallamountofthevalveseatstillleftinthevalveseatcounterbore.Thiswillusu-allybethecaseasthevalveseatmaterialwilleitherexitthroughtheexhaustportorwillstickintheheadasshowntotherightofthesparkpluginFigure2.Oncethecylinderheadistakenapartandyouhaveremovedallthevalveseatdebristakealookatthevalveseatcount-erborearea.IfyoulookcloselyyouwillbeabletoseewherethevalveseathasbeenmovingupanddownintheborebytheshinyareasthatshouldbevisibleasshownFigure3.Thisisatelltalesignthatthevalveseatdidnothavesufficientamountofpressfitinthecounterbore.TheAERAmemberthatprovideduswiththeinformationforthisarticlehasrepairedseveralofthesecylinderheadsandputthembackinservicewithoutanyissues.WhattheyactuallydoisweldupthecombustionchamberareaoftheheadseeFigure4andthenmillthecylinderheadsurfaceusingPCDtooling.Aftermachiningofthedecksurfacehasbeencompletedtheylocatethecylinderheadborecenteronamillandre-machinethechamberswithaflycuttingtoolthattheymadewhichwillmachinethecombustionchamberbacktothecorrectstockdepth.Whentheprocessofrepairingthecylinderheadiscompletedyoureallycannottellthattherewasanydamagetothecylinderhead.Werecommendthatifyougetacylin-derheadintheshopandyouhavethisissuereplacethevalveseatsthroughoutthehead.Thisisapaymenoworpaymelatersituationandtheheadisalreadyoffthevehiclesoreplacementofvalveseatsshouldbedone.WhenreassemblingthecylinderheadandinstallingvalveseatsthisAERAmemberusesavalveseatpressfitof.010andhasnothadanyissues.Thisisacommonproblemontheseenginesandseemstobemoreprominentontheearlyengines1999-2008.Webelievethatthevalveseatfalloutproblemhasbeenaddressedinthelatermodelsasthecallsregardingthishavebeenfarlessthaninearlymodelengines.ISpecialthankstoAERAmemberJosephJillatSuperiorAutomotiveinPlacentiaCAforhisinsightandpicturesregardingthisproblem.TECHSIDEBYMIKECARUSOANDSTEVEFOXFigure2Valveseatdebris.Figure3Signsofvalveseatsmovinginthecylinderhead.Figure4Repairingthecombustionchamber. FindenginespecsfastandeasyPRO-SISSAENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWAREGIVESYOUACCESSTONEARLY7000ENGINESPECIFICATIONSWITHJUSTACLICKOFYOURMOUSEPLUSYOUCANADDYOUROWNCUSTOMENGINEINFORMATIONTOTHEPRO-SISSADATABASE.SOBYTHETIMEITTAKESYOUTOFINDTHEMANUALWITHPRO-SISSAYOUVEALREADYFOUNDYOURSPECSANDAREBACKTOWORK...THATSAMONEY-MAKINGDIFFERENCEAERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraepNEARLY7000ENGINESPECSFROM120MANUFACTURERSCOVERINGLIGHT-DUTYAGRICULTURALINDUSTRIALANDIMPORTENGINESQUICKLYIDENTIFYCYLINDERBLOCKSHEADSCRANKSHAFTSCAMSHAFTSANDCONNECTINGRODSBYCASTINGNUMBERREMANUFACTURINGSPECSFORBLOCKSHEADSCRANKSHAFTSCAMSHAFTSANDCONNECTINGRODSOVER2700AERATECHNICALBULLETINSINTEXTFORMATVISITOURWEBSITEFORMOREINFORMATIONWWW.AERA.ORGPRO-SISwww.engineprofessional.com71 72APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional www.engineprofessional.com73 74APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalAbouttheProgramEachprogramisanonlineself-pacedcoursewithuptooneyeartocomplete.GaryLewisbookAutomotiveMachiningEngineRepairwillbeincludedwiththe150registrationfee.Everythingatechnicianwillneediscontainedintheprogramwithvideoclipsandsupplementalreadingsatkeylocationswithintheprogram.Thebookwillbeusedasasyllabuswhennotonline.Eachchapterwillbefollowedbyamultiplechoicetest.TherewillbeafinalexamforeachcertificationCylinderHeadandorEngineMachinist.AERAoffersacomprehensiveonlinetrainingprogramnotjustatestleadingtodiploma-qualitycertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.Technicianswhosuccessfullyearneithercertificatewillholdproofthattheyhaveaprofessionalunderstandingofautomotivemachiningfundamentalsmeasuringtoolsshopsafetyfastenersenginetheoryenginediagnosisenginedisassemblycomponentcleaninginspectioncrackdetectionandrepaircomponentreconditioningandcylinderheadandblockresurfacing.Theinformationinthisprogramispresentedfromtheviewofenginemachineshopoperations.Basicproceduresareselectedfromthosewithwideindustryacceptanceandrepresentwell-balancedandcompetentstateoftheartpractice.GaryLewisInstructorandAuthorFormoreinformationcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202oremailkarenaera.org.CylinderHeadandMachinistCertificateProgram www.engineprofessional.com75AERAONLINETRAININGREGISTRATIONFORMNAMECOMPANYNAMEAERAIDNUMBERCOMPANYADDRESSCITYSTATEZIPPHONEE-MAILADDRESSREQUIREDSIGNEDBYFEES150perpersonINCLUDESGaryLewisbookI2-4PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................125perpersonI5-9PEOPLEfromthesameshop.................................................................100perpersonI10PEOPLEfromthesameshop..................................................................75perpersonEachpersonregisteredwillreceiveaGaryLewisbook.PleaselistadditionalnamesbelowTOTALAMOUNTENCLOSEDICHECKPLEASEMAKEPAYABLETOAERA.CREDITCARDIVISAIMASTERCARDIDISCOVERIAMERICANEXPRESSCARDNUMBEREXPIRATIONMMYY3-DIGITCSSCARDHOLDERNAMECARDHOLDERSIGNATUREIfpayingbycreditcardpleasefaxcompletedregistrationformtoAERAtoll-freefax888-329-2372OrmailyourcompletedformwithpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.CallAERAtoll-freeifyouhaveanyquestions888-326-2372ordirectat815-526-7600. SpecializinginRebuildingNaturalGasandLandfillGasEngineComponentsMemorialMachinehasbeenprovidingqualityenginecomponentrepairforover40years.TheTulsaplantat43000sq.ft.isoneofthelargestmostmodernintheindustryandtheOklahomaCityplantwith23000sq.ft.givesthemtheabilitytolimitcriticaldowntime.MemorialMachinealsofeaturesThelargestmostmodernengineblockrebuilddepartmentsintheindustrywitheightCNCboringmachinesandthecapacityofmachining3600CaterpillarandATWaukeshaengineblocks.Theircylinderheadrepairservicemakesuseofthelateststate-of-the-artmachinesavailablespecificallydesignedtoproducethefinestqualityofwork.FormoreinformationpleasecallMemorialMachineat800437-7986orvisitwww.memorialmachine.com.76APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalIproductnewsGoodsonPurchasesKwik-WayValveSeatGrinderToolingGoodsonToolsSuppliesforEngineBuildersispleasedtoannouncethepurchaseofallassetsofKwik-WayValveSeatToolingdivision.AccordingtoDavidMonyhanGoodsonNationalSalesManagerWereveryproudtohavetheopportunitytomanufactureanddistributeKwik-Wayvalveseatgrindingtoolsandsupplies.Kwik-WayhasareputationforqualitywithintheindustrythatGoodsonisproudtocarryon.DennisMullarkeyKwik-WayNationalSalesManagerechoedMonyhansenthusiasmHavingGoodsonpurchasethisproductlineisagreatoutcome.Theirreputationforqualityandservicecloselymirrorsourown.WeatKwik-WayareconfidentthatGoodsonwillbuildonthetraditionswehaveestablished.MonyhansaidWeareespeciallyproudtomanufactureKwik-Wayelectricseatdriversastheyareextremelyimportanttoanyonewhogrindsvalveseats.WewillbeofferingthesedriversforbothKwik-WayandSioux.InadditionGoodsonwillcontinuetoofferthegrindingwheelspecsdevelopedbyKwik-Way.MonyhanaddedGoodsonwillalsobemanufacturingtheoriginalKWstoneholdersandwheeldresserstocompletethefullseatgrindingkit.GoodsonhopestobeshippingpartsbyJune2014.Formoreinformationcall800533-8010orgotowww.goodson.com.IIPD3500LongStrokeCylinderKitsIPDispleasedtoannounceavailabilityof3500LongStrokeCylinderKits.KitsincludeIPDSteelPistonsOne2-piecearticulatedpistonIPDsnewlargestarticulateddesignandtwo1-piecepistonsmagnesiumphosphatecoatedandheattreatedforhardness.UniqueProfiledO.D.DesignPistonPinIPDQualityPrecisionMachinedCylinderLinersIPDQualityPistonRingSetKitPartNumbersPLG1720919PLG3319822PLG3393027picturedabove.Since1955IPDhasfocusedonhelpingequipmentownerssavemoneywithoutrisktoreliability.IPDcontinuestobuildonover55yearsofmanufacturingexperiencewithqualityproductstechnicalinnovationandsuperiorcustomerserviceandsupport.IPDsproductlineincludesdieselandnaturalgasreplacementenginepartsforCaterpillarCumminsDetroitDieselandWaukeshaengineapplications.FormoreinformationcontactIPDcall310530-1900orgotowww.ipdparts.com.I TheBestSurfacerOnThePlanetPrecisionsurfacingthatyoucanrelyontolastmanygenerations.Bercohas90plusyearsofmanufacturingqualitymachinesthatlastalifetimeJointhethousandsofshopsthathaveexperiencedthequalityofBercobutnowatanaffordableprice.FormoreinformationpleasecallJoeBakerEquipmentSalesat888440-9429orvisitwww.joebakerequipsales.com.CWTIndustriesTurbo-ChargerBalancingMachineWiththetremendousincreaseintheuseofturbo-chargerstheNeedforSpeedisoneofthefastestgoingmarketsindecades.CWTanswersthiswiththeadditionofitsnewcompactTurboBalancingMachine.ThisHardBearingdesignedmachineissupportedwithCWTsProprietarySoftwarethatmakesbalancingofanyrotorassemblyfastandaccurate.Keyfeaturesarefastsetupunlimitedfilestoragesmallcompactfootprintandwiderangeofturbo-chargerapplications.CallCWT800449-1849formoreinformationorgoonlinewww.cwtindustries.com.www.engineprofessional.com77ElginPRO-STOCKBrandIntroducesU.S.-ManufacturedOne-PieceThick-WallPerformancePushRodsNewPartsOfferUpto40PercentGreaterColumnStrengthIncreasedStiffnessFeatureCenterlessGroundandHard-TurnedEndsTheElginPRO-STOCKbrandhasintroducedabroadlineofone-piecethick-wallperformancepushrodsthatprovideupto40percentgreatercolumnstrengthandincreasedstiffnessoverconventional0.080-in.-wallrods.Thenewthick-wallpushrodsareproducedinElginIndustriesstate-of-the-artengineeringandmanufacturingfacilityinElginIL.TheElginPRO-STOCKlinenowincludesone-piece516-in.-diameterpushrodsfeaturing0.110-in.wallthicknessand38-in.-diameterrodswith0.137-in.wallthickness.Availablelengthsrangefrom7.900in.to9.400in.for38pushrodsand6.250in.to8.800in.for516pushrods.ElginPRO-STOCKone-piecepushrodsaremanufacturedfromseamlessaircraft-qualitychrome-molymaterialthenthrough-hardenedandblackoxidecoatedforsuperiorstrengthanddurability.Eachpartfeaturesacenterlessgroundandhard-turned0.1565-in.x210radiusendsfortheultimateingeometricprecisionandwearresistance.ThesenewpushrodsprovidethegreatestcolumnstrengthavailablefortodaysperformanceenginesenablingenginebuilderstotargethigherRPMsandincreasedloadssaidRickSimkodirectorsalesandmarketingElginIndustries.EachpartwasdesignedbuiltmachinedandheattreatedwithinourU.S.-basedoperationstoensureunsurpassedquality.Celebratingits95thanniversaryElginIndustriesisoneofNorthAmericasleadingmanufacturersoforiginalequipmentstock-replacementandperformanceengineandchassiscomponents.ThecompanyisaTierOnesupplierofOEengineandchassiscomponentstoorganizationssuchasChryslerDeereCompanyFordGeneralMotorsHarley-DavidsonMackandNavistar.ElginhasearneddozensofqualityawardsandhasreceiveditscertificatesofregistrationtotheISOTS169492009QualityManagementSystemandISO140012004EnvironmentalManagementSystem.IthasreceiveditsFordQ1QualityCertificationandisaPreferredPartnertoJASPEREnginesTransmissions.Formoreinformationcall800323-6764orgotowww.elginind.com.I 78APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalTB2626RCylinderSleeveInstallationOn2007-2013Cummins4.56.7LDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingcylindersleeveinstallationfor2007-2013Cummins4.56.7Ldieselengines.Thissalvagerepairmayoccurafteronecylinderborebecomesexcessivelyscoredfromabnormalcombustionactivityandtheunavailabilityofadequateoversizepistons.AERAmachineshopsreportsuccessfulsleeveinstallationontheseenginesoverthepastfiveyearseventhoughCumminsdidnotofferaservicesleeveuntilrecently.ThesleevePart4949951isnowavailableforanyoralloftheenginessixcylinders.Acautionisexpressedtoinstallallsleevesrequiredbeforeboringtofinalsize.Cumminsalsorecommendsablocktorqueplatebeusedforbothsleevingandboringprocesses.PreviouslypublishedinformationTB2548byChryslerCorporationamajoruseroftheseenginesoriginallydiscouragedcylindersleeveinstallationbecauseoftheenginesSiamesecylinderdesign.Usingablockmountedtorqueplateshouldhelpalleviatethoseconcerns.AftermarketsleevesuppliersreportrecentadditionstotheirproductlinesofferingarepairsleevesuchasCSL432whichisa332thickwallwhichwillaccommodatebothastandardand.020.500MMbore.Theblockforthe4.5Land6.7LenginesshouldbemachinedtoBoreDiameterAmmin109.700MIN4.3189109.715MAX4.3195BoretoadepthofLowerCylinderBoreDepthBmmin192.65MAX7.5846Doingsowillresultinastepatthebottomofthecylinderapproximately6.35mm0.25inthickCagainstwhichtherepairsleevewillsit.techSAVINGCYLINDERSFORNEARLY70YEARSCONNECTINGRODSWeofferthehighestqualityconnectingrodsforavarietyofapplications.SERVICEPARTSBOLTSOliverservicepartsaremanufacturedtomeetourexactingspecificationsmakingthemidealforreconditioningeffortsandthereplacementofsinglerodsbushingssleevesandbolts.-38716DIAMETERBOLTSUPGRADEOPTIONSAVAILABLESALESOLIVERRACINGPARTS.COM231237-4515WWW.OLIVERRACINGPARTS.COMCRAFTSMANSHIPPRECISIONDURABILITYSTRENGTH www.engineprofessional.com79TB2637EngineOilLeakOn2007-2012GM4.85.36.0L6.2LTruckEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationonanengineoilleakon2007-2012GM4.85.36.06.2Ltruckengines.Itisimportanttonotethatthisisonlyapplicabletoenginesusinganexternalmountedengineoilcooler.VehiclesAffected2007-2012ChevroletSilveradoSuburbanTahoe2008-2012ChevroletExpress2007-2012GMCSierraYukonYukonXL2008-2012GMCSavanaWhichareequippedwith4.85.36.0or6.2LV8enginesVINCodeCMLJ4035KY8or2-RPOLY2LH6LY5LMFLMGLC9LFALY6L76L92orL9HandtheengineoilcoolingsystemRPOKC4.Ithasbeenreportedoilleaksmayoccurontheabovementionedenginesdotoafaultygasketbetweentheenginecylinderblockandtheoilcoolerhosepipeadapter.ThisconditionmaybecausedbyanyofthefollowingAdamagedengineoilcoolerhosepipeadaptergasketduetoatemporarysteelsealingdevicenotbeingremovedwhentheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterwasfirstconnectedtotheengine.Previousoilleakservicingoftheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadaptergasketthatinvolvedfailingtoremovethetemporarysteelsealingdevice.Castingporosityattheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterboltholesoftheengine.Theengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterboltsarenottorquedtotheproperspecification.CorrectionmethodsThetemporarysteelsealingdevice1isshowninFigure1SHOULDNOTbeinstalledontheengineortheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapter.Itisusedtoonlytohelpsecuretheadaptorgasket2untiltimeofinstallation.Failuretoremoveitmayallowapathforengineoilleaks.TB2637Figure1.Temporarysteelsealingdevice1isshownseparatelyfromtheadaptergasket2.CloserexaminationoftheGMPart15203889illustratestemporarysteeldevice1beingpositionedtightlytothegasket2asshown.Onlyasmallcorner1ofthetemporarysteelsealingdevicemaybeobservabledependingonorientation.Performavisualinspectioninordertoverifythattheoilleakiscomingfromtheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterareaorthegasketwhereitconnectstotheengine.Someenginesweredeliveredwiththetemporarygasketstillattached.TB2637Figure2.Temporarysteelsealingdevice1shownasshipped.Ifdeterminedtheleakiscomingfromthisarearemovetheentirehosepipeassemblyanddiscardtheoldgasket.ObtainanewGMPart15203889andfollowtheinstallationstepsbelow.Cleanthematingsurfacesoftheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterandtheengine.Cleanbothboltholeswithbrakecleaneranddryusingregulatedcompressedair.CleanbothboltthreadsandapplypipesealantPart12346004CanadaPart10953480orequivalentLoctite565totheboltthreads.Verifythatthesealantisapplied360degreesaroundtheboltandextendsfromthetipoftheboltandcoversatleast.05915mmofthreads.Installtheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterwiththenewgasket.Installtheengineoilcoolerhosepipeadapterbolts2inFigure3andtightentheboltsto106inlbs12Nm.Installtheengineoilcoolerhosepiperetainingbracketbolt1andtightentheboltto18ftlbs25Nm.TB2637Figure3.EngineOilCoolerHosePipeAdapter 80APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionaltechTB2638TimingChainNoiseOn2011-2013Infiniti5.6LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingatimingchainnoiseon2011-2013Infiniti5.6Lengines.ThisinformationreferstocarmodelsM56Y51andtruckvehiclesQX56Z62.ThenoiseisbestheardonthepassengersideoftheenginecomingfromthetimingchainareaandthenoiseshouldincreasewithengineRPM.IfnoisedoesnotincreasewithengineRPMthetimingchainsystemmaynotbetheproblem.Infinitiofferthefollowinginformationtocurethenoiseproblemwithreplacementofthepassengersideoiljetbothtimingchainsbothcrankshaftsprocketsandallguides.PartDescriptionPartNumberQuantityOILJET13081-1LA0A1CAMSHAFTCHAINDRIVERSIDE13028-1CA3A1CAMSHAFTCHAINPASSENGERSIDE13028-1LA3A1GUIDECHAINTENDRIVERSIDE13085-1CA1B1CHAINGUIDEDRIVERSIDE13091-1CA1B1GUIDECHAINTENPASSENGERSIDE13085-1LA2A1CHAINGUIDEPASSENGERSIDE13091-1LA2A1CRANKSPROCKETDRIVERSIDE13021-1CA0A1CRANKSPROCKETPASSENGERSIDE13021-1LA1A1ToolingForQX56useoiljetremoverinstallerJ-51269foroiljetremovalinspectionandinstallation.ForM56useinstallerJ-51316alongwithoiljetremoverinstallerJ-51269foroiljetremovalinspectionandinstallation.KitJ-51269containsthefollowingJ-512691RemoverJ-512691IinstallerGaugePinGONO-GOToolsOiljetremoverandinstallerRemovingOilJetRemovethepassengersideoiljetusingtheremovaltoolJ-51269byinstallingtheremovertoolontotheoiljetandflushagainsttheengineblockasshowninFigure1.TB2638Figure1Installingtheremovaltoolforproperremoval.Alignthehexboltstocontacttheoiljetsflatandwornsides.Slidethethreadedshaftallthewayintheouterhousingandtightenbothhexboltswithanallen-wrenchtokeeptheremovertoolfromslippingbutnomore.Holdtheremovertoolsouterhousingwithawrenchwhileturningthenutclockwiseasshowninfigure2.Thisprocedurewillextracttheoiljetfromtheblock.Iftheoiljetisnotextractedinthefirstattemptyouwillneedtostartoverwiththisprocedureandtrytoremovetheoiljetagain.TB2638Figure2Removingtheoiljetfromthecylinderblock.BlockOilJetHoleInspectionDetermineifoiljetreplacementispossiblybyinsertingthegaugepinintotheblocksoiljetholeasshowninFigure3.Ifthegaugecannotbeinsertedintheholemorethan.1183mmoiljetreplacementcanbecompleted.Ifthepincanbeinsertedintheholemorethan.1183mmthisrepaircannotbeperformedandshortblockreplacementisnecessary.TB2638Figure3GaugePininspectionincylinderblock. OilJetInstallationInsertthenewoiljetintothecorrectinstallationtooldependingonthevehiclemodelengineisoutofrefertotoolingonpage1forcorrecttoolinguse.TB2638Figure4Oiljetinstallationintoinstallationtooling.MounttheinstallertothecylinderblockasshowninFigure5fortheQX56M56engineblocks.Withtheoiljetinsertedintotheinstallationtoolpositiontheotherendoftheoiljetintheblocksholeandthenalignandfiguretightenthethreebolts.Fingertightentheboltsenoughtopositiontheinstallationtoolflushwiththecylinderblock.TB2638Figure5Installationtoolmountedtocylinderblock.ToolonleftisfortheQX56modelsandthetoolontherightisfortheM56models.ArrowsontheM56designatethatoldsealantmustberemovedfromthemountingsurfaceoftheblockbeforeinstallingtooling.InstallthepressboltwithfingersuntilitbottomsoutontopoftheoiljetasshowninFigure6.Nexttightenthepressbolttwo2fullturnsandconfirmthattheoiljetiscenteredandaligned.Withasuitabletoolhandtightenbutdonotover-tightenthethreeboltsholdingtheinstallationtoolontothecylinderblock.Onceinstallationtoolplateissecuretothecylinderblocktightenthepressboltuntiltheoiljetbottomsoutinthecylinderblock.TB2638Figure6Installationofoiljetintocylinderblock.Removethetoolingfromthefrontoftheengineandconfirmthatthenotchontheoiljetiswithin-10ofthe12oclockpositionasshowninFigure7.TB2638Figure7Correctinstallationlocationofoiljet.ConfirmthattheoiljetisflushwiththecylinderblockasshowninFigure8.Iftheoiljetisnotproperlyinstalledonthefirstattempttheinstallationprocedurewillneedtobeperformedforasecondtime.TB2638Figure8Properoiljetinstallation.Onceoiljetinstallationisconfirmedandcorrectreassembletheenginewithnewtimingchainsandguides.Makesurethattheproperenginetimingprocedureisfollowedorenginedamagecouldresult.www.engineprofessional.com81AERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlineAERAmailsEngineProfessionalmagazinequarterly.ThetechnicalbulletinsinEnglishandSpanishcanbefoundonourwebsiteatwww.engineprofessional.com.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorifyouneedtechnicalsupportsendane-mailtoinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.www.engineprofessional.com TB2639InjectorSealSizeIdentificationOnCumminsKTQSKCylinderHeadsTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingfuelinjectorsealsizeidentificationonCumminsKTQSKcylinderheads.CumminsReConhasimplementedanewstampingcodeforalltheseseriesenginesandifthewrongsealisusedthewaytheenginerunsandhorsepowerlevelswillbeaffected.TheCumminsReConstampisadiamondshapethatislocatedbetweentheshortportexhaustvalveandthelongportintakevalveontherockerleversideofthecylinderheadasshowninFigure1.ThemarkingorlackofmarkinginsidethediamondshapeindicatesthepropersizeoftheinjectorsealasshowninFigure2.Referencethefollowingtableforcorrectinjectorsealsizeforthespecificenginebeingworkedon.ItshouldalsobenotedInjectortipprotrusionshouldbecheckedandverifiedwiththespecificationlistedbelow.KTSeriesCylinderHeadSealPartNumbersInjectorProtrusionDesired.090-.1102.286-2.794MMInjectorSealPartNumberInjectorSealSize20744Standard3001658.010Oversize3001659.020Oversize3001660.030OversizeQSKSeriesCylinderHeadSealPartNumbersInjectorProtrusionDesired.183-.2224.650-5.650MMInjectorSealPartNumberInjectorSealSize3867687Standard3347933.010Oversize3347934.020Oversize3347935.030OversizeInjectorSealingRingsRingWallThicknessInjectorTipProtrusionChange.014to.017.000.019to.022.010.024to.027.020.029to.032.030Theinjectorsealingringwithawallthicknessof.014-017isthestandardsealingring.TB2640CoolantInTheEngineOilOn2009Suzuki2.4LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingcoolantintheengineoilon2009Suzuki2.4Lengines.Enginecoolantmayleakfromthecoolingjacketintothecamshafthousingofthecylinderhead.Therewillbenoexternalcoolantleakandtherewilllikelybeevidenceorcoolantcontaminationintheengineoil.Suzukihasdeterminedthatcertainvehiclesmaydevelopacracksbetweenthecylinderheadboltsandcastingplugs.Atthecurrenttimereplacementofcylinderheadhasbeenthecureofthisproblem.DependingonmileageheadreplacementmaybeeligibleforawarrantyclaimwithSuzuki.82APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionaltechAERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlineAERAmailsEngineProfessionalmagazinequarterly.ThetechnicalbulletinsinEnglishandSpanishcanbefoundonourwebsiteatwww.engineprofessional.com.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorifyouneedtechnicalsupportsendane-mailtoinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.www.engineprofessional.comTB2639Figure2InjectorSealMarkingsTB2639Figure1InjectorSealMarkLocation TB2641CamshaftIdentificationLocationOn2007-13BMW3.0LDOHCEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingcamshaftidentificationandlocationfor2007-13BMW3.0LDOHCengines.Thisenginedesignincorporates24valvesandusestwouniquecamshaftstoactuatethevalvetrain.Thosecamshaftsmayappeartobeidenticalatfirstglanceastherearemanysimilaritiesbuttheirlocationintheheadisspecific.CamshaftshavestampedletterswhichareusedtoidentifyeachcamshaftonthebarrelofthecamasshowninFigure1.TheintakecamisstampedwiththeletterEandtheexhaustcamisstampedwiththeletterA.UsuallyincamshaftidentificationanEindicatesandexhaustcamforthisenginethatisnottrue.Ifthecamshaftsaremixedupduringinstallationintothecylinderheadenginedamagemayresult.www.engineprofessional.com83TB2641Figure1AExhaustcamshaftEInletcamshaft. TB2642RevisedConnectingRodBoltFor2007-2014Navistar7.69.3LMAXXFORCEDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingarevisedconnectingrodandboltfor2007-2014Navistar7.6and9.3Ldieselengines.Therevisedcomponentsrequiredifferenttorquevaluescomparedtothepreviousconnectingroddesign.ThefractureddesignconnectingrodhasbeenusedinNavistarenginessincethe2000-yearmodelbutwasrevisedforthe2007modelyear.Thisoriginalfracturedconnectingrodwentintoproductionenginesbeginninginthemodelyear2000withengineserial1363044andusesa12mmboltforassembly.Allofthoseconnectingrodsshoulduseatorquevalueof120FTLBS163Nm.Theseconddesignfracturedconnectingrodwentintoproductionforthe2007modelyearitisalsoafracturedcapdesignbutusesan11mmboltforassembly.Theappliedtorquevalueisslightlydifferentaswellasthetorquemethod.Theseconnectingrodsshouldbetorquedto30FTLBS90atthetimeofengineassembly.Connectingrodsofdifferentshouldnotbeintermixedwithinanengineorsevereenginevibrationswillexist.IfNEWreplacementconnectingrodsareinstalledtheyshouldbeofasimilardesign.NOTEItisimportanttonotethatbothdesignconnectingrodboltsshouldnotbeRE-USED.Newboltscanalsobeusedforbearingfitchecksandshouldbetorquedonlyto80FTLBS106Nmforthatprocedure.Duringengineassemblythetorquevalueslistedbelowshouldbeused.YearModelRodTypeTorqueValue2000-2006FracturedM12Bolts120ftlbs215Nm2007-2014FracturedM11Bolts30FTLBS90NavistarInternationalalsosuppliesthefollowingcautionsconcerningMAXXFORCEdieselconnectingrodsNEVERremoveinstallconnectingrodcapboltswithpowertools.Rapidrotationboltornutcancausedamagetothreads.DONOTpushonconnectingrodfracturedsurfacetoremovethepistonrodassembly.ApplycleanengineoilonthreadsofNEWconnectingrodbolts.Serialnumbersonconnectingrodandrodcaponsamesideoffracturedrodmustbeamatchedset.InstallNEWconnectingrodcapboltsusinghand.Ifresistanceisfeltcleanboltholesinconnectingrod.ReplaceconnectingrodifboltsDONOTrotatefreely.Boltholethreadsshouldnotbetappedwithathreadchaser.Connectingrodorconnectingrodcapfracturedmatingsurfacesmustnottouchanysurfaceotherthanitsmatchedfracturedsurface.Contactwithothersurfaceswillresultinmisalignmentofmatingsurface.Thiscouldfurtherresultinconnectingrodbearingandenginefailure.Beforeremovinganypistonandconnectingrodassembliesevaluatepistonprotrusiontoidentifybenttwistedorwornconditions.84APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionaltechAreyouanengineguyWeareContactusbecausewehavetheanswersforengines.Formoreinformationgoonlinetowww.aera.orgorcalltoll-free888-326-2372.JointodayGotopage90foramembershipapplication.IdentifyingConnectingRodwithM12Bolts www.engineprofessional.com85TB2643CylinderBlockCrackson2006-2008Honda1.8LR18A1EnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingcylinderblockcrackon2006-08Honda1.8LR18A1engines.Thisinformationshouldbereferencedanythingengineoverheatinghasoccurredorwhencoolantleakshavebeenobserved.Someengineblocksusedfor2006-2008HondaCivicshaveexperiencedcoolantleaksfromcracksthathavedevelopedoveraperiodoftimeandenginetemperatureheatcycles.SeeFigures1and2below.Thesecrackshavebeenobservedonbothsidesoftheblockandmayrequirepressuretestingtoobservefullytheirextent.TheengineoilseparatorshouldberemovedfromtheintakesideoftheblocktoexposeanareawheretheblockhasbeencrackingasshowninFigure2.HondaspositiononthesecracksistoreplacetheenginewithanewshortblockassemblyPN10002-RNA-A00HC8143323.Theyvealsogivensomeassistancewithgoodwillconsiderationifrequestsaremadebeforerepairisattempted.AERAmembersreportdependingupontheseverityofthecracksitmaybepossibletorepairsomeblocksbyweldingormetalstitching.Thistypeofrepairhoweverdoesnoteliminateapossiblecrackinadifferentareaatfuturepointintime.Figure1.ExhaustManifoldSideofBlockFigure2.IntakeManifoldSideofBlock 86APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalONTHESAMEPAGEBYMIKECARUSOAutomotiveEnginesDiagnosisRepairandRebuildingByTimGillesSubjectTheseventheditionofAutomotiveEngineshasbeenupdatedandrefinedtoreflectchangesintodaysmarketplace.Thiseditionisbeingproducedinfourcolordesignforthefirsttimewithmanynewandupdatedphotosandillustrations.Anemphasisonphotosandartanticipatestheneedsofthosewithdifferentlearningstylesandencouragesstudentinterestinreadingtherelatedtext.PowerDensityisincreasingonenginesdesignedoverthelastnumberofyearscontinuestokeepclimbing.Asaresultcontinuingeducationisnecessarytounderstandtheenginechangesthathavetakenplace.InformationSECTION1Chapter1engineoperation2engineshopsafety3diagnosingengineproblems4engineRRdisassembleinspectionandinchassisrepairs5cleaningtheengine6measuring.SECTION2Chapter7cylinderheadpartsandservice8cylinderheadspringsvalvesandvalveseats9camshaftlifterstimingbeltsandchains.SECTION3Chapter10cylinderblockinspectionandservice11crankshaftbearingsandenginebalancing12pistonsringsandconnectingrods13lubrication14coolingsystems.SECTION4Chapter15enginehardwarefastenersthreadrepairandgaskets16reassemblyandstarting.SECTION5EnginePowerandPerformanceChapter17enginebreathingintakeandexhaustsystems18turbochargersandsuperchargers19producingpowervalvetimingpowerandtorquemeasurements.SuggestionThisisatextbookwithquestionsandanswersattheendofeachchapter.Whetheryouarenewtolearningaboutenginesorhavebeeninvolvedformanyyearsyouwilllearnfromthisseventhedition.Fullcolorphotosandillustrationsmakeiteasiertofollowalong.Addedcoverageforrestorationsantiquecarstrucksfarmtractorsandoldboatenginesabigmarkettoday.DontpassthisbookupitisaBIGjumpforwardPrintedin2014byDelmar7theditionISBNID13978-1-2854-4174-0AERATechSpecialistMikeCarusohasover50yearsofenginerebuildingandhigh-performanceexperience.AnASE-certifiedMasterMachinistMikecametoAERAfromFEL-PROshigh-performanceRDandtechlinewhereheworkedfor11years.MikewouldliketohearfromAERAmembersintheshopsWhattypeofbookinformationwouldhelpyoudoyourjobbetterandorfasterContacthimviaemailmikeaera.orgorcall815-526-7609.EngineAirflowByHaroldBettesSubjectApracticalguidetoairflowtheorypartstestingflowbenchtestingandanalyzingdatatoincreaseperformanceforanystreetorracingengine.InformationWrittenforgearheadssowecanunderstandengineairflow.Coversbasicenginetermsconceptsandcomponentsinternalcombustionenginefundamentalsengineairflowrelationshipshowflowbenchesworkflowtestingtoolsmeasurementsandcalculationsestablishingairflowtestingstandardsairflowcalibrationandmeasurementsstandardscomparingflownumbersflowtestingintakeexhaustcomponentsflowtestingcarburetorsfuelinjectionandmanifoldsselectingcamshaftswithflownumbergraphicalanalysisandcomputersimulationprograms.Plushandyformulasandchartsforgearheadsunitconversionsandequivalentsresourcesandrecommendedreading.SuggestionBestbookeveronthesubjectofengineairflow.Printedin2010byHP1537ISBNID978-155788-537-1The7theditionofAutomotiveEnginesbyTimGillesfeatureshundredsoffullcolorphotosandillustrationswhichhelpmakethistextbookveryeasytofollowalong. PEGGYGREENCall507-457-0755or866-457-8975peggybigrivergmail.comRepresentinganumberofqualitylinestobringyouthebestvalueforallyourshopsupplyneeds.HOMEOFREGISNORTH35517SkyviewDriveWinonaMN55987HOMEOFREGISNORTHCallwww.engineprofessional.com87ENGINEREBUILDINGEQUIPMENTSUPPLIESServingtheEngineRebuildingIndustryforover25Yearswww.rtsalesinc.com1625NorthMilfordRdHighlandMI48357Phone248-887-0422Fax248-887-0150MARKETPLACEGrayMarineParts.comWeofferavastarrayoforiginalGrayMarineenginesenginepartsaccessoriesandsomuchmore.Ifyouhavebeensearchinghighandlowforahard-to-ndpartthensearchnomoreCallusandwellnditforyouCall630-485-5007salesgraymarineparts.com 88APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalMARKETPLACEAttentionAERAMembersAdvertiseyourbusinesscardwithEngineProfessionalmagazineandcapitalizeonthefastestgrowinghardcoreenginepublicationintheaftermarketMarketplaceBusinessCardAdOrderFormNameCompanyAERAIDAddressCityStateZIPPhoneFaxE-mailRate____________xofinsertions______Total__________________NOTEPleasemailpaymenttoKarenatAERAseeaddressbelow.E-mailelectronicartworkJPGorPDFtomariamcreative.usIVisaIMasterCardIDiscoverIAmericanExpressIfyoudonothaveanelectronicfilemailbusinesscardalongwithpayment.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIExpirationDateMMYY________________3-digitCSC________PrintCardholderNameCardholderSignatureFaxtoll-free1-888-329-2372OrmailwithyourpaymenttoEngineProfessionalMagazineAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.QuestionsPleasecontactKarenatAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600karenaera.org.HalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comorJimRickoff507-457-8975jimrickoffgmail.comE-mailartworktomariamcreative.usBusinessCardAd3.5x21xRate2004xRate170Alladsrunfullcoloratnoextracharge.ToadvertiseinthissectionyoumustbeanAERAmember.Fordetailsonhowtojoinvisitwww.aera.org.Fourtimesayearover15000copiesofEngineProfessionalaresenttoanauditedlistofengineprofessionals.MARKETPLACEisforAERAmembersonly.ItwillbefeaturedineveryissueofEngineProfessionalmagazine. OnecalltotheAERAtechlineandmyproblemwassolved.Tomaintainanedgeintheenginebuildingindustryyouneedresourcesyoucandependon.AERAisaspecializednetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersproductionengineremanufacturersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstogetyoutheinformationyouneedwhenyouneedit.WithanAERAmembershipherearejustafewofthebenefitsyoullreceiveIToll-freetechnicalsupportISpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareIEngineProfessionalmagazineIRegionalTechSkillsConferencesIAutomotiveMachiningOnlineTrainingProgramIAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.IAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreISpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoncreditcardprocessingcomputerhardwareandsuppliesinsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.IDetailsonallmemberbenefitscanbefoundatwww.aera.orgmember-servicesmember-benefitsEvenifjustoneAERAtechbulletinhelpspreventanenginecomebackyourmembershipiswellworthitsdues.Wereheretohelpyoumakeyourbusinessthebestitcanbe.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonthenextpageandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.www.engineprofessional.com89AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.orgtwitter.comaeraepfacebook.comaeraep 90APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessionalAPPLICATIONFORU.S.ACTIVEMEMBERSHIPELIGIBLITYREQUIREMENTSApplicantshouldbeaproprietorshippartnershiporcorporationthathasadequateautomotiveshopequipmentandperformseitherenginemachiningenginemodificationengineassemblyorengineinstallationandwhoseprincipalbusinessservestheautomotivetrucktractormarinedieselandotherclassesofretailindustrialandcommercialaccountsandnotprimarilysellusedpartswhichtermdoesnotincluderemanufacturedpartsintheirmainplaceofbusiness.1.Pleaseremitasheetofcompanyletterheadcompanybusinesscardorcompanyinvoicewithapplication.2.Ifyourbusinessmeetstheabovecriteriapleasecompletetheformbelow.Pleaseprintlegiblyortype.COMPANYINFORMATIONCompanyNameDatebusinessstartedContactPersononenameonlyBusinessAddressCityStateZipPhoneFaxEmailWebsiteHowmanypersonnelinyourshopincludepart-timepersonnelPleasechecktheappropriatecategoriesforlistingintheAERAMembershipDirectoryIACCustompassengercarandlighttruckenginerebuildingIADDieselheavy-dutyandindustrialenginerebuildingIAFForeignmotorcycleandsmallenginerebuildingIAHHigh-performanceenginerebuildingIALDrivelinerebuildingIAMMarineenginerebuildingIAPProductionenginerebuilding100permonthIAYCylinderheadrebuildingspecialistIAIEngineinstallationIOtherPAYMENTMUSTACCOMPANYAPPLICATIONIENTIREAMOUNTENCLOSEDMONTHLYPAYMENTPLANSAVAILABLEContactAERAfordetails.CREDITCARDIVISAIMasterCardIAmericanExpressIDiscoverICHECKPleasemakecheckpayabletoAERACardholderNamepleaseprintCardNumberExpirationSecurityCodeCardholderSignatureIattestthatmyfirmmeetstheaboverequirementsandgiveAERApermissiontoverifytheinformation.SignatureTitleRECOMMENDEDFORMEMBERSHIPBYSendapplicationandpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.Orfaxyourcompletedapplicationwithpaymentto888-329-2372toll-freeor815-526-7601.Youmayalsoapplyonlineatwww.aera.org.IfyouarealreadyanAERAmemberpleasegivethisapplicationtoafriend.CallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372ordirect815-526-7600withanyquestions.AERAMEMBERSHIPDUESSelecttheappropriatepersonnelcategoryforyourshop.NumberofshoppersonnelI1-3........................................37030.83monthI4-8........................................45337.75monthI9-24......................................58548.75monthI25ormore............................69157.58month ADVERTISERINDEXAccessIndustries...........................................................5ACL..............................................................................15AERA................................................................6789-90CIFIC..............................................................................9Cloyes..........................................................................17CTPCostexTractorParts...................insidebackcoverCWTIndustries...............................................................1DNJEngineComponents...................outsidebackcoverDownunderDiamondTools..........................................11DrivenRacingOil............................................................8Durabond.....................................................................42Elgin.......................................................................2153EndurancePowerProducts.........................................45EnginePartsGroupInc................................................16Enginequest.................................................................40ESCOIndustries...........................................................57FarrisEquipment..........................................................36FederalMogulFel-Pro....................................333537Fluidampr.....................................................................26FowlerSalesService.................................................83Goodson......................................................................14Hastings................................................insidefrontcoverJamison.......................................................................27JoeBakerEquipmentSales.........................................60KingEngineBearings...................................................51L.A.Sleeve....................................................................78MAHLEClevite...............................................................7Maxiforce.....................................................................43Melling..........................................................................50MemorialMachine........................................................69NPR.............................................................................25OliverRacingParts.......................................................78PEP........................................................................1820PRO-SIS......................................................................71QualCast......................................................................34QualityPowerProducts................................................61Regis............................................................................19Rottler..........................................................................92S.B.International............................................................3SafetyAutoParts.........................................................55SilverSeal....................................................................39Sunnen........................................................................47Topline....................................................................72-73Tracto-PartsCenter......................................................59UltrasonicLLC............................................................63UnitedEngineandMachine.........................................23U.S.ToolandMfg.Co..................................................38Vibratech......................................................................46ADVERTISINGOPPORTUNITIESGetyouradvertisingmessagedirectlyintotheshopswhoarebuild-ingrebuildingandinstallingenginesprofessionallybyadvertisinginEngineProfessionalmagazine.Engineprofessionalsworldwidewillreceivethisfull-colorpublicationfourtimesperyear.Eachissuewillbefilledwithhighlytechnicalandapplication-drivenarticlesfromourstaffofwritersaswellasfeaturecontributionsfromindustryprofessionals.Formoreinformationdownloadamediakitfromourwebsiteatwww.aera.orgeporcontactouradsalesstaff.AdSalesHalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comJimRickoff815-526-7343jimaera.orgForadpaymentcirculationmembershipinformationCallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600.www.engineprofessional.com91MonthlyPaymentOptionsAERAnowoffersmonthlyinstallmentpaymentoptionsforyourannualAERAmembershipandPRO-SISsupportfees.CreditcardDirectwithdrawlfrombankaccountTherewillbenoadditionalfeesifyouelecttopaymonthly.ExampleAsmall1-3manshoppaysanannualrateof370or30.83permonthfor12monthscreditcardordirectwithdrawlfrombankaccount.FormoreinformationcallKarenat888-326-2372ore-mailkarenaera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.org THECUTTINGEDGEBlockFrameBoringSurfacingLineBoringandGeneralCNCMachiningRottlerF100MachiningCentersHeavyDutyDesign.CuttingEdgeSoftware.OEMEngineRemanufturingcaOEMEngineRemanufturinglLatheengineeringneedssincemetthemovhaancdvsaertltRosandOEMrderebuilrecisionmainprerManuftltRoOEMEngineRemanuf23.e19engineeringneedssincstdemandingemetthemoeddesignsandequipmentancerturcaemanufsandOEMrorengineoolsfchinetecisionmaaellobaturingisaglcaerManufturingcaOEMEngineRemanufeddesignsandequipments.erorenginederaturingts.oundparrchiningoflmaefblarytRothewithlLaaticerVdditionofatheaelwithvetherloanotchineseMasPurpoesMulti-akerttltRolLaaticerts.egarchiningoflrthewithdditionofaelwithchinesesMulti-thelLacontactrottlermfg.com.facebook.comrottlermfgwww.youtube.comrottlermfgwwwottlerTHECUTcontactrottlermfg.comrottlermfg.facebook.comrottlermfg.youtube.comrottlermfgmfg.comottlerTINGEDGETHECUT1-800-452-0534125387270502UentW8029South200thStreet92APRIL-JUNE2014engineprofessional