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PistonSeizureinDieselEnginesUnderstandingthetruefailure409EngineBuildBuildingaperformance-orientedoriginalSavingOutboardEnginesHowtobeforeandafterTHREADEDFASTENERSTORQUEVALUESCLAMPINGFORCESANDMORE6.6LDURAMAXENGINEGENERALMOTORSCO.ANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONJANUARY-MARCH2013 2JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional4FROMTHEPUBLISHER6INDUSTRYNEWSWelcometonewAERAmemberscalendarofeventsnewsandviews10NEWSFROMTHEEDITORByJimRickoff16DMAXBUILDS1500000THDURAMAXDIESELENGINEByDaveHagen18THREADEDFASTENERSByMikeMavrigianTorqueValuesClampingForcesStudsvs.BoltsandThreadTreatments40PISTONSEIZURESINDIESELENGINESBySteveScott48AERAATTENDSAETCCONFERENCEBySteveFox50SPEEDREADByJohnGoodman409EngineBuild60AERAMEMBERNEEDSINFORMATIONINSPANISHBySteveSchoeben625MINUTESWITHANAERAMEMBERByStephenKimSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistsinHoustonTexas66SAVINGOUTBOARDENGINESBEFOREANDAFTERByDaveMetchkoff72TECHSIDEByLakeSpeedJr.TheTruthAboutEngineOil76ONTHESAMEPAGEEnginebuildingbookreviewsbyAERATechnicalSpecialistMikeCaruso80AERAONLINETRAININGAERAEngineBuildingandMachiningCertificateProgram84TECHBULLETINS91MARKETPLACECONTENTSEngineProfessionalmagazineISSN1945-7634ispublishedquarterlybyAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationAERA.Copyright2013AERA.Subscriptionrates70peryearoutsidetheUnitedStates90singlecopy20.Publicationedito-rialandbusinessoffice500CoventryLaneSte180CrystalLakeIL60014.Editorial815-526-7600Advertising507-457-8975Circulation815-526-7600.Sendchangeofaddresstotheabove.TheopinionsbeliefsandviewpointsexpressedbythevariousauthorsinthismagazinearethoseoftheindividualauthorsandnotoftheAutomotiveEngineRebuildersAssociationwhichdisclaimsallresponsibilityforthem.VOLUME6NUMBER1PUBLISHERAERA-EngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014815-526-7600815-526-7601faxChairmanoftheBoardDwayneDugasNewIberiaLAFirstViceChairmanRonMcMorrisMapleRidgeBCCANADASecondViceChairmanSteveSchoebenBloomingtonMNTreasurerDavidBianchiSeattleWAPresidentPaulHauglieEDITORJimRickoffjimrickoffgmail.comTECHNICALEDITORSDaveHagendaveaera.orgSteveFoxsteveaera.orgMikeCarusomikeaera.orgGaryLewisenginesmsn.comMikeEighmymikeeighmygmail.comCONTROLLERMelissaRizzimelissaaera.orgGRAPHICDESIGNMariaBeyerstedtmariamcreative.usADVERTISINGSALESJimRickoffjimrickoffgmail.comHalFowlerhalfowlersales.comPRODUCTIONJanJuhljanaera.orgCIRCULATIONKarenTenderingkarenaera.orgINTERNATIONALLIAISONYolandaCarranzayolandaaera.orgCHIEFTECHNOLOGYARCHITECTRichardRooksrichardaera.org18405066 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP3 4JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalFROMTHEPUBLISHERBYPAULHAUGLIEAERAPRESIDENTchangev.changedchangingchangesv.tr.a.Tocausetobedifferentb.Toputafreshcoveringonv.intr.a.Tobecomedifferentorundergoalterationb.Toundergotransformationortransitionn.a.Theactprocessorresultofalteringormodifyingb.ThereplacingofonethingforanothersubstitutionSongByDavidBowieaboutthefrequentchangeoftheworldtodayIftheresonethingthatsconstantitschange.Iftheresonethingmostofusdontlikeitschange.Iftheresonethingamajorityofusareguiltyofmyselfincludeditsresistingthatchangeaslongaspossible.BytheendofDecember2012itwasapparentthat2013wasdefinitelygoingtobeayearofchange.HereareafewofthehighlightswecanexpectTherewillonlybeoneperformancetradeshowinDecemberthankyouSEMAChairmanScooterBrotherscompanieswillcontinuetoshiftmoreoftheirmarketingdollarstosocialmediaandAERAwillbegintheir91styearofoperation.ImsureIleftoutacoupleofothersbutyougetthepicture.SomethingweregoingtoputmoreemphasisonthroughouttheyearistheimportanceofshopsandshopownersusingtheAERARegionalTechnicalConferencesasachancetonetwork.Itistruethattheseconferencesprovideagreatopportunityforattendeestolearnaboutnewtypesofmachiningbetterwaystoprepandassembleenginesthingstolookforwhendiagnosingaproblemandmuchmore.HoweverIbelievetheseconferencesprovideagreateropportunityfortheshopstogettoknoweachotherbetterandrealizetheyhavemoreincommonthantheythought.Whoknowsmaybetheycanwalkawayhavinglearnedsomevaluabletipsfromtheothershopsinattendance.Thisisachangeforusinthatpreviouslyourfocuswasmoreonattendingtheconferencestolearnaboutanewproductortovisitwithwell-knownmanufacturers.Wheninactualitywehaveoverlookedaverykeyreasonforattendingaconferencegettingtoknowothershopsfindingouthowothershaveperfectedaprocessetc.etc.SpeakingoftechconferencesherearesomeoftheupcomingconferencesthisyearDeAnzaCollegeCupertinoCaliforniaApril13MAHLEandDrivenRacingOilatRichardChildressRacingWelcomeNorthCarolinaMay16LibertyEnginePartsPittsburghJune8.Acompletelistingisonpage14ofthisissue.Yes2013willbeayearofchangebutitwillbeanexcitingyearandwehereatAERAarelookingforwardtoit.Thankyoutoallofourmemberswhohavemadethisassociationsuccessful.Withoutyourguidanceandsupportwecouldnthavemadeitthesepast90years.IwanttosendaquickthankyoutoEllenMechlinwhoretiredfromAERAattheendofDecember.Ellenwasourcontrollerforthepast11yearsanddidafantasticjobkeepingusontrackespeciallyduringsomeroughtimes.Wewishherallthebestinhernewadventureandwillcertainlymissher.AswesaidgoodbyetoEllenwealsowelcomedMelissaRizziasournewcontroller.MelissajoinsAERAwithanextensiveworkhistoryinthenon-profitaccountingsector.Weareexcitedtohaveheronboardandcongratulateheronhernewpositionwithus.IssuehighlightsAnindepthlookatthreadedfastenersarecapoftheAERA90thAnniversaryeventreviewoftheAETCconferenceandmuchmore.ReadonIPriortobecomingpresidentofAERAPaulHauglieworkedforMellingEnginePartsasCanadianSalesManagerandPerformanceProductManagerforMellingSelectPerformance.Changes 52.964-264133333215-9070705290707070-529.7.7.64226401364.064-64..064-36810083825681008382862215GM6.5truckvan.........................................995eaCummins3.94BTOEM....................................950eaCummins5.96BT.............................................995eaCummins8.36CT...........................................1795eaCaterpillar3306DI..........................................2780eaCummins4BT....................................................575eaCummins6CT8.3..............................................780eaCummins6BT5.9..............................................695eaCaterpillar3306.................................................998eaCummins3.9.....................................................158eaCummins5.9.....................................................138eaCummins8.3.....................................................188eaGM6.5TruckVan..................198eaChevy350Vortec......................228eaChrysler318360........................228eaChrysler3.9................................180eaCaterpillar3306PC8N1187......730eaCaterpillar3306DI8N6796.......730eaCaterpillar3406DINEW..........1580eaCaterpillar3406PCNEW.........1580eaCaterpillar3304PCDI...............580eaJeep4.0331..........................375eaFord4.0EarlyLate...................138eaCummins5.9OEM..................5980eaCummins3.94BTOEM...........3980eaCummins8.36CTOEM...........6980eaCummins5.93.96BT4BT...........68eaCummins8.36CT.......................86eaGM6.5NEW.................................55eaCummins3.9................................98eaCummins5.9..............................108eaCummins8.3..............................138eaCummins3.9UpperKitOEM......88setCummins3.9LowerKitOEM.....88setCummins5.9UpperKitOEM......98setCummins5.9LowerKitOEM.....95setCummins8.3UpperKitOEM....128setCummins8.3LowerKitOEM...108set5 6JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAERAwelcomesnewmembersACTIVE7LakesAutomotiveMachineStanwoodWAAllStarTransmissionLLCHammondLAArnoldAutoPartsColdwaterMIAuto-SzlifsMelgiewPOLANDAutomotiveMachineShopJacksonvilleTXBesnikEngineDesignCenterLineMIBobbyDeansAtwoodAutoMachineShopAtwoodTNCamdMachiningCoIncLandisvillePACarquestofClevelandClevelandTNCircleMachineCylinderObernburgNYDansCylinderHeadCoPortlandORDieselPowerPartsMachineMissoulaMTDieselSpecialistsLLCBatonRougeLADiscountAutoSalvageBirminghamALDutkaAutomotivePeotoneILDVCMachineForestGroveOREPWBakersfieldCAFiskAutomotiveMachineShopHanahanSCGotelliSpeedShopSanFranciscoCAGriffsEngineMachineSanduskyOHHamiltonMotorsportsMachineMinotNDHeadBlockSpecialtyStoneyCreekONCANADAHDSAutoPartsMachineEscondidoCAHighDesertAutoSupplyAppleValleyCAHortasMachineShopLasVegasNVInyeccionDieseldelIstmoJuchitandeZaragozaMEXICOJBsDieselDoctorMonticelloARLeindeckerRacingEnginesCenterValleyPAMendozaCIACochabambaBOLIVIANeersRepairServiceMarysvilleOHPassionCustomsAccessoriesStettlerABCANADAPatsMachineOklahomaCityOKPaulWallerGarageIncPlainviewTXR-AMCoRacingSmithvilleMSRectificacionesdeBajioLeonMEXICORectificacionesyRefaccionesMiguelMazatlanMEXICOReedyDieselLebanonPARodsAutomotiveMachineShopFalconCORossisEngineDriveTrainGilroyCASouthernEngineReconditioningBerkeleyNSWAustraliaStockbridgeAutoCareStockbridgeMITalleresPapiSimonoSantoDomingoDOMINICANREPUBLICTopEndPerformanceGrandJunctionCOVilebrequinUniversalIncStLeonardPQCANADAVirginiaDieselEvingtonVAWaitschiesCrankshaftServiceVictoriaTXASSOCIATEAccreditedMarineSurveyorEastNorthportNYHeartlandSalesCoLincolnNEMotorWarehouseNationalAutoPartsMiamiFLShanghaiBestechMechanicalTechnologyShanghaiCHINAMEMBERGETTERBrendanBakerEngineBuilderMagazineDaveMonyhanGoodsonToolsSuppliesWinonaMNSEMAunifiesIMISandPRItradeshowsreturnstoIndyin2013TheSpecialtyEquipmentMarketAssociationSEMAacquiredtheIMIStradeshowwithplanstoconsolidateitwiththePRIshowalsopurchasedbySEMA.SEMAwillreturnthePRIshowtoitsformerhomeattheIndianaConventionCenterindowntownIndianapoliswithaThursdayFridayandSaturdayscheduleDecember12-142013.Formoreinformationgotowww.performanceracing.com.IInmemoryofBeckyBabcoxLongtimeautomotiveaftermarketveteranMaryRebeccaBeckyBabcoxpassedawaypeacefullyonOctober152012inAkronOhioafteralongbattlewithMultipleSystemAtrophyMSA.Shewas60yearsold.FormanyyearsBeckywasco-ownerofBabcoxMediawithherbrotherBillBabcox.Beckyretiredfromthecompanyin2006afternearly30yearsinthebusiness.ShewasnamedWomanoftheYearbytheCarCareCouncilWomensBoardthatsameyear.InadditiontoservingasCorporateSecretaryforBabcoxBeckywasPublisherofAutomotiveRebuildermagazineknowntodayasEngineBuildermagazine.ShewasanactiveparticipantoftherebuildingindustryservingasboardmemberofPERAandnumerousotheraftermarketassociationsincludingAERAAPRAandtheCarCareCouncilsWomensBoard.BeckywasagraduateofEmoryUniversityandreceivedherMBAfromTheOhioStateUniversity.SheissurvivedbyhersonRob.IIindustrynewscalendarJANUARY21-24HEAVYDUTYAFTERMARKETWEEKHDAWTheMirageHotelLasVegasNVwww.hdaw.orgFEBRUARY22-24RACEPERFORMANCEEXPOPheasantRunResortSt.CharlesILwww.raceperformanceexpo.comMARCH14-16HOTRODRESTORATIONTRADESHOWIndianaConventionCenterIndianapolisINwww.hotrodshow.comMARCH21-23MID-AMERICATRUCKINGSHOWKentuckyFairandExpositionCenterLouisvilleKYwww.truckingshow.comAPRIL13AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyDeAnzaCollegeAutoTechCupertinoCAMAY16AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyMAHLE-CleviteandDrivenRacingOilatRichardChildressRacingWelcomeNCJUNE8AERATECHSKILLSCONFERENCEHostedbyLibertyEnginePartsIncPittsburghPAwww.liberty-engine-parts.com DONTBEFOOLEDDontbefooledbyblusteryshowmanshiporsleightofhandmarketingclaims-makesureyouknowthecardyouholdmaygetyouburned.Cleviteenginebearingshavedenedthestandardfortechnologyandperformancefordecades.Enginebuildersworkingoneverythingfromstockreplacementmotorstothehighesthorsepowerandmostdemandingperformanceandheavydutyapplicationsknowthattheirreputationhingesoneveryturnofthewrenchandeverypartontheblock.Thatreputationistoovaluabletotrustittosomelow-costsupplierwithsecond-ratequalityasitmaybeYOUthatendsuplookinglikeaJoker.www.mahle-aftermarket.comTOBEAJOKERBYTHECARDTHATTURNSOUTengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP7 8JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAERAannouncestheretirementofControllerEllenMechlinAERAwouldliketothankEllenMechlinforhertenureattheassociationandwishherthebestofluckinherretirement.Ellenhasbeenaverystrongfinancialleaderwiththeassociationfromdayone.ShehashelpedsecurethefinancialstabilityofAERAwithherguidanceinbudgetingandinvestmentadvisementalongwithherday-to-dayaccountingresponsibilities.EllenwasbornandbroughtupinNewYorkCitygraduatedfromLehmanCollegeinNewYork.ShehaslivedintheChicagoareafor30years.ShehasbeenaCPAforover25yearsworkinginpublicaccountingatvariousfirms.ShecametoAERAfromVancePublishingamagazinepublishingcompanythatproducesover25publicationsforvariousindustries.ShehasbeenwithAERAfor11yearsandhasenjoyedtheopportunitytoparticipateinagreatteamenvironment.Ellenhasbeenmarriedfor38yearstoherhusbandStuartaretiredmarketingexecutiveandtheyhavetwosonsAlex30andMark28.AlexisavideographerandinternetmarketingconsultantandMarkisafirefighterinMaryland.Shehas3sistersandabrotherwhoallliveintheNewYorkareaandsheislookingforwardtospendingtimewithherfamilytravelandvolunteerworkinherretirement.IAERAintroducesControllerMelissaRizziAERAispleasedtoannouncethatMelissaRizzihasjoinedthestaffatAERA.SheholdsaBachelorsofScienceinBusinessAdministrationaccountingconcentrationfromDeVryUniversityandhasbeeninthenon-profitaccountingsectorsince2004.PriortoAERAsheheldthepositionofBusinessManageratPrairieCrossingCharterSchoolinGrayslakeIllinoisandpreviouslywastheControlleratSt.JohnLutheranChurchandSchoolinWheatonIllinois.ShealsowasonstaffatTrinityLutheranChurchandSchoolinRoselleIllinois.Additionallyshehaspropertymanagementaccountingandretailaccountingexperience.Melissatrulyenjoysthechallengesandintricaciesofnon-profitaccountingandmanagement.MelissawasbornandraisedintheMidwestandistheproudmotherofthreegirlsAmandaElisabethandJenna.Withyoungchildrenmuchofherfreetimeisspentenjoyingtheiractivitiesbutwhenshecanfindtimeforherselfsheenjoysmusicandcooking.Herfamilyisspreadthroughoutthecountrysosheenjoystravelingwhenevershecan.I2013ChinaInternationalRemanufacturingSummitThe3rdAnnualChinaInternationalRemanufacturingSummitwillbeheldApril11-122013attheCrownePlazaBeijingChaoyangU-TownHotel.ThisyearssummitwillprovideaplatformtofamiliarizeparticipantswithChinaspoliciesandregulationsfortheusedequipmentandremanufacturingindustrygainingathoroughunderstandingofthemarketsfutureandchallengesthusoptimizingonesdevelopmentstrategiesinChina.SpeakersfromChinascentralgovernmentandleadingcompanieswillsharewithattendeestheirvaluableexperienceandinsightfulopinionsconcerningoneofChinasmostboomingindustries.Formoreinformationvisitwww.duxes-events.comuerm_3.IEnginePartsGroupInc.HonorsTopSuppliersFivesupplierstoEnginePartsGroupInc.EPGIwerehonoredatthegroupsrecentwintershareholdersmeeting.TheseFeaturedSupplierswereDurabondBearingCo.FerreaRacingComponentsHastingsManufacturingCo.MellingEnginePartsandSAGearCo.EachyearEPGIshareholderschooseitsFeaturedSuppliersfrommorethan90companiesprovidingenginepartstothegroup.Thefiveareselectedbasedeachcompanysabilitytoofferextraordinaryvalueexceptionalprogramspoliciesandbuildingandmaintainingexcellentworkingrelationships.CompanieschosenfortheEPGIFeaturedSupplierAwardalsomustbetheprimarysourceinitsproductcategorytoatleast80percentofEPGImembers.Founded23yearsagoEPGIisthelargestenginepartsdistributionnetworkintheU.S.Thegroupismadeupofindependentspecialtyenginepartsdistributorswhowarehouseafulllineofinternalenginecomponentsfordomesticandimportpassengercarlighttruckheavydutyindustrialmarineagriculturalandperformanceapplications.EngineProoperates35distributioncentersthroughouttheU.S.andAustralia.ISmithBrothersPushrodsMovestoNewFacilitySmithBrothersPushrodshasrecentlymovedtoitsnewmanufacturingfacilityinBendOregon.At46000squarefeettheadditionalspaceandconvenientnewlocationwillallowthecompanytoincreaseproductionstockadditionalinventoryandmaterialsandexpanditsproductlines.SmithBrothersPushrodswasstartedinCaliforniain1953byHankandJoeSmith.ThebusinesswaslatermovedtoBendOregonintheearly1990s.In1999thecompanywaspurchasedbyDennisandKristenMarshallandoperatedoutofa4000square-footbuilding.Asthebusinessgrewtheymovedintolargerbuildingsin2002andagainin2005.ThecompanysaysithasexpandeditsoperationstoincludenotonlythemanufactureofcustomandOEMreplacementpushrodsbuttheyhavedevelopedtheirownlineofrockerarmadjustingscrewsandnutsextrastrongHarley-DavidsonpushrodsalongwithaH-Dfastinstallpushrodupgradekit.FormoreinformationaboutSmithBrothersPushrodsvisitwww.pushrods.net.IIindustrynewsAERAPresidentPaulHaugliepresentsEllenMechlinwitharecognitionawardataluncheoninhonorofherretirementonDec.122012. 10JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalHiTeamIhopeyouallhadagreat2012andarereadyforanevenbetter2013.AERAs90thyearwascelebratedwithafantasticanniversarypartyattheIMISshowinIndianapolisIndianaonFridayDecember72012.Nearly200membersandindustryfriendsjoinedinthecelebrationattheIndianapolisConventionCentertoreflectandcelebrate90yearsofsuccessfuloperationsofobtaininganddistributingtechnicalknowledgetoenginebuildersrebuildersandinstallersworld-wide.Yesthereissomewowfactortherewhenthinkingabouthowlong90yearsofsuccessfuloperationforanyentityreallyis.Itsalongtimebutevenmoreimportantlyisthepositiverolethisassociationhashadonourindustrythroughouttheyears.Letskeepmovingintherightdirectionandwithanylucksomeoneelsewillbewritingaboutusinanother90years.Thedinnerpartytrulycouldnthavebeenanynicerwhenyouconsiderwhowasabletoattendandenjoytheevening.Wehad10pastAERAChairmenoftheBoardmembersattendandmanypastandpresentmembersoftheBoardinattendance.ManyAERAstaffmemberswereinattendancetoowhichmadeforagreatevent.Howeverthemajorityofthoseinattendancewereactiveandassociatemembersenjoyingthenetworkingandreflectingontimespast.TheeveningstartedwithafewkindwordsfromcurrentChairmanoftheBoardDwayneDugasownerofDugasEngineServiceLLCofNewIberiaLouisiana.DwayneintroducednewAERAPresidentPaulHauglie.AfterPaulintroducedhimselfhiswifeJenniferandstaffhehadthehonorofintroducingourkeynotespeakerforthenight.RobertYatesfamedenginebuilderNASCARteamownerchampionandHallofFamememberentertaineduswithhismodestrecapofhiscareer.Hesoneofushistrueloveofbuildingenginesanyenginepropelledhimtoacareerofgreatness.Robertstayedthroughouttheeveningtalkingandreminiscingabouthispast.continuedNEWSFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFNearly200AERAmembersandindustryfriendscelebrateAERAs90thAnniversaryatIMIS engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP11FormerAERAChairmenoftheBoardinattendancewerefromlefttorightfrontrowGeorgeSotskyDennisTerrillTomLipschultzScottWichlaczMikeEighmybackrowDwayneDugascurrentChairmanJohnDeBatesEddieBrowderRichardHartmannMikeSchaeferDomingoGonzales.LEFTKeynoteSpeakerRobertYatesmiddlewithAERAPresidentPaulHauglieandhiswifeJennifer.ABOVEOurfriendsfromRottlerpicturedlefttorightfrontrowEdKieblerSalesManagerSaraGrimSalesMarketingAdminMartyMerzRottlerRepbackrowCraigWhitmanLeadServiceTechnicianandAERATechSpecialistMikeCaruso.LEFTAERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenrightwithScooterBrothersofCompCamsandSEMA. 12JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalNEWSFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFInadditiontoeveryonesenjoymentwhatatreatitwasfortheninestudentsfromNorthwestTechnicalCollegeinBemidjiMinnesotawhoRobertYateschosetositwithduringdinner.Thestoriesthoseyoungenginebuilderswillhaveforlifewillbepriceless.SpecialthankstoRobertforsharinghistimeandstorieswithus.Ittrulywasatreat.ThroughouttheeveningweprojectedahistoricalslideshowcreatedbyMariaBeyerstedtandmyself.ThispresentationreflectedonAERAs90yearsofsuccess.OldphotosfromourbeginningsthroughphotosofourmanytradeshowspastandcurrentstaffmembersBoardofDirectorsalongwithphotosofourcurrentTechSkillsConferencesmadeforanenjoyablereflectiveevent.Afterthepartyclosedmanyofuscarriedonwitholdfriendsatthelocalestablishments.Goodtimeswitholdfriendscantbebeat.Infactmanyofusthoughtitwouldbenicetohaveoneofthesepartiesannuallywishfulthinkingbutperhapssometypeofannualeventispossible.IfyouhaventheardtheshownewsbynowSEMAwhorecentlypurchasedthePRITradeShowandtheIMISTradeShowhasannouncedthattheywilleliminatetheIMISShowandmovethePRITradeShowtotheIndianapolisConventionCenterinIndianapolisIndianaDecember12-142013.Thisisgreatnewsformostexhibitorswhohadstretchedbudgetstomaketheseback-to-backshowshappen.Nowonemajorhardcoreperformanceshowwillmakeiteasierforattendeesandexhibitorsalike.AlsoimportanttonoteAERAssponsoredEngineRoomtechnicalpresentationsthatwehadatIMISweresowellreceivedthatwearecurrentlyworkingwithPRIshowstafftohelp engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP13 14JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalNEWSFROMTHEEDITORBYJIMRICKOFFfacilitatethesesameprograms.Illreportmoreonthisasdetailsbecomeavailable.WhatIcanreportonwithsomedetailarethesixTechSkillsConferencesthatwehavescheduledfor2013seesidebar.Inadditionwehaveafewmoreconferencesthatwillformalizeinthenearfutureandwellkeepyoupostedontheirprogresstoo.AERAsRegionalTechSkillsConferenceshostedbyassociatemembersacrossthecountryhavebecomeagreathitwithactivememberslookingfortechnicalinformation.Inadditiontheyhelpmembersnetworkwithothershopsandsuppliersmoreeasilyaswespreadthemacrossthecountryhopefullymakingtravelalittleeasierforattendees.Hostsalsolovetheconceptwhichhelpsbringscustomerstogetherandshowcasestheirproductsandservicesforawin-winsituation.IJimRickoffistheEditorofEngineProfessionalmagazineandAERAsmarketingconsultant.Ifyouhaveanyquestionscommentsorconcernscall507-457-8975ore-mailjimrickoffgmail.com.SavetheDateAPRIL13DeANZACOLLEGEAUTOTECHCupertinoCAMAY16MAHLE-CLEVITEANDDRIVENRACINGOILRichardChildressRacingWelcomeNCJUNE8LIBERTYENGINEPARTSPittsburghPAJUNE22NATIONALPERFORMANCEWAREHOUSELosAngelesCASEPTEMBER18-19AERAANDPERAAERMfg.Inc.CarrolltonTXSEPTEMBER27ROTTLERMFG.KentWAOCTOBER9PARTSWAREHOUSESUPPLYKansasCityMOTBASUNNENANDDARTMacombCommunityCollegeWarrenMICONFERENCEHOSTINGOPPORTUNITIESIfyouareinterestedinhostingaconferencenextyearpleasecontactJimRickoffat507-457-8975oremailjimrickoffgmail.com. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP15H607-ENFPFax973-334-5387COMMERCIALACCOUNTSCALL866-902-0662SUPERfastSHIPPING98fillrateCALLFORAFREECATALOGCARTRUCKINDUSTRIAL866-902-0662PACKARDINDUSTRIESYOURONESTOPSOURCEFORVINTAGENEWERPARTS1920s-1980sYOURONESTOPSOURCEFORVINTAGENEWERPARTS1920s-1980sANDANDH607-ENFPFindenginespecsfastandeasyPRO-SISSAENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWAREGIVESYOUACCESSTONEARLY7000ENGINESPECIFICATIONSWITHJUSTACLICKOFYOURMOUSEPLUSYOUCANADDYOUROWNCUSTOMENGINEINFORMATIONTOTHEPRO-SISSADATABASE.SOBYTHETIMEITTAKESYOUTOFINDTHEMANUALWITHPRO-SISSAYOUVEALREADYFOUNDYOURSPECSANDAREBACKTOWORK...THATSAMONEY-MAKINGDIFFERENCEWWW.AERA.ORGPRO-SISTOLL-FREE888-326-2372815-526-7600500COVENTRYLANESTE180CRYSTALLAKEIL60014 16JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalGeneralMotorsannouncedtheproductionofits1500000thDuramax6.6LdieselengineatitsDMAXLtdJointventurewithIsuzuMotorsLtd.DMAXLtdwasestablishedin1998andGMintroducedtheDuramaxdieselintheUnitedStatesinits2001modelyear.AvailableinGMsChevroletSilveradoHDandGMCSierraHDpickupstheenginedeliversasegment-leading397horsepowerat3000rpmand765lb.-ft.oftorqueat1600rpm.TheDuramaxisalsoavailableinGMsfull-sizeChevroletExpressandGMCSavanavans.Theaward-winningDuramax6.6-literV-8isafour-valvehighpressurecommonraildirectinjectiondieselcurrentlyequippedwithadieselparticulatefiltertomeetcurrentstringentemissionsrequirements.OurDuramaxdieselisoneofthebestintheindustrysaidBettyWesselDMAXChiefFinancialOfficerDuramaxhasbecomeagreatsuccessstoryandisaworld-classenginewithsuperiorqualityindustry-leadinghorsepowerandcompetitivefueleconomy.ThemilestonedemonstratestheproductivityoftheemployeesandthejointpartnershipbetweenGMIsuzuandtheIUE-CWAsaidDMAXChiefExecutiveOfficerMahoMitsuya.ThisisasignificantachievementforourfacilityandouremployeeshereatDMAXMitsuyasaid.Werecommittedtobuildingqualityintoeveryenginewhetheritsourfirstorour1500000th.The584000squarefootDMAXfacilitycurrentlyemploys517people.Ongoingenginechangeshavemadethisengineoneofthecleanestandfuelefficientdieseltruckengines.ThecurrentDuramaxdieselnowrunscleanerwithNOxemissionsreducedbyatleast63percentthan2010.ThekeyisthenewSelectiveCatalyticReductionSCRafter-treatmentsystemthatusesurea-basedDieselExhaustFluidDEF.WhentheengineisrunningsmallamountsofDEFareinjectedintotheexhauststreamwhereitworkswithacatalysttoconvertNOxemissionsintowatervaporandnitrogen.EFishousedina5.3-gallontankwhichshouldlastabout5000milesdependingonthetypeofdrivingwiththefillpointlocatedunderthehoodandmarkedwithabluecap.GreaterHighwayFuelEconomyThe2012Duramaxdeliversupto11percentgreaterhighwayfueleconomythan2010models.Thenew36-gallonfueltankcombinedwiththesefueleconomyimprovementsenablesahighwaydrivingrangeofupto680miles.Severalimprovementsplayapartinthisimpressiveresult.TheyincludeAloweridlespeedreducedfrom720to640rpm.Optimizationofthecombustionandafter-treatmentsystemstoincreasemilesbetweenregenerationsoftheDieselParticulateFilter.Everyregenerationcycleusesabout0.7gallonoffuel.Thecycleinthe2012Duramaxhasbeenincreasedupto700milesfrom400onthe2010Duramaxcontributingtothegreatlyimprovedhighwaymileage.IDMAXbuilds1500000thDuramaxDieselEngineGMssegment-leading6.6Lpowertrainachievesheavy-dutymilestoneBYDAVEHAGENPHOTOGENERALMOTORSThe6.6LDuramaxengineisusedintheChevroletSilveradoHDandGMCSierraHDpickupsandChevroletExpressandGMCSavanacargovans.AERATechnicalSpecialistDaveHagenhasover41yearsofexperienceinourindustry.AsanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistDavespecializedincylinderheadworkandcompleteengineassemblyforthefirst17yearsofhiscareer. 18JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalUnderstandinghowthreadedfastenersfunctionandinstallingthemcorrectlyhasadirectbearingonachievingengineassemblyprecisionanddurability.Insteadofviewingboltsorstudsassimplyameanstoanendsecuringthingstogeth-erwhatwereallyneedtoconsideristheclampingforcethatresultsfromfastenertightening.Inamannerofspeakingmalethread-edfastenersboltstudscanbeviewedasactingsimilartorubberbands.Oncetheundersideoftheboltheadmakescontactwiththeparentsurfacetheheadcantenterthethreadedholesoadditionalrotationoftheboltheadcausestheboltshanktobegintostretch.Withregardtocriticalfastenerlocationssuchascylinderheadsmaincapsconnectingrodsetc.theobjectiveistoreachtheidealpointwherethisstretchprovidestheneededclampingforcetoproperlysecurethecomponentbeinginstalled.Whentight-enedproperlytospecificationthebolthasstretchedwithinitsdesignedelasticrange.Especiallyfortheafore-mentionedcriticalcomponentscylinderheadsmaincapsconnectingrodsthreadedfastenersserveamuchmoreimportantfunctioninadditiontosimplyattachingtheparts.Theimportantroleisthefastenersabilitytoprovidetheneededclampingforcetoinsurethenecessarystressandtomain-tainproperboregeometry.Whentheboltisloosenedtheboltshankmemoryelasticityallowsthebolttoreturntoitsnormaluninstalledlength.Thatswhywecanthinkofaboltorstudasarubberband.Iftheboltisunder-tightenedanddoesnotenteritsThreadedFastenersTORQUEVALUESCLAMPINGFORCESSTUDSvs.BOLTSANDTHREADTREATMENTSBYMIKEMAVRIGIAN engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP19elasticrangeitwontprovideenoughclampingforce.Ifover-tightenedbeyonditselasticrangetheboltcanenterityieldpointandcanpermanentlyweaken.Iftheresnoelasticitytheboltcantdoitsjobintermsofprovidingclampingforce.Itsjustsittingtherefillingahole.Takenastepfurtherifover-tightenedaboltcanshear.Welldelveintothisingreaterdetailbuthopefullyyougetthedrift.Boltorstuddiametersarebasedontheloadrequiredforcomponentclamp-ingperformance.Thatswhyboltsmaybeusedinonelocationand38boltsinanother.Asmaller-diameterboltrequireslesstorquevaluetoachieveidealclampingloadandalarger-diameterboltrequiresmoretorquevaluetoachieveidealclampingload.Althoughnotaper-fectanalogyyoucansomewhatviewthreadedfastenersasfuses.Thediame-terisbasedontherequirementforthespecificjobjustastheampratingofafuseisbasedontherequirementforaparticularcircuit.Takingadvantageofathreadedfas-tenersclampingloadpotentialisntamatterofguesswork.Especiallyforcriti-calfastenerssuchasanyinvolvedinthebrakesystemsteeringsystemsuspensionenginetransmissiondifferentialandwheelsallthreadedfastenersmustbetightenedtotheirspecific-applicationtorquevalue.Ifyoudontpayattentiontotorquevaluesitslikebuyingasetofpistonsandstickingthemintocylinderboreswithoutmeasuringoilclearanceorlikebuildingafrontsuspensionwithoutmeasuringanywheelangles.Itsadumbwaytogo.HOWMUCHTORQUEISNEEDEDWeneedtomodifyourthinkinginthisregard.Itmakesmoresensetoconsiderwhatloadisrequiredinstead.Afteralltorqueingtoaspecificvalueissimplyameanstoanend.Theloadistheimpor-tantfactor.Installationtorqueissimplyafactorthatneedstobeconsideredwhentryingtoachieveaspecificload.Whentorqueisappliedtoanutorboltheadmostoftheinputisspentinovercomingfriction.Attheendoftheprocess8595oftheenergytrans-ferredthroughthewrenchhasbeenlost.Inotherwordstheclamploaditselfmayonlyrepresent515ofyoureffortthisisagoodexampleofwhyusingastretchgaugetotightenrodboltsmakessomuchsense.Becauseofthisfrictionallossfactorslightvariationsinthefrictionalcondi-tionscanresultinhugechangesintheresultingpreload.Variablesincludesur-faceroughnesssurfacefinishlubricantloadrangereacheddimensionstempera-tureandtorqueingsequence.Asyoucanseeitsjustasimportanttoensureconsistentfrictionconditionsasitistoseekaconsistenttorque.Ifthedimensionsandsurfacefinisharefixedfactorsthepreloadtargetrangewilldependonthelubricantandthetighten-ingmethod.Thegreaterthefrictionthehigherthetorsionalstressinthefastenerbody.Sincetorsionisafunctionoftheimposedfric-tionagivenmaterialreachesitsyieldstrengthsoonerwhenthefrictionishighasopposedtolow.Duringtighteningtheapparentyieldstrengthdropsby1020fromtheyieldstrengthmeasuredintensile.Intakemanifoldleaksoilcoolantorvacuumarecommonmaladiesusuallycausedbyoneoftwothingsthedecksurfacesarenotflatandcleanortheboltswerenottightenedproperly.Alwaysuseacalibratedtorquewrenchtotighteneveryintakemanifoldboltfollowthecorrecttighteningpatternandcreepuponthefinaltorque.Makeseveralpassesinsteadofonepass.Forinstanceifthefinalspecifiedtorqueis28ft-lbstartwithonepassat10ft-lbanotherpassat16ft-lbandafinalpassat28ft-lb.Attheveryleastperformthejobwithtwopassesoneat15ft-lbandafinalat28ft-lb.Thegoalistoachievethespecifiedclampingforcebuttodothiswhileevenlydistributingtheloadtopreventmanifolddistortionandwarping. 20JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAsaconsequencewhenregularpre-loadsarerequiredgoodqualityengineoilsaresufficientforthreadwasherunder-nutandunder-headlubrication.Inadditiontherelativelyhigherfrictionwillpreventanylooseningundervibration.Ablackoxidefinishmayhelptoensureconsistentpreloadspastthemandatory36pre-tighteningproceduretobreak-inthematingsurfaces.Whenhigherloadsareneededtheinevitabletorsionstresscanbeminimizedbychoosingslickerthreads.Lessfrictionwillbringtheyieldpointupafewper-centallowingtheclampclosertoyield.Itwillalsoreducetheresidualtorsionthatispresentwhenthewrenchisreleased.CHOOSELUBESCAREFULLYWhenultra-slicklubesareusedtheyrequirehighpreloadtopreventbacking-offundervibration.Forthisreasonbeawareofundertorqueingandmakesurethatyourfastenerisnotlosingclampduringservicewhichcanresultfromcompressionofthematingpartorstretchingofthefastener.Alsobeabsolutelyconfidentinyourtorqueingprocedure.Slicklubeswillemphasizetheprecisionofanytorquewrench.TIGHTENINGSTEPSFORCYLINDERHEADSInordertooptimizeyourresultsfollow-ingarestepstoconsiderPressureshouldbewell-distributedalongthejointbeforesignificantload-ingisapplied.Towardsthisenditsrecommendedthatthefirsttighteningstepismadeat20-30ofthefinaldesiredtorquevalue.Thisshouldpre-ventlocalizeddamageduetoexcessivepressure.Inotherwordsperformthetighteningprocessinmultiplestepsratherthantighteningabolttothefinalvalueinonestep.Eachadditionaltighteningstepshouldguaranteebalancedandprogressiveloadings.Afterthefirstpreloadsteptrytokeepthetorquetargetsconsistentwiththeangleofturnneededtoreachthattorque.Forexamplethesecondstepcouldbeachievedinapproximate-lytwo60-degreeturnsandthelaststepinasingle90-degreeturn.Thiswillensuregoodrepeatability.Mostapplicationscanbeachievedinthreestepsbutmorestepscanbeusedifyouredealingwithagreatdealofcompression.Ifyouoptforamulti-stepproceduremakesurethatthestepsarenottooclosetoeachother.Staticfrictionismoredifficulttoovercomethandynamicfrictionwhichmeansthatifthestepsaretooclosetoeachotherthewrenchmightclickbeforeevenmovingthenutorbolthead.Inotherwordsdonttrystepsthatareonlyafewft-lbsapart.ALWAYSfollowthetighteningpatternorsequencethatsspecifiedforyourparticularheadsandblock.Ifyoureinabind2AMbeforearaceandyoudonthavethespecshandyitisgener-allyacceptedthatcylinderheadfasten-erswillbetightenedinaspiralpatternstartingatthecenterandgraduallyworkingoutboard.Asyourelookingatthetopofthecylinderheadvisual-izeaspiralpatternthatstartsatoneofthecenterfasteners.Thespiralwillintersecttheoppositerowcenterthenasthespiralwidensindiametereachsuccessivefastenerlocationistightened.ThatmaysoundconfusingatfirstbutifyoutakethetimetostudytheboltholelayoutoftheheadyoullbegintoseewhatImean.TORQUEPLATESAdetailedlookatthewhatwhyandwhereofthesestress-inducingcylindershapinghelpers.Torqueplatesalsocalleddeckplatesarethickslabsofmetalthatarefastenedtothedeckofacylinderblockduringthecylinderborehoningprocess.Adeckplateallowsyoutosimulateaninstalledcylinderheadwhichplacesthesamestressesintheblockastheblockwillexperiencewhenfullyassembled.ThereasonforthisEngineblocksdistortwhenassembled.Ablockmaylooklikeabigbeefychunkofironoralloybutastheseriousfastenersaretightenedtotheirrespectivevaluestheblockissub-jectedtodistortionalforcesthatyoumayhaveahardtimeimagining.Thisdistor-tionismostprominentlyseeninthecylin-derbores.Asthemaincapsandcylinderheadsareclampedontotheblockcylin-derboresaresubjecttoforcesthatcancreatetaperedbarrel-shapeandout-of-rounddimensionsinanotherwiseperfect-lyroundbore.Grantedsomeblockslighterthinner-wallblocksaremoresubjecttoboredistortionthanothersbuttheforcesthatcreateboredistortionarepresentinallassembledblocks.Ifablockscylinderboresareproperlyboredandhonedtheyareround.Howeverwhenwebegintoassembletheenginetighteningmaincapsandcylinderheadfastenerstotheirrequiredvaluesoneormorecylindersmaybegintodis-tort.Thismeansthatwhentheengineoperatesthepistonsandringsareforcedtodealwithtightspotsandloosespotsintheirbores.OnceyouunderstandthisitsnotdifficulttounderstandhowthiscancauseincreasedfrictionandwearaswellTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANDeckplatesalsocalledtorqueplatesorhoningplatesallowyoutoplacereal-worldstressesintheengineblocktosimulatetheinstalledcylinderhead.Thisallowscylinderborehoningtoobtainamoreprecisecreationofaroundanduniformbore. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP21 22JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANascompressionandoilblow-byandlossofpower.Evenwheretheseboredistor-tionsareextremelyminorandmightcausenonoticeableill-effectsinastreetengineitshouldbeobviousthataraceenginesimplywontperformtoitspoten-tialiftheringsarefightingandflutteringtheirwayhomeoneverystrokeofthecrank.Inordertotrytocompensateforthispotentialboredistortionweinstalladeckplatetotheblockdeck.Thistheo-reticallycreatesthesameblockdistortionthattheassembledenginewillsee.Withtheblockinthisstressedconditionwethenhonethecylinderstotheirfinaldimensionmaintainingaroundconsis-tentfromtoptobottomcylindricalcon-dition.PSwheninstallingadeckplateyoumayneedtoinstallausedalreadycrushedheadgasketsomedeckplatesrequirethiswhileothersdont.Itsalsobesttousethesamebrandandtypeofcylinderheadfastenersthatwillbeusedontheassembledengine.Andnaturallythedeckplatemustbetorquedinplacefollowingthesamevaluesandtighteningpatternrequiredforfinalcylinderheadinstallation.TORQUEPLATEFORBORINGWhilemanyenginebuildersthatuseplatesdedicatethemforthehoningoper-ationonlyitdoesinfactmakesensetostresstheblockduringtheboringprocessaswell.Thisistominimizethepotentialskippingofthehoningstonesifgrossdis-tortionispresent.Ifthecylindersarestressedduringboringthiswillhelptominimizethelaterworkthatthehoningmachinemustperforminordertocor-rectovercometheboredimensionaldis-tortion.Inshortifyouplantoboreandhoneandifyouplantouseadeckplateforhoningyoumaybenefitintermsofcylinderboreprofilebyalsousingtheplatefortheinitialboringphaseaswell.Itsimplymakessensetouseatorqueplatetostresstheblockforhoningandboringwheneverpossible.Yesthisrep-resentsaninvestmentforthemachineshopaveragecostisaround200-250orsoperplatebutifyouhoneacertaintypesofblockonaroutinebasisthecostcancertainlybejustified.Whenyouconsidertheaddedcostbothintermsofpurchasingthedeckplateandthetimeittakestoinstallityoushouldunderstandthatthemachineshopneedstopassthisaddedcostalongtoyouthecustomer.Iftheshopdoesntchargeafewextrabucksfortheuseofthedeckplatehesgivinghisinvestmentawayandthatsjustnotfairtotheshop.Sodontcomplainiftheshopchargesyouanextra10-30extraforthedeckplateuse.DontoperateundertheassumptionthatonlyX-brandorX-modelofblockdistortswhileY-brandorY-modeldoesnot.Thereisenoughdeviationincastingqualityandcastingmaterialrigidityamonganyfamilyofblockstowarrantconcernforboreshapeinanassembledstate.Youwouldntassumethatacylin-derissizedproperlywithoutmeasuringandyouwouldntassumethatavalveseatsproperlywithoutmakingtheappro-priatechecks.WhythenwouldyouassumethatthecylinderwouldntdistortwhentheheadisclampeddownIfitsoundslikeImpushinghardfortheuseofdeckplatesandthatisexactlythecase.Ifirmlybelieveintheiruseandofthebenefitsoftheendresult.Themoraluseemifyougotem.Whenusingadeckplateinthehoningprocesstoachievethefinishedsizeitsbesttoremovetheinitialcoupleofthou-sandthsthenallowthecylindertocoolastheheatbuildupmaypulltheboreintoabarrelshape.Oncethecylinderhascooledthenremovethefinal.0005-.001.Thiswillhelpyoutogetthemostbenefitofadeckplate.GASKETEDvs.NON-GASKETEDPLATESIntermsofstressapproachtherearetwotypesoftorqueplatesforuseonblocksthosethatrequiretheuseofacrushedheadgasketandthosethatdont.Whenagasketisusedonaflat-decksideplateanairgapiscreatedatthegasketfireringtosimulatethefulcrumeffectthatwillbeseenwhentheheadisattached.Forpro-ductionhigh-volumeusespecialdeckplatesthatdonotrequireheadgasketsaremadebyslightlyspot-facingthedeck-sideboltholes.Thissimulatesthefulcrumeffectallowingtheboltclampingforcetodrawdownattheboltholeareaswhichcreatesasimilareffectoftheloadsthatwouldbecreatedifagasketwasinplace.Basicallythegasketlessversionsareintendedforhigh-volumeproductionenginerebuilderswhodontwanttomesswithkeepingandusinganinventoryofheadgasketswhilethegasketedversionsarebettersuitedtothelow-volumesmallershopthatwantstosimulateascloselyaspossibletheloaddistributionthattheblockwillseewhenassembled.Alsocounterboredplatemodelsareavailablewherethetopsideboltholesarerecessedtocreateanobstruction-freetopsideforthoseshopswhatwanttomountaboringbarontopoftheplate.TORQUE-TO-YIELDUnderstandingthismethodofcylinderheadclampingOnceuponatimeitwascommonprac-ticetore-torquecylinderheadsafterini-tialuse.Thiswasnecessitatedbytheexpectedrelaxationofthecompressedheadgasketafterinitialclamping.Infartoomanyoftodaysmotorsthisproce-dureofre-torqueingsimplyisntpracticalduetotheextremelydifficultaccesstocylinderheadboltscausedbyanextremeovercrowdingoftheenginebay.Whileitsstilleasytoaccesstheheadboltsonacarburetedraceengineorrestoredmusclecaritsarealpaininthetimeclocktoperformthisserviceonalatemodelenginethatfeaturesdirectinjectionacumbersomeupperintakeplenumandamazeofwiringharnessesplumbingandvacuumhoses.Theengineeringanswertothiswastheadventofthetorque-to-yieldcylinderheadbolt.AsImentionedearlierwhenanyboltistightenedanythreadedboltorstudnotjustheadboltsitstretchesbydesign.Thisisreferredtoastheboltselasticity.Thisstretchcreatesclampingforce...themoretheboltstretchesthegreatertheclampingforcebecomes...toapoint.Whenthestretchenterstheboltsyieldpointthestretchingandthereforeitsclampingforcestopsandbeginstodiminish.Similartoarubberbandtheboltwillstretchtoapointretainingitselasticityandwillbeabletospringbackwhentensionisreleased.OnceitsstretchedtoSOURCESFORTORQUEPLATESIB-H-JProductsInc.NewarkCA510-797-6780www.bhjinc.comIGoodsonShopSuppliesWinonaMN800-533-8010www.goodson.comIPetersonMachineToolShawneeMissionKS800-255-6308ISunnenProductsCo.St.LouisMO800-325-3670www.sunnen.com engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP23Wheninstallingadeckplateforcylinderborehoningitsbesttoinstallausedcrushedheadgasket.Thismoreaccuratelysimulatesthefinalassemblyandthegasketservesasaspacertopreventanymetalpull-outaroundtheboltorstudholesfrominterferingwiththeprecisionmatingofthedeckplatetotheblockdeck.DeckplatepositionedontoaHondaraceblockpriortocylinderhoning.Thisblockwillusecylinderheadstudsduringfinalassemblysothesametypestudsareusedwhensecuringthedeckplate.Notethatsomedeckplatesaremadeofcastironwhileothersaremadeofaluminum.Itsbestwherepossibletouseadeckplatethatfeaturesthesametypeofmaterialthatisusedinthecylinderhead.Wheninstallingadeckplatethetighteningsequencepatternmustreplicatethatoftheintendedcylinderheadinstallation.Itsimportanttounderstandthatcylinderboregeometryisdirectlyaffectedbythestressesthatresultfrominstallingthecylinderheads.BELOWCleanhoningcoolantisconstantlysuppliedtocoolthestonesandcylinderwallsandtoflushmetaldebrisduringthehoningprocess. 24JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANitsyieldpointitstopsgeneratingtensionandbeyondthatpointwillbreak.Thesamephenomenontakesplacewheneveraboltistightened.Ideallywewanttostretchthebolttoapointjustshortofitsyield.Inthatwaywetakefulladvantageofitsclampingforcewithoutyieldingthebolt.Whenlooseneditwillspringbacktoitsoriginallengthretain-ingitselasticproperty.Atorque-to-yieldboltisdesignedtoprovidemaximumclampingloadonitsinitialtighteningsincewedontexpecttoreturntothejobbyre-torqueingtheboltsinordertoprovidemorecrushforanow-compressedheadgasket.WithaTTYboltwearriveatfulllongtermclamp-ingloadduringtheinitialtighteningprocess.WhenthegasketdoesrelaxtheTTYboltscontinuetoprovidesufficientclampingloadtomaintainadequategas-ketseal.TTYboltsaredesignedtobetight-enedwithinasmallwindowoftension...justshortofisyieldpoint.ThetorquespecforaTTYisgenerallyhigherthanthatofastandardheadboltanonTTYboltbecauseweretakingfulladvantageoftheTTYboltsdesignedelasticrange.IfaTTYboltwasusedinanolderenginebutusingoldnon-TTYtorquespecstheTTYboltprobablywontstretchenoughtoprovidetheclampingforcethatitscapableof.Thelikelyresultheadgasketleaksbecauseoflowclampingforce.LikewiseifnewTTYspecsinvolvingbothtorqueandboltangleareusedonnon-TTYboltschancesaregoodthatyoullstretchtheboltsbeyondtheirelasticrangeorbreaktheboltsordamagethefemalethreadedholesintheblock.InshortTTYboltsaredesignedtoprovidemorestoredenergy.Insimpletermstheyredesignedtostretchmoreprovidingalong-termclampingloadwithouttheneedtore-torque.MostTTYcylinderheadboltspecswillinvolvebothaninitialtorqueinft.lbs.ornewtonmetersplusaspecificdegreeofboltheadrotationthisiscalledtorqueplusangletightening.Regardlessofhowsillytheextrastepofangletight-eningmayseemtosomepeoplethereisalegitimatereasonforthisapproach.Sincetheboltengineerstheseguysunderstandboltstretchalotmorethanmostofusalreadyknowhowmuchstretchandthereforeclampingloadwilloccurbasedonhowfartheboltheadrotatestheyusetheangleofboltheadmovementtodetermineexactlyhowmuchloadisbeingexerted.Atorquespecalonecannotbeusedtoexactlydetermineboltstretchbecauseofthefrictionvariablesthatcomeintoplayduringtightening.Acertainamountoftorquelossiscausedbythefrictionoftheboltheadundersidetothecylinderheadcontactsurfaceandbythefrictionofthethreadengagement.Thetypeandamountofoillubricantonthethreadsprovidesyetanothervariableintermsoffriction.Dependingonhowsmoothandburr-freetheboltheadcontactareaisandonhowsmoothanduninterruptedthethreadsareonboththeboltandthefemalethreadedholeatorquereadingalonereallycantprovideaccurateandconsistentclampingloadinformation.Theresistancecausedbyboltheadorthreadfrictionisreadbyatorquewrenchinthesamewayboltstretchisread...itsallresistancetomovement.Ifenoughfric-tioniscreatedbythesevariablesaread-ingof40ft.lbs.onatorquewrenchmayinrealityonlyprovidetheequivalentofmaybe20ft.lbs.thatactuallyworkstostretchthebolt.Andiftheboltwasdesignedtostretchtoitsjust-short-of-yieldpointatatrue40ft.lbs.thisinade-quateboltstretchwillmeaninsufficientclampingloadonthegasketwhichmeansaprobablegasketleakorfailuredowntheroad.SoalthoughsomeofusmaynotliketodealwithTTYtorqueandanglespecswereallydonthaveachoice.Thatsthewayitis.SHOULDTTYBOLTSBEREUSEDThisisanissuethatwillstirdebate.ATTYboltisdesignedtostretchtoapointimmediatelypriortoitsyieldpoint.Onthatbasisitistheoreticallypossibletoreusethem.SomecarmakersclaimthatitsOKtoreuseTTYboltsaspecificnumberoftimes.Howeverthatrecom-mendationisbasedontheassumptionthateachbolthasbeenproperlytightenedinthepast.SinceyouhavenowayofknowingifaTTYbolthasbeenimprop-erlytightenedperhapspastitsyieldthesafestcourseofactionistoalwaysusenewTTYboltsineverysingleapplica-tion.ThisrecommendationisalsomadebytheleadinggasketmakersincludingFel-ProandVictor-Reinz.InfactFel-ProhasreleasedanumberoftechbulletinsonthisverysubjectemphasizingtheneedtoreplaceTTYboltsineverycaserefertoFel-Probulletins4522-914774-934904Sand5052-96aswellasPerfectCirclesMachineShopServiceBulletinCH-7.Consideringthecostoftheboltsitsacheapinsurancepolicytoprotectacostlyenginerebuild.TIGHTENINGTORQUE-TO-YIELDBOLTSWhentighteningaTTYboltyouwillinvariablyhavetomeetbothatorqueandanglepublishedspec.Forinstancetheboltspecmaydictatethattheboltistorquedto45ft.lbs.thentightenedfur-therbydegreesofboltheadrotationletsAswithcylinderheadsalwaysfollowthecorrecttighteningsequencewheninstallingtheengineblocksmaincaps.Correcttighteningvalueandanevendistributionoftheclampingloadcandirectlyaffectmainboregeometry.Improperly-tightenedmaincapfastenerscanresultinmainboredistortionwhichinturnwillaffectmainbearingclearances. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP25 26JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalsay45-degrees.Someboltspecsmayaskyoutoreachaninitialtorquefollowedbyseveralstepsofrotation20-degreesfollowedby20-degreesfollowedby10-degreesforexample.Inordertoapplyaspecifiedtorqueobviouslyyoullneedtouseatorquewrenchneedletypeorclicktype.Inordertotightentheboltfurtherbyangleyoullneedananglemeter.Theseareavailableasseparateunitsthatareattachedtothewrench.Theyfeatureindexableneedlesandprovideameansofholdingthemeterbaseinpositionsothatonlyhalfofthemetermoves...eithertheneedleorthemeterscale.Thishold-downmaybeintheformofamechanicalstopbuiltintothemeteroraremotecablesecuredtoaconvenientlocationonthecylinderheadviaaclampormagnet.SomeofthesearejunkandsomeareverygoodLisleCorp.makesonethatIlikeverymuch.Onthegoodsidetheyreveryinexpensivesoyoucanaffordtotryafewoutinordertosettleononeyoulike.ALLABOUTTORQUEWRENCHESAtorquewrenchmeasurestheamountofturningforceappliedtoathreadedfas-tenernutorbolt.Torquewrenchscalesusuallyreadinfoot-poundsft-lborinch-poundsin-lb.andNewton-metersNm.Whenusingthefoot-poundscaleonefoot-poundequalsonepoundofpullononefoot-longleverarm.Therearethreebasictypesoftorquewrenchescommonlyusedforautomotiveusetheflexbarthedialindicatorandthesoundindicatingtypes.Theflexbartypealsocalledthescaletypeorbeamtypefeaturesastationaryneedlethatrunsthelengthoftheshafthandle.Theneedleindicatesappliedtorqueagainstaprintedscalethatslocatedatthebaseofthehandle.Thistypeoftorquewrenchoffersnopre-setlimitandthereisnofeltoraudiblereleasewhenaspecifictorquevalueisreached.Thedialindicatortypefeaturesadialindicatorreadoutforvisualdisplay.Boththeflexbaranddialindicatortypespro-videvisualdisplaysofappliedtorque.Thesoundindicatingtypewillsignalappliedtorquebymomentarilyreleasingthewrenchafewdegreeswhenthepresettorquevalueisreached.Thereleaseisusuallyaccompaniedbyaclicksound.Howevertherearesomerelease-typetorquewrenchesthatwillreleaseuponreachingthepresettorquebutmaynotprovideanaudibleclick.Thereleaseclicktypewrenchisadjustedbymeansofamicrometerscaleonthehandle.Ifthetorquewrenchreleasesmomen-tarilyandorclicksthisisreferredtoasasignaltype.Theindicatortypereferstothevisualdisplayunitssuchastheflexbarordialindicatorstyle.Admittedlythiscanbesomewhatconfusingsincetherearesomanydiffer-enttypesavailablesomeuseaflexbarwithnoreleasesomeuseadialindicatorwithnoreleasesomeuseaclicksignalsomeuseasilentreleaseetc..Someindi-catormodelsfeatureamemorypointerthatremainsatthemaximumreadinguntilmanuallyreset.Torquewrenchesaredesignedtoper-mitanoperatortodetermineappliedtorqueonathreadedfastener.Theymeas-uretorqueinounce-inchespound-inchesandpoundfeetinadditiontometricscales.Regardingfoot-poundmeasure-mentssomesourceswillusethetermpound-feetwhileothersusethetermfoot-pounds.Thetwotermsareinterchange-able.MetricscaletorquewrenchesareavailableinNewtonmetersNmmeterkilogramsmKgandcentimeterkilo-gramscmKgwithNmthemorecom-monscale.Manytorquewrenchespro-videdualscalesforreadingineitherEnglishormetricformats.Anyadjustabletorquewrenchthecommonlyusedmicrometer-handledclicktypeforexampleshouldbesetatitslow-esttorquereadingwhennotinuse.Thisissomethingthatmanytechnicianscom-monlyforget.Ifleftstoredatahigh-torquesettingthecalibrationmaybeaffectedoveralongterm.Whenyouredonewiththewrenchreadjustittotheminimumsettingbeforestoringitinthetoolbox.Neverabuseatorquewrench.ItsdesignedasaprecisioninstrumentandshouldNEVERbeusedasaprybarorasadisassemblyassemblytool.Handleallofyourwrenchingdutieswithcommonwrenchesandonlyusethetorquewrenchasthefinal-adjustertoreachaspecifictorquelevel.Dontuseitasyourall-aroundwrench.Whenusinganadjustabletorquewrenchbecarefulnottoover-tightenbyapplyingtorquepastthereleasepoint.Atverylowsettingstheclickmaynotbeheardespeciallyinanoisyshop.Itsbesttobecomefamiliarwiththefeelofthereleaseratherthanrelyingonthesoundofaclick.Whenusinganindicatingtypetorquewrenchsuchasaflexbarordialindica-tortypetrytoreadtheindicatorwhileviewingitat90-degreestoitssurface.THREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANWheneverusingatorquewrenchsupportthewrenchheadwithyourhandinordertopreventunwantedanglemisalignment.Thisisespeciallyimportantwhenusingsocketwrenchextensions. 2013ElginIndustries.Allrightsreserved.ElginRanksAmongFastestGrowingSuppliersFEEDYOURENGINESWITHELGINSWORLD-CLASSCAMSHAFTANDVALVETECHNOLOGIESAskaboutourBLACKICESuper-CryogenicTemperingTechnologyElginCamshaftsMusclecarcamswithoriginalgrindsFullHemiLS1coverageRollercamsforFordGMenginesElginValvesStockStandard.015oversizePerformance-Forged21-4Nmaterialwithhardwafertip-Straightundercutdesigns-Standard.100lengths-ChromestemsFEEOURENGINYESWHELGISWOLD-SSengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP27 28JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalReadingtheindicatoratananglewillprovideerrorsduetolineofsight.Mosttorquewrenchesoperateaccu-ratelyonlywhenheldbytheirhandlegrips.Dontusecheaterbarstoextendyourgripfurtherawayfromthewrenchheadanddontgrabthehandleclosertothewrenchhead.Onlygripthewrenchbyitsdesignatedgriparea.Anybusyshopshouldplantohavetheirtorquewrenchesrecalibratedonceeachyearataminimum.Alsoanytimeatorquewrenchhasbeendroppeditshouldberecheckedforcalibration.Thisisaprocedurethatmanyshopsignoreprimarilybecausetheyrenotremindedoftheimportanceofthischeck.Torquewrenchesaredelicateprecisionpiecesandtheysimplywillnotremaininperfecttunewithoutcareandroutinemainte-nance.RECALIBRATINGTORQUEWRENCHESAnimportantprocedurethatstoooftenoverlookedWhenwasthelasttimeyousentoneofyourtorquewrenchesoutforarecalibra-tionserviceIftheresponsetothisques-tionisWhatyouneedtoreadthefol-lowinginfo.Torquewrenchesbyvirtueoftheenvironmentinwhichtheyoperatecanbesubjectedtoagreatdealofwear.Whenusedinanenginerebuildingshopthatlivesandbreathesprecisiontorquevaluesthiswearlevelisatitszenitheveninthebest-intentionedhands.Surprisinglydroppingatorquewrenchontotheshopfloormaynotcauseasmuchcalibrationdamageasyoumightthink.Withthatsaidweneedtostronglyemphasizetheneedtotreatanytorquewrenchwithgreatcare.Whileitscertain-lynotrecommendedtotossthisprecisioninstrumentaroundtheshoplikeasoccerballanoccasionaloopsmaynotcauseseverecalibrationchangesweusethetermmaybecauseitsalwayspossibleforanyhardimpacttodamagethetool.Ifabusedbadlysuchasusingthetorquewrenchasahammeretc.thewrenchcanbeinternallydamagediftheimpactforceissevereenough.Thebottomlinedontbandthethingaround.Treatitaccordingtowhatitisaprecisioninstrumentthatdeservesrespectandcare.Themostcompellingreasontosendyourtorquewrenchesoutforrecalibra-tionincludelifecycleandover-torqueing.Ifthetorquewrenchisusedonaveryoccasionalbasisbyahobbyistsay5timesperyearthewrenchprobablymayrequirerecalibrationeverytenyearsorso.Ifhoweverthetorquewrenchisusedonaregularbasisinaprofessionalshoptheoperatingcyclesincreasedramatically.Thinkaboutitifyoutorque32cylinderheadbolts10maincapbolts16con-nectingrodboltsand16intakemanifoldboltsperenginethatsaminimumof74cyclesofuseperengine.Ifyoutorquethemaincapstwiceonceforalignhoningandonceforassemblytorquetherodcapstwiceonceforreconditioningandonceforassemblythatraisesthenum-beroftorquewrenchcyclestoamini-mumof100perengine.Thatnumberwillriseevenhigherifyoudealwith4-boltmaincapsandevenhigherifyouperformacompletepre-assemblyinaddi-tiontofinalassembly.Ifyouworkontwoenginesperweekthatmeansthatyourtorquewrenchexperiencessome-whereintheneighborhoodofatleast800cyclespermonthwhichequalsaround9600cyclesperyear.Ifyourebuildagreaternumberofenginesandwhenyouadd-intheothermiscellaneoustorqueingapplicationsoilpumpwaterpumpexhaustmanifoldsrepairingshopequip-mentetc.evenasmallshopcaneasilyrunover12000to20000cyclesperyear.Thepointisthatthecalibrationofthetorquewrenchhasafinitelifespan.Theinitialcalibrationsettingwontlastforeverandastheuseofthetorquewrenchincreasesthelifeexpectancyoftheoriginalcalibrationdecreasespropor-tionately.Whiletherearenostrictguide-linesthatcanbeusedacrosstheboardaroutineofrecalibrationshouldbeestab-lishedforanyworkingshopstorquewrenches.Ifnotusedproperlycalibrationcanbeaffectedpossiblyresultinginover-torquestretchedcylinderheadboltsorstrippedboltholesintheblocketc.inadequatetorqueoruneventorque.Rememberwhentighteningacylinderheadsfastenersunevenorexcessiveboltstretchcanresultinunevenorinadequateclamping.Thisunevenclampingforcecanleadtocylinderheadwarpagecoolantleakscombustionleaksandevencylinderheadcracking..Torquewrenchmanufacturerscom-monlyseedamagedtorquewrenchesthatarereturnedforrepairservicewithbro-kenhandles.Thisisaclearindicationthattheseprecisioninstrumentsarenotbeinghandledwiththecarethattheyrequire.Ifexternaldamagesuchasabrokenhandleiscommonitssafetoassumethatitsalsocommonforthetoolstobeusedinappropriatelyaswell.Grantedenginebuildersasaruletreattheirtoolswithamuchhigherlevelofrespectandcarethanwouldoccurinatireshoporgeneralservicegaragebutintheheatofthedayaccidentscanhappenwhichcanleadtotoolabuse.Whenusinganystyleoftorquewrenchitiscriticaltostopassoonasthedesiredtorquevalueisachieved.Inthecaseofaclicktypetorquewrenchyoumuststopapplyingforcethemomenttheclickisheardfelt.Onaveragethetypicalusertendstostoptoolateachievingabouta10increaseintorque.Onacriticalapplicationsuchasengineassem-blythiscancreatearealproblem.Forexampleifthespecifiedvalueis110ft-lbsandtheoperatorcontinuallyexceedsthestopsignaltheapplicationcouldexperience121ft-lbsormoreandofteninanunevenformatwhendealingwithmultiplefastenersonthesamecompo-nent.Itmaynotseemlikemuchofaproblematfirstbutunevenorexcessivetorqueingcanoccurevenwhenatorquewrenchisusedifthetoolisusedimprop-erly.Whenyouuseaclick-typemicrometerstyletorquewrenchyouredealingwithamechanismthatfeaturesaninternalspring.Thisspringispre-loadedviaascrewadjustmentwhenthewrenchisfirstassembledandcalibrated.Whenyoufeelorheartheclickyoureworkingagainstthespringandacammechanism.Whenyouapplyaselectedleveloftorquethecamover-centersabitasthewrenchispulledtotheselectedvalue.Theheartandsoulofthistypeoftorquewrenchisthespringmechanismandtheamountofpreloadonthespringcanchangeovertime.Ifthedeviceisover-torquedpasttheselectedsettingthisabusesthespringandwilldefinitelycauseanout-of-calibrationproblem.Bythewayafterusinganadjustable-settingtorquewrenchalwaysbackthesettingofftothelowsideinordertoremoveexcessivepre-loadfromtheinter-nalspring.Thiswillgreatlyextendthelifeofthespring.Makeahabitofback-ingtheadjusterdowntoalowsettingbeforeyoustorethetoolinyourboxorcabinet.Everytimeyouclickatorquewrenchthatclickrepresentsonecycleofuse.Alltorquewrenchesprobablyneedtoberecalibratedoratleastre-testedafter5000cyclesalthoughsomemanufactur-ersrecommendrecalibrationafterasmanyas10000cycles.Granted5000cyclesmayseemlikeanextraordinaryamountbutaswementionedearlierthatTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIAN engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP29 30JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANlevelofusecaneasilyoccurinlessthansixmonthsuseinamachineshop.Mosttorquewrenchmanufacturersrecommendthattheirproductsshouldberecalibratedatleastonceeachyearundernormaluse.Howevertorquewrenchoperationinabusyenginerebuildingfacilityhardlyqualifiesasnormaluse.Evenifthetorquewrenchisnotexter-nallydamagedwearcantakeitstollbecauseofmultiplemovinginternalcom-ponents.Itseasytounderstandhowafewthousandthsofaninchofwearcancausedramaticcalibrationchanges.Anotheraspectoftorquewrenchusethatcanseriouslyaffectcalibrationisbio-directionaluseusingatorquewrenchinacounterclockwisedirectioninadditiontoclockwiserotation.Whenapplyingleft-handforcethroughatorquewrenchyourefightingalosingbattlebecauseeverythingisstressedinternallytobiastherighthandside.Onceyouforcethetorquewrenchintheoppositedirectionyouremakingitdosomethingitwasntintendedtodo.Thisleft-handapplicationofforcemustovercomethebuilt-inright-handstressmovingitpastneutraltowardstheleft.Calibrationonthelefthandsidecanbeseverelyoutofspecifica-tion.Theresultisthatyounotonlypotentiallydamagetheright-handcalibra-tionbutyoualsoarriveatanunknowntorquevaluewhenapplyingleft-handforce.Ifyourequireleft-handoperationthiscanbespecifiedwhenorderingatorquewrenchorwhenoneisbeingrecalibrated.Ifcalibratedforleft-handpullsthesamewrenchcanalsothenbeusedforrighthandpulls.Ifyourshopperformsleft-handtorqueingonafairlyroutinebasisitsbesttodedicatethattorquewrenchasyourleft-handdeviceandlabelitaccordinglyalthoughIdontseethisasacommonrequirementfortheaverageengineshop.Bythewayifaratchettypetorquewrenchisdamagediftheratchetingmechanismbreaksitisacertaintythatthewrenchisalsooutofcalibrationandmustbeservicedaccordingly.Neverattempttorepairanytorquewrenchonyourown.Inallcasesthetoolmustbesenttoaspecialtyserviceshopthewrenchmanufactureroranindependentrepairfacilitythatisapprovedbythemanufacturer.IsrecalibrationrequiredforalltypesoftorquewrenchesTheanswerisaresoundingyes.Regardlessofthedesignbeamtypemicrometer-adjustingclick-releasetypeordialtypetheyallfeaturemovingcomponentsthatcanwearout.Agreatmisconceptionwithregardtotorquewrenchesrelatestotheratchetingfeatureoftheclick-typeversion.SomeuserscommonlybelievethatthetoolisaratchetingwrenchthatalsomeasurestorquevalueAsaresultsomeuserstendtousethetorquewrenchtoinstallaswellasfinal-tightenafastener.Inrealitythetorquewrenchshouldneverbeusedtoinstallafastener.Theboltornutshouldbeinstalledtoinitialclampingforcewithaconventionalwrenchfixedwrenchorratchetandsocketandfinal-tightenedtovalueusingthetorquewrench.Dontbefooledbytheconvenienceoftheratchet-ingfeature.Onlyuseatorquewrenchtoperformthefinaltightening.Thiswillhelptosavetheinternalmechanismsandthecalibrationsettingswhichwillextendthelifeofthetorquewrench.PICKTHERIGHTTOOLFORTHEJOBAlltorquewrenchesarenotuniversallyadaptabletoalljobs.Itsimportanttochooseatorquewrenchthatfeaturesyourtorquevaluerequirementinthemid-dleofitsrange.Forinstanceifyouneedtotightenafastenerto100ft-lbsdontuseatorquewrenchmodelthathasanupperrangelimitof100ft-lbs.Insteaduseonethatfeaturesarangeofsay25250ft-lbs.Iftighteningafastenerto50ft-lbsuseatorquewrenchthathasanupperlimitofabout100ft-lbsetc.Generallyspeakingtorquewrenchesper-formattheirmostaccuratelevelwhentheapplicationisinthemid-rangeareaofthewrenchscalibrationspectrum.Asaresultyoumayneedmorethanonerangeoftorquewrenchforyourtoolinventorydependingonthetypeofworkthatentersyourshop.Obviouslyyouneedtoachievebothft-lbsandin-lbsreadingswhichrequiresseparatetorquewrenches.Howeverevenwhendealingintheft-lbformatmultipletorquewrenchesshouldbeused.Forinstancewhentorqueingconnectingrodboltsletsuse45ft-lbsasasampleaverageyoushoulduseatorquewrenchthathasamaximumrangeofsay100ft-lbsinordertousethemiddleoftherange.Whentorque-ingmaincapboltsletsuse110ft-lbsasoursampleyoushoulduseatorquewrenchthatfeaturesa200or250ft-lbmaximumrange.Tosometechniciansthismayseemlikeagreatdealofbotherbutifyouusetorquewrenchesatallthewholepointistoattainaccuratearepeat-ableclampingvalues.Ifthatsyourgoalthengotheextramileandmaintainsev-eraltorquewrencheseachwithadiffer-entlow-to-highvaluerange.Inthatwayyourecoveredforwhateverjobenterstheshop.Examplesinclude-driveinarangeof5-50inlba-drivein30-200inlba38-drivein10-100ft-lb38-drivein50-250inlba38-drivein100-1000inlba-drivein10-150ft-lbanda-drivein25-250ft-lb.Ifyoualsoperformheavy-dutyengineworkortakeintheoccasionalhuboraxlejobyoumayneeda-drivewrenchin100-600ftlbs.Themoralofthestoryifyouonlyownonetorquewrenchthatyoutrytouseforawidevarietyofworkyouwillnotbeabletoachieveaccurateclampingloadsforalljobs.THEDONTSOFTORQUEWRENCHUSEDontuseatorquewrenchasageneral-servicewrenchtotightenorloosenfas-tenersorasapry-bar..Useitonlyforachievingfinaltorquevalues.Dontusearatchetingtypeordialtypetorquewrenchtoremovefastenersleft-handoperationcandamagecali-brationunlessthetorquewrenchhasbeenspecificallydesignedforleft-handoperation.Dontimmersethetorquewrenchinsolvent.Functionandcalibrationwillbeaffectediftheinternallubricantsarewashedaway.Dontapplyacheaterbartoatorquewrench.Thiscanoverstressthewrenchandcanleadtoinaccuratetorquereadings.Useofsocketextensionsarepermittedaslongastheextensionisnotposi-tionedatananglethatisdifferentfromthetorquewrenchdrive.Forexampletheuseofauniversaljointcancausethesockettooperateatananglerela-tivetothedrivewhichwillaffecttheaccuracyofthevaluereading.Useofawobble-typeextensionorU-jointwillcauseinaccuratevaluesifthedrivelineangleisalteredthelinefromthedriveheadtothefastener.Whentighteninganyfastenerstrytoholdthetorquewrenchin-planeasmuchaspossible.Dontpushthewrenchinwardtowardtheworkpieceorpulloutwardawayfromthework-pieceduringfinaltightening.Anyinwardoutwardpressurewilldramati-callyaffecttheresultingtorquevalue.Neverattempttoadjustatorquewrenchoutsideofitsintendedrange.Forexampleiftherangemaximumis100ft-lbsdonottrytoadjustthewrenchhigherandguesswhatthefinalvaluewouldbe.Forexamplea engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP31youtube.commellingenginepartstwitter.commellingselecttwitter.commellingpartsfacebook.commellingselectperformancefacebook.commellingenginepartsFormoreinformationvisitmelling.comorcall517-787-8172.QUALITYINALLWEDO.OILPUMPSSCREENSCamshaftsValveTrainSleevesTimingPlugsILPPREEmngsPlugEURDOIL..-UMEURDPLUGIT....-.EURECINDREorFmoeirooeofmriaotnivfoatovtimellin.octeco-.oralcl517-oca78781-72.88facebook.commellingselectperformancefacebook.commellingenginepartsfacebook.commellingselectperformancefacebook.commellingenginepartsyoutube.commellingengineparts.commellingselecttwitter.commellingpartstwitter.commellingselect.commellingparts 32JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANsmidgebeyondthe100ft-lbmarkona100-maxtorquewrenchdoesnotmeanthatyoureachieving105or110ft-lbs.Itonlymeansthatyoureoffinno-manslandplayingoneheckofaguessinggame.USEOFADAPTERSAslongastheadaptersocketextensionetc.isin-linewiththetorquewrenchdrivenocompensationisrequired.Howeverifanadapterisusedthateffec-tivelylengthensthewrenchisusedsuchasacrows-footwrenchacalculationmustbemadeinordertoachievethedesiredtorquevalue.Forthoseoccasionswhenastraightsocketcantbeusedaspecialattachmentmightbeneededsuchasacrowsfoot.Theuseofanoffsetadapterchangesthecalibrationofthetorquewrenchwhichmakesitnecessarytocalculatethecorrecttorquesettings.FollowingisamethodofcalculatingthischangeEEffectivelengthofextensionmeas-uredalongthecenterlineofthetorquewrench.LLeverlengthofthewrenchfromcenterofthewrenchdrivetothecenteroftheadaptersgripareaTWTorquesettingonthetorquewrenchTETorqueappliedbytheextensiontothefastenerFORMULASTWLdividedbyLExDESIREDTEwheretheadaptermakesthewrenchlongerorTWLdividedbyL-ExDESIREDTEwheretheadaptermakesthewrenchshorterIfyouwanttoknowwheretosetthetorquewrenchwhenusinganadapterthatalterstheeffectivelengthofthewrenchyoumustcalculatetocompen-satefortheadapter.Ifthedistancefromthewrenchdrivetothecenteroftheboltmakesthewrenchlongerthefinalwrenchsettingmustbeadjustedtoalowervalueinordertocompensate.Ifthedistancefromthewrenchdrivetotheboltcentermakesthewrenchshorterthewrenchmustbesettoahighervalueinordertocompensate.Letssaythatyouwanttotorqueaboltto140ft-lbsbutyoureusingacrowsfootadapter.Letssaythelengthofthetorquewrenchis12fromcenterofthehandletocenterofthedrive.Letsalsosaythatthecrowsfootisaimingawayfromthewrenchdrivemakingthedistancefromthecenterofthewrenchdrivetothecenterofthebolt1.Thismakesthewrench1longer.InthiscaseyouwoulddividethelengthofthetorquewrenchLfromthecenterofthehandletothecenterofthedrivebyLEthenmultiplythatratiobythedesiredvalue.Inthisexampletheformulawouldbeasfollows12121x1401213x140.923x140129Sointhiscasewherethecrowsfootadapterhasmadethetorquewrench1longerthewrenchwouldbesetatavalueof129ft-lbsinordertoactuallyachieveavalueof140ft-lbs.Ifthecrowsfootisaimedtowardsthehandleturned180-degreesfromthepriorexampleandwestillwanttoachieve140ft-lbsoftorqueweknowthattheadapterhasnowmadethewrenchshorterbecausethecenteroftheboltisnowclosertothecenterofthewrenchhandle1212-1x1401211x1401.0909x140152.7Sointhiscasewherewewanttoachieve140ft-lbsbutthewrenchhasbeenmade1shorterweadjustthewrenchtoasettingof152.7ft-lbsinordertoactuallyachievethedesired140ft-lbsoftorque.SUMMARYIftheadaptermakesthewrenchlongerwemustback-offontheadjustmentset-ting.Iftheadaptermakesthewrenchshorterwemustraisetheadjustmentonthesetting.RECALIBRATIONCOSTNoteveryrecalibrationserviceshopwillchargethesameamount.HoweverinordertogainaballparkideaofthiscostIcontactedthefolksatAngleRepairServiceapremiertorquewrenchrecali-brationandtestingfacilityinBeckleyWestVirginiathatsusedbyanumberoftheleadingwrenchmanufacturers.Theirtypicalrecalibrationfeeis25.Turn-aroundtimeisanastounding24-48hourswhichmeansthatforapaltry25yourtorquewrenchwillbebackinserv-iceinaheartbeat.Consideringthecostandtimeinvolvedtheresreallynoexcuseforignoringthiscriticalmainte-nanceprocedure.Itsaverygoodideatohaveyourtorquewrenchesrecalibratedonaregularbasisdependingonfrequen-cyofuseanditslevelofabuse.Dontwaitforthewrenchtostartexhibitingproblems.Rathersetuparoutineofshippingthewrenchoffforrecalibrationonaregularly-scheduledbasis.TIGHTENINGCONNECTINGRODBOLTSMEASURINGCONNECTINGRODBOLTSTRETCHPublishedtorquespecificationsasideraceenginebuildershavelongrealizedthatthecorrectapproachtotighteningconnectingrodboltsistostresstheboltsintotheirworkingrangeofstressbutnotbeyond.SinceOEMconnectingrodboltsmayvaryintermsoftheiridealtorquebyasmuchas10ft-lbsfrombatchtobatchduetovariationsinheattreatingandmaterialsiftheconcernistoarriveatbothpeakboltstrengthaswellasmain-tainingconcentricityoftherodbig-endtherodboltsshouldbemeasuredforstretchinsteadofsimplytighteninguntilthetorquewrenchhitsitsmark.InsimpletermsinordertomeasureboltstretchfirstmeasurethetotalrodboltlengthfromtheheadsurfacetotheTORQUEWRENCHSUPPLIERSREPAIRFACILITIESThisisasamplelistingandcertainlydoesnotincludeallsuppliersintheU.S.IAngleRepairServiceInc.BeckleyWVA304-253-5729www.anglerepair.comICentralToolsInc.CranstonRI401-467-8211800-866-5287IGaugeRepairServiceTorranceCA310-212-0912IK-DToolsLancasterPA717-898-6571800-866-5753IMacToolsColumbusOH614-755-7117ISnap-OnInc.KenoshaWI414-656-5530 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP33tipoftheshankintheboltsrelaxedstate.Thenmeasuretheboltagainafterthenuthasbeentightenedtovalue.Thedifferenceinlengthindicatestheamountofstretchtheboltexperiencesinitsinstalledstate.Forthemajorityofpro-ductionrodboltsstretchwilllikelybeinthe0.005to0.006range.Ifthestretchislesstheboltisprobablyexperiencingtoomuchfrictionthatispreventingtheproperstretchrequiringlubricantonthethreads.Ifstretchisexcessivetheboltmayhavebeenpulledbeyonditsyieldpointandisnolongerserviceable.Whileanoutsidemicrometermaybeusedtomeasuretherodboltlengththemostaccuratemethodistouseaspecialtyfixturethatisoutfittedwithadialindica-tor.ExcellentexamplesofthisgaugeincludeunitsfromGearHeadToolsARPandGoodsonShopSupplies.GearHeadsboltstretchgaugefeaturesaheat-treatedaluminumframewithaveryhandythumbholewithaspeciallymodifieddialindicatorwithsufficientspringtensiontoholdthegaugefirmlytotheendsoftherodbolt.Theindicatorcanberotatedforrightorlefthandoperationandtheloweranvilisadjustabletoaccommodatevariousboltlengths.GoodsonShopSuppliesalsooffersarodboltstretchgaugePNRBG-4featuringsphericalpointsforconsistentandrepeatableread-ingsandcanalsoberotatedforrightorlefthandoperation.AlsoARPoffersitsownboltstretchgaugePN100-9941designedwith0.0005incrementswithaheavyspringandballtips.Thereisadebateamongsomeenginebuildersregardingthevalidityofmeasur-ingrodboltstretchduetopotentialcom-pressionoftherodmaterialastherodcapisclampedtotherod.WhilethiscanoccurtheuseofastretchgaugeremainstheBESTpracticalmethodofaccuratelydeterminingboltload.Connectingrodboltscanbeviewedashigh-tensilesprings.Theboltmustbestretchedshortofitsyieldpointinorderforaccurateandmostimportantlyrepeatableclampingoftherodcaptotherod.Improperorunequalboltclampingforcecaneasilyresultinanon-roundrodbore.Stockorproductionrodboltstypi-callyofferatensilestrengthofapproxi-mately150000160000psi.Howeverduetovariancesinboltproductiontoler-ancescanbequiteextremewithpeakboltstretchoccurringanywherefromsay0.003to0.006.Iftheinstallerusesonlytorqueintheattempttoachieveboltstretchherunstheriskofunequalrodboltclampingloadsduetothepotentialinconsistenciesbetweenbolts.Highperformancerodboltsareman-ufacturedtomuchtightertensilestrengthtolerances.ARPforinstancecalculateseachandeveryrodboltforstretchandtheboltpackagesincludereferencedatatothateffect.TheinstructionsactuallyrecommendthataspecificamountofboltstretchshouldbeachievedoneachboltARPcites190000psiastheirnominalorbasetensileratingwithactualratingsmuchhigherinsomeapplications.HowcanunequalinadequaterodbolttightnessaffecttheconnectingrodbigendboreshapeLetsciteanexampleIfonetechnicianreconditionstheconnect-ingrodsusingtorquevaluealonetotight-entherodboltsandanothertechnicianwhoisresponsibleforfinalassemblyusestheboltstretchmethodthefinalresultcanbeout-of-roundbores.Thisisbecauseoffrictionalvariancesthatwillbeencountered.AsaresulttheassemblerusingthestretchmethodmayachieveaHighqualityperformanceaftermarketconnectingrodboltslikethisonefromARPfeatureadimpleateachendtoaccommodatetheuseofarodboltstretchgauge.Hereyouseethedimpleonthebolthead.Connectingrodboltsareprecisioncraftedtoprovidetheproperdiameterlengthandtensilestrengthrequiredforthisspecificapplication.NEVERsubstituteagenericboltforconnectingroduseNotethedimpleattheconnectingrodbolttip.Thesmoothly-chamferedsurfaceallowsprecisionfitofastretchgauge.Allhigh-qualityperformanceaftermarketconnectingrodboltsfeaturethesedimplesforthosebuilderswhopreferusingthestretchmethodduringrodbolttighteningasopposedtousingonlytorquemeasurement.LEFTNotehowthestretchgaugedialindicatorplungernestlesintotherodboltheaddimple.Thestretchgaugemustrestinthecenterofthedimplesinordertoobtainaccurateandrepeatablestretchreadings. 34JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANhigherclampingloadononeormoreboltsascomparedtotheloadsimposedwhentherodreconditionertorquedthenutswithoutregardtoactualboltstretch.Whenaboltistightenedwithdrythreadsasmuchas80ofthetorquecanbeexertedbecauseoffrictionasopposedtoboltstretch.Inahigh-volumeproductionrebuild-ingfacilitytechniciansmaynothavethetimetomeasureforboltstretch.Howeveraslower-pacedoperationthatisattemptingtoobtainmaximumaccuracyforaraceengineasanexampleisfarbetteroffusingthestretchmethodinsteadofrelyingonlyonthetorquemethod.Asetofconnectingrodboltsinstruc-tionsmaylistbothatorquevalueandastretchrangeeffectivelygivingyouachoiceofmethods.Yestighteningonlytoaspecifiedtorquevalueisquickerandmeasuringboltstretchrequiresmoretimebutthebestresultswillbeachievedbymeasuringboltstretch.Sounlessyoureinarushtakethetimetomeasurestretchtighteningeachrodbolttotherecommendedstretchrange.Itsallaboutthequestforprecision.FRICTIONFACTORIfaboltistightenedusingstraighttorqueyoumaynotnecessarilyachievethedesiredpre-loadduetothevariableoffriction.Sincewecantpredictthefric-tionallossmeasuringrodboltstretchprovidesthemostaccuratemethodofensuringthattheclampingloadswillbebothsufficientforthetaskandthateachpairofrodboltswillachieveEQUALloads.Boltstretchisgeneratedbyanumberoffactorsincludingtensilestrengthandmassthelengthoftheboltbeingstretched.Theeffectivediameteroftheboltcontributestothis.Forexampleletsconsidertwo38x1bolts.Onefea-turesa1-longshankwiththreadsonthefull1oftheshanklength.Theotherboltfeaturesofshanklengththatisfull-diameterandsmoothandonlyofthreadlengthatthetip.Theboltwithpartialthreadwillstretchlessbecausetheshankareabetweentheheadandnutengagementareahasathickercross-sec-tion.Thepartial-threadboltwillhavea.375diametershankwhiletheall-threadboltwillhaveonlya.324shankduetothesmallerrootdiameterinsidethethreadpath.ARPtociteoneexamplecalculatesthestretchnumberforeverybolt.Onthespecsheetthatisincludedwitheveryboltsetthisstretchgoalislistedinadditiontoatorquevaluebutthetorquevalueshouldbeusedasaguideonly.ARPdoesnotwanttheinstallertouseatorquevalueasthefinalindicationofboltstretchRathertheboltsshouldbeindi-viduallymeasuredforstretchtoassurethateachboltisinstalledatitsoptimumstrength.Whilewecannotcontrolthereactionoftheconnectingrodbasematerialatleastconsiderthepotentialcompressionoftheconnectingrodmaterialitselfdur-ingboltclamping.Astheboltistight-enedtheheadoftheboltwilltendtoembeditselfintotherodslightlycom-pressingthestockmaterialofthecon-nectingrodunderthebolthead.Productionrodsaretypicallysofterallowingtheheadoftherodbolttosinkintoroduntilthematerialundertheboltheadsworkhardensundercompres-sion.ARPrecommendsthattheboltstretchisbasedontheboltitselfandnotonthecompressionoftherodsincewecantaccuratelypredictwhattheroddoesinthisstate.Sincetoomanyvariablesexistintermsofrodboltsandconnectingrodswecantdrawanygeneralizedcon-clusionsregardingidealconnectingrodboltstretch.HowevertousetheChevysmallblock350asbutoneisolatedexampleARPtypicallylooksforaninstalledboltstretchof.0063.Sinceeachenginerodboltapplicationdifferswecannotassumethatidealboltstretchwouldbethesameforanygivenapplica-tion.SPECIALTORQUEANGLEWRENCHESThankstoadvancementsintechnologytorquewrenchesarenowavailablethatallowyoutoachievebothtorquevalueandappliedrotationanglewithouttheneedforaseparateanglegauge.OneexampleisSnap-OnsTechangleseriesofwrenches.Featuringsensorelectronicsanddigitalcontrolandreadoutyoucanpresetprogramthetorquevalueyouwantorbothtorquevalueandfinalappliedangledependingonyourneeds.Theelectroniccontrolallowsyoutoalsochoosebetweenin-lbft-lborNmplusangle.Aninternalgyroscopeprovidesthedesiredanglesensing.Hereshowitworksyouprogramthedesiredtorquevalueandtightenthefas-tener.Whenyoureachtheprogrammedtorquevaluethewrenchbeepsandvibrates.Thenifyouneedadditionalanglerotationyouprogramthedesiredangle.Whenyoucontinuetoapplypressureandreachtheprogrammedanglethewrenchagainbeepsandvibrates.ThePresetanglerangeis5to360degreeswitharesolutionof1degreeandaccuracyof-1degree.Unliketheuseofaseparateanglegaugewhereyoucantratchetwithananglegaugeyoumuststartandcontinuetheanglerotationinasteadyone-directionsweepthistoolallowsyoutoratchetwithoutlosingtheanglememory.Prettycool.TwomodelsrecurrentlyavailableincludingATECH2FR100withatorquerangeof5to100ft-lbandATECH3FR250withatorquerangeof12.5to250ft-lb.STUDSvs.BOLTSADVANTAGESOFUSINGENGINESTUDSANDSTUDINSTALLATIONUnderstandingtheadvantagesofusingstudsvs.boltsandtipsonachievingproperclampingloads.Infartoomanycasestheenginebuildersattentionfocusesonselectionofthepropercomponentsforaspecificraceenginebuilddeterminingproperclear-ancesintakeandexhaustvolumeandflowsurfacefinishesandprecisionassem-bly.Threadedfastenersthevitallinkthatsecureseverythingtogetherareoftentakenforgranted.Herewelldiscussavarietyofissuesandconcernsdirectlyrelatingtothemostimportantcompo-nentsofanyengine.studsandboltsandtheirhandling.MAINSTUDSForaperformanceapplicationstudsshouldbeusedwheneverpossibleinsteadofmaincapboltsinthoseinstanceswhereachoiceisavailable.Studsprovidetheabilitytoobtainmuchmoreaccuratetorquevaluesbecausethestudsdonttwistduringtighteningasdobolts.Becausethestudsremainstationarydur-ingnuttighteningthestudsstretchinoneaxisaloneprovidingmuchmoreevenandaccurateclampingforces.Alsobecausetheuseofstudsresultsinlessforceappliedtotheblocksthreadsthisextendsthelifeofthethreadedholesintheblock.Thisisespeciallyimportantwhendealingwithalloyblocks.Theuseofstudsalsoeasesmaincapinstallationandcontributestomaincapalignment.Thereislesschanceofmaincapwalkingbecausethestudsremainstationarydur-ingcapclamping. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP35TOLLFREE800.648.7970CheckoutthefullselectionofSilv-O-LiteandKBHighPerformancePistonsatwww.uempistons.comCallusoremailusatsalesuempistons.comforapersonalresponseabouthowUEMpistonscanmakeyourbuildssuccessful.ReinforcedtoplandsCoatedskirtsFloatingwristpinswhereapplicableApplicationspecificaluminumalloysDiamondfinishedskirtsPinholeaccurateto-.0001Morethan485OEreplacementpistons.AsNorthAmericaslargestpistonmanufacturerUEMhasyourpiston.OurprocessesandequipmentfeaturethelatesttechnologyforbothOEreplacementandhigh-performancepistonsforeverytypeofengineyouarebuilding.Wehavebeenmanufacturingaftermarketpistonsforautomotivelighttruckpopularimportandheavydutyapplicationssince1922.390HypereutecticalloyFullymachinedcrownsandvalvereliefsDrilledoildrainbacksFullfloatingwristpinsTriplewoundspirallocksOver190differentoversizepartnumbersReflectivealloyallows2powerincreaseApplicationsavailablewith564thand116thringpacks.VastassortmentofcompressionratiosavailableindishflattopanddomestylesQuenchdometechnologyminimizesdeteriorationZerodeckquenchdesignsLightweightwristpinsavailableinmostapplicationsAllpartnumbersavailableinkitswithringsKBHighPerformancePistonsSilv-O-LiteOEReplacementPistonsBOTHICONSERIESFEATUREOver100applicationsontheshelfOver360differentpartnumberoversizesAvailableinkitswithringsICONFHRForgedHeadReliefPISTONSPremium4032alloySecondlandaccumulatorgroovesToplandminigroovetechnologyDiamondfinishedskirtsTriplewoundspirallocksSpacerringsincludedinshortcompressionheightsthatintersectthewristpinboreICONPREMIUMFORGEDPISTONSPremiumHighductility2618alloyNitrousTurbo-ChargedandSuper-ChargedAppsDualforcedpinoilingonmostapplicationsLateralgasportingonhighercompressionratiosFullymachinedwithdeepvalvepocketsSecondlandaccumulatorgroovesToplandminigroovetechnologyDiamondfinishedskirtsTriplewoundspirallocksSpacerringsincludedinshortcompressionheightsthatintersectthewristpinbore 36JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANMAINCAPSTUDINSTALLATIONTIPSBeforeinstallationbeginscleantheblockthecapsandthestudsthoroughly.Anydebrisonthethreadscaneasilyaffectthreadengagementqualityandcancauseincorrecttorquewrenchreadings.Inordertoensurethattheblocksfemalethreadedholesarecleananduniformtheyshouldbechased.Neveruseacut-tingtaptoperformthistaskasthiswillcutshaveandremovethreadmaterialwhichcanreducethreadstrength.Insteaduseonlydedicatedthreadchasingtapswhichwillrestorethreadsbyform-inginsteadofcutting.Alsomakesurethatyourtorquewrenchisproperlycali-brated.Alltorquewrenchesshouldbecheckedforcalibrationatleastonceeachyearmorefrequentlyforheavyuse.Evennewtorquewrenchesshouldbecheckedasitsnotuncommonforevensomenewwrenchestobeoutofcalibra-tionbyasmuchas10ft-lbs.Useconsistenttighteningtechniques.Inotherwordsdontturnquicklyonsomenutsandslowlyonothers.Thebestmethodistoslowlycreeptowardsthepre-setvalue.Quick-bangingtoreachtheclickonaratchetingclick-typetorquewrenchcanresultinunevenandinaccu-ratevalues.InthemajorityofcasesscrewthestudsintotheblockFINGER-TIGHTONLY.Donotdouble-nutthestudandtightenseverely.RememberthetorquevaluegivenfortheinstallationreferstothetighteningofthenutonlynotthestuditselfIfyoudesireapermanentinstallationapplyasmallamountofanaerobiccompoundtothecoarsethreadsthatengageintheblock.Loctite242orasimilargradeisacceptable.IfyouuseLoctite271orsimilarhigh-strengthcompoundthestudswillbeextremelydifficulttoremoveatalaterdatewithouttheapplicationofhighheat.Ifalockingcompoundisusedbesuretoimmediatelyinstallthemaincapbeforethecompoundsetstoavoidanypossiblemisalignmentofthestudsinrelationtothecap.Thismeansinstallingthecapandtighteningthenutstospecsbeforethethreadcompoundhardens.Thisallowsthenecessarypreloadtobeplacedonthestud-to-blockthreadengagementbeforethecompoundhardens.Useofalockingchemicalreallyisntnecessaryunlessyouwanttoensurestudpositionduringrepeatedandhurriedmaincapchangessuchasquickchangesbetweenheatsinadragraceapplicationetc..AlsoiftheblockwillbesubjectedtoextremevibrationsuchasinaFunnyCarorTopFuelmotortheuseofalockingcompoundmaybeagoodideaforinsurancepurposes.Inmostcasesthoughitprobablyisntnecessary.Wheninstallingthestudssimplymakesurethatfullthreadengagementhasbeenachieved.Inotherwordsmakesurethestudsbottom-outintheirholes.Againtightenfinger-tightonly.Oncethestudsareinstalledinstallthemaincapsandcheckforstud-to-capalignmentcheckforbindingthecapsshouldslipoverthestudssmoothly.Lubricatetheexposedfinethreadsofthestudsandbesuretoalsolubethewashersandnuts.Notetorquespecifica-tionsWILLvarydependingonthelubri-cantused.Molylubeoffersamorecon-sistenttorquereadingthanvariousoils.IfMolyisusedbesuretofollowthetorquespecsforMoly.Ifoilisusedfollowthespecsforoil.TheyWILLbedifferentWithcapsinplacethenutsshouldbetightenedtothespecifiedtorquevaluethreetimes.Asnotedearlierifananaero-biccompoundisappliedtothestud-to-blockthreadsthenutsmustbetorquedbeforethecompoundsets.Toachievebestoverallandoptimallong-termresultstheblockshouldbealign-honedafterstudandmaincapinstallation.CYLINDERHEADSTUDSAgainasinthecaseofmainstudstheuseofstudsisalwayspreferredasopposedtobolts.Howeverthismayvarydependingonapplication.Onastreetengineapplicationorinasituationwheretheheadswouldbedifficultorimpossibletoremovewiththeengineinplacestudsmaynotbethebestchoicefromacylinderheadservicestandpoint.Forexampleifamastercylinderorothercomponentpreventsacylinderheadfrombeingremovedorinstalledwiththeenginemountedinthevehicleboltsmaybeabetterchoicesimplyintermsofprac-ticality.Howeverifthesituationallowstheuseofstudswillusuallyprovideasuperiorassembly.Theuseofheadstudswillaidincylin-derheadinstallationsimplyfromastandpointofgasketandheadalignment.Thisisespeciallyhelpfulinaraceengineapplicationwherefrequentheadremovalwilloccurbetweenroundsindragraceapplicationsforpotentialengineserviceinanenduranceraceengineetc..Intermsoffunctiontheuseofstudsprovidemuchmoreaccurateandconsis-tenttorqueloading.Whenaboltisinstalledtheactoftighteningresultsinbothtwistingtorsionalloadandstretch-ingverticaloraxialload.Thisresultsintheboltbeingexposedtotwoforcesatthesametimeaswellasexperiencingfrictionalloadsatthethreadengagement.Whenastudisinstalledfingertightintheblockthestudstretchesonitsverti-calaxisonly.Theexposedendtopofthestudfeaturesfinethreadswhichallowmorepreciseandthereforeaccu-ratetorquereadingswhenthenutistorquedtospec.Anotheradvantageofusingstudsispotentiallyincreasedworkingclearanceatthenut.Forinstanceasmaller-head12-pointnutmaybeusedwhichcouldpro-videadditionalneededclearanceatthetopofthecylinderheadasopposedtoconventionalhexheadsfoundonboltswhichmayinsomecasesprovideatightfitfortheouterdiameterofasocketifclosetoabossetc..HEADSTUDINSTALLATIONTIPSMakesurethethreadsintheblockandonthestudsarecleantoprovideaccuratetorquereadings.Sincemanyapplicationsfeaturecylin-derthreadedholesthatareopentowaterjacketsitsadvisabletocoatthecoarseendofthestudswithaqualitythreadsealer.Ifyouarecertainthattheholesarenotopentowateryoumayskipthisstepbutifindoubtapplythesealer.Itcanthurt.Aswithmaincapstudsifyoupre-ferthatthestudsareinstalledmoreper-manentlyyoumayapplyananaerobiccompoundtothethreads.Ineithercasewheneverasealantorlockingcompoundisappliedthecylinderheadmustbeinstalledimmediatelyfollowingstudinstallationsothatthenutscanbetorquedtovaluebeforethecompoundsetsthestudsmustbepreloadedtoallowset-uptooccurinthepropertensionedstatetoassurestudalignment.Installthestudsintotheblockfinger-tightonly.DONOTdouble-nutthestudsandtight-enseverely.Aslongasfullthreadengage-mentoccursthecoarseendofthestudisscrewedintotheholefullyclampingloadwillbeachievedbytighteningthenut.Ifthestudsaretootightintheblocktheymaysplayandcauseamisalignmentwithregardtotheheadgasketandthehead.Priortoinstallingthenutslubricatetheexposedfinethreadsonthestudsthewashersandthenutsandtorquethenutsinthepropersequenceandatthevaluesspecified.RemembertorquevaluemayvarydependingonthelubricantusedoilorMolylubesoalwayspayclose engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP37Alwayschecktheedgesofmainfastenerholesforraisededgesthatwouldpreventpropermaincapflushmating.Whiletheuseofmaincapboltsmightdrawtheupperthreadsupcreatingaraisededgestudsarenotinstalledatthehightorquevaluesthatboltswouldexperiencesocreatingraisededgesaroundtheholesiseliminatedbyusingstuds.SomecylinderheadstudslikethisARPstudfeatureafemalehexdrive.Thisdrivesocketisprovidedtoaidinstudinstallation.Dontgetcarriedawayandtightenthewilliesoutofthestud.Finger-tightisusuallyrecommended.Thestudsimplyneedstoobtainfullthreadengagement.Theclampingloadwillbeachievedasthenutistightened.Hereweseestainlessbullet-tippedstudsbeingusedtosecureacarburetor.Thestudsprovideeasydrop-onalignmentforboththebasegasketandthecarbandthebullettipprovideshassle-freestartingofthenut.HereasetofARPstainlesssteelstudswashersandnutsareusedtosecuretheexhaustheader.Thestudlayoutallowsyoutopositionthegasketandtheheadereliminatingtheneedtoholdthepartsinplacewhiletryingtostartthebolts.Plusthisstudsetuplookswaycool.CylinderheadstudswereselectedforthebuildofthisFord427FEengine.Forthinwallblockswherecylinderboredistortionisaconcernstudsmakesensebecauseofthemore-preciseuniformityofclampingtheyprovide. 38JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTHREADEDFASTENERSBYMIKEMAVRIGIANattentiontothetorqueinginstructionssuppliedbythestudmanufacturer.Thenutsshouldbetorquedthreetimes.Therearesomeexceptions.Somecylinderheadstudsaredesignedtobeinstalledwithaslightpreloadtocreatesuperiorstability.AsacaseinpointIrecentlybuiltacoupleofHonda-typeenginesusingspecialheadstudsthatrequireda10ft-lbinstalledpreload.Thestudtipsfeaturedfemalehexholesallowingtheuseofahexbitona-drivetorquewrench.Alwaysreadthestudmakersinstalla-tioninstructionsandfollowthemtotheletter.EvenifaspecifictypeofheadstudisdesignedtobeinstalledwithaslightpreloadNEVERdouble-nutandseverelytightenanystudregardlessofitsdesign.Inmostcasesstudsshouldbeinstalledfinger-tightbutasalreadynotedsomespecialtystudsrequireaslightpreload.ReadtheinstructionsStudsasopposedtoboltsalsooffercomponentinstallationadvantages.Studsactasguidepinswhenaligningitemssuchasgasketsenginecoversetc.StudsareavailableARPforexamplewithbulletnoseswhereaslightlydimin-isheddiameterbaretipisfeatured.Thisgreatlyeasesnutinstallationallowingthenuttobedroppedintopositionbeforethreadengagementbegins.Goodexam-plesofthisincludecarburetorstudsdis-tributorstudsexhaustheaderstudsandoilpanstuds.Insteadoftryingtoholdagasketorpartinplacewhilefumblingwithboltstryingtoaligntheboltstotheirholesthegasketorpartcanbedroppedoverthestudssoalignmentposesnofurtherproblems.Withthepartalignedinplacethewashersandnutscanbeinstalledwithoutconcernforthepartbeingshiftedoutofalignment.THREADLUBRICATIONManyenginefastenersrequirelubricationpriortouseinordertoachieveproperclampingtorqueandtopreventseizingduetocorrosionorgalling.Lubricationofthethreadswiththeappropriatemate-rialforthetaskathandinsuresthattorquereadingswillbeaccurate.Drythreadsmaytendtogallmetaloftheholetransferringtothemetaloftheboltcreatingunnecessaryfrictionwhichleadstoanartificiallyhightorquereading.Forexampleiftheboltthreadsexpe-rienceunduefrictionatorquewrenchreadingof50ft.lbs.mayactuallyresultinatorquesettingofonly30ft.lbs.Insuchacasewhiletheassemblerthinksthetorqueiscorrecttheclampingforcemaybeinadequate.Andasweallknowimproperandinsufficientclampingforceisoftentheculpritwhenagasketfailstosealunderstress.Whilesomeboltsmayrequireasealtopreventpressurizedliquidsfromescap-ingwhereaboltpassesintoawaterjacketforinstanceandothersmayrequireathreadlockingmaterialvirtual-lyanythreadcoatingthatischosenwillhelpinachievingamoreaccuratetorquereading.Especiallyforcriticalboltscylinderheadmaincapconnectingrodremem-bertoapplyasmallsmearoflubricanttotheundersideofaboltheadornutaswelltoreducefrictionbetweentheboltheadornutandtheparentmaterialduringtighteningandtorqueing.AlsoifhardenedwashersareusedbesuretocoatthewasherfacesandtheI.D.ofthewashertoreducefrictionbetweentheboltunder-headandwasherandbetweentheboltshankandwasher.Thiswillfur-theraidinachievingamoreaccuratetorquesetting.Inotherwordsdontlimityourlubricationtothethreadsonly.Considerallareasofcontactfriction.Asanyonewhohasusedanti-seizecompoundsthisstuffcanbeverymessy.Ittendstomigrateeverywhere.Onceittouchesyourfingersitseemstoshowupeverywhereintheshopanditsnearlyimpossibletocleanitfromclothing.Myadviceistowearlatexgloveswheneverhandlingthecontainerandwhenusingthestuff.Thenafteryouvestoredthecontainertosstheglovesintothetrash.SomefastenermanufacturerslikeARPforexampleprovideorrecom-mendtheirownmolypaste.Inthatcaseusethatspecificproduct.ARPforexam-plehastheirownformulationthattheyfeelworksbestforspecificheadmainorrodboltapplications.Heymaybeitsthesameasanotherbrandoflubeandmaybenot.Butwhenyourebuildingamega-horsepowermonsterandinvestingyourkidscollegefundintheenginewhytakechancesIfafastenermakerrecom-mendsaspecificthreadlubefortheirstuffalwaysfollowtheiradvice.THREADSEALANTSAnumberofsituationsrequirethesealingofthreadstopreventpassageoffluidsorpressurefueloilcoolantvacuum.Acylinderheadboltmaypassintoawaterjacketorthroughanopenheaddeckexposingthethreadstocoolantorpres-surizedoilorapipeplugmaybeusedtosealthecrankcaseoranoilinggalleryorathreadedfittingmayenteravacuumToapplythreadlockingmaterialshakethethreadlockercontainerwellbeforeapplying.Applytothethreads.Avoidapplyingabunchtotheverytiptoavoidcreatingahydrauliclockinablindholeapplication.Iftheapplicationcallsformolylubeapplyadabaroundthecircumferenceofthethreads.Alittlegoesalongwaysotheresnoneedtopileiton.HereweapplyARPmolytoaheadboltsthreads.Hereweapplymolylubetotheundersideofacylinderheadbolt.Icantstressthisenough.Dontlimityourlubetothethreadsonly.Byalsolubricatingtheundersideoftheboltheadyourereducingfrictionatalloftheboltscontactareasenablingyoutoobtainamuchmorepreciseandeventorquevalueduringbolttightening. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP39portareainanintakemanifold.Inanycasethethreadsmustbesealant-coatedinordertopreventleakage.Anumberofsealingapproachesareavailable.SomelikeTeflonsealantarereadytouseimmediatelyandcureovera24-hourperiod.Someareanaerobicandwillcureonlywhentheboltisinstalled.Othersaresolvent-driedandmustbeallowedtobreatheallowingthesolventstoevaporatebeforeassembly.Achoiceofthreadsealantcanbeamatterofpersonalpreferenceasanumberofoptionsexist.Teflonthreadsealanthasbeenalong-timefavoriteusedinsealingthreadedfit-tingsonfluidhydraulicandpneumaticconnections.Teflonpastelubricatesthreadsandprovidesanimmediatesealforthread-edfittingsonanenginesuchassensorsplugsandplumbingconnectionsforoilfuelvacuumcoolantoroillocations.Teflonpastealsoprovidesabouta24-hourwindowofopportunityforfinaladjust-ments.CitingLoctitesPSTTeflonsealantasanexampletheoperatingrangeis-65degreesFto400degreesF.Loctites565citinganotherexampleisananaerobichigh-temperaturethreadsealantdesignedtosealthreadedconnec-tionsatfluidpressureandvacuumareas.Itsimport-specifiedandapprovedasaVibra-sealreplacement.Itcarriesatemper-atureratingof375degreesFandwith-stands10000psi.Applicationsincludeheadboltthrough-holesvacuumvalvesoilandcoolantfittingsintakemanifoldswitchesetc.Hylomaraswementionedearlierpro-videsanexcellentcylinderheadboltsealandisalsogreatforanythreadedconnec-tionthatneedsextrafluidorpressureseal-ingcapabilities.Fel-ProsGrayBoltPrepprovidesathreadsealwhilealsoofferingthreadlubricationduringassembly.IMikeMavrigianhaswrittenthousandsoftechnicalarticlesoverthepast30yearsforavarietyofautomotivepublications.InadditionMikehaswrittenmanybooksforHPBooks.ContacthimatBirchwoodAutomotiveGroupCrestonOH.Call330435-6347ore-mailmikebirchwoodautomotive.com.Websitewww.birchwoodautomotive.com.AAMFG.widearrayofbracketstabsandgussetsforfabricatingmounts19033174thAve.SpringLakeMI49456616-846-1730www.aa-mfg.comAEBS8270MiramarRd.SanDiegoCA92126858-693-3200www.aebsracing.comA1TECHNOLOGIES7022AlondraBlvd.ParamountCA90723562-408-1808www.a1technologies.comABBOTECINC.101CanyonCt.WeatherfordTX76087817-441-1570ARPINC.1863EastmanAve.VenturaCA93003800-826-3045www.arp-bolts.comBOLTDEPOT.COM866-337-9888www.boltdepot.comCARRILLOINDUSTRIES990CalleAmanecerSanClementeCA92673949-498-1800www.carrilloind.comCHROMEHARDWARESUPPLY3838E.GroveSt.PhoenixAR85040888-629-2476www.chromehardwaresupply.comCOMPETITIONCAMS3406DemocratRd.MemphisTN38118800-999-0853www.compcams.comCRANECAMS530FentressBlvd.DaytonaBeachFL32114386-252-1151www.cranecams.comCROWERCAMSEQUIPMENT6180BusinessCenterCt.SanDiegoCA92154-5604619-661-6477www.crower.comDORMANPRODUCTSRBCOLMAR3400E.WalnutSt.ColmarPA18915EMHARTTEKNOLOGIESAutomotiveDivisionP.O.Box868Mt.ClemensMI48046586-949-0440FASTENERSPECIALTIES1005CallowhillRd.PerkasiePA18944215-822-7201THEFLIGHTSHOPP.O.Box602BrighamCityUT84302435-723-3469www.theflightshop.comMANLEYPERFORMANCEPRODUCTS1960SwarthmoreAve.LakewoodNJ08701800-526-1362www.manleyperformance.comMARYLANDMETRICSP.O.Box261OwingsMillsMD21215800-638-1830www.mdmetric.comMcMASTER-CARRSUPPLYCO.200AuroraRd.AuroraOH44202330-995-9555www.mcmaster.comMILODONINC.2250AgateCt.SimiValleyCA93065805-577-5950MOROSOPERFORMANCEPRODUCTS80CarterDr.GuilfordCT06437203-453-6571www.moroso.comMR.GASKETPERFORMANCEGROUP10601MemphisAve.Ut12ClevelandOH44144216-688-8300MSPERFORMANCE13928BalboaBlvd.SylmarCA91342818-833-9095www.msaerospace.comPIONEERINC.5184PioneerRd.MeridianMS39301601-483-5211PROTEXFASTENERSLTD.ArrowRd.RedditchWorcsB988PAUnitedKingdom44152763231www.protex.comSPECIALTYFASTENERS1537W.McKinleySt.Ste18AzusaCA91702-3265626-969-6789SPSTECHNOLOGIES301HighlandAve.JenkintownPA19046215-572-3308AUTOMOTIVEPERFORMANCEFASTENERSOURCES 40JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalPistonSeizureinDieselEnginesBYSTEVESCOTTIfyouvebeenarounddieselenginesverylongyouvemostlikelyheardofsomeonethathasexperiencedapistonseizure.Normallyapistonseizureisnotcausedbyapoordesignorthattheenginesareplaguedwiththisproblemitsjustthatmostdieselenginesareoperatingunderheavycommercialloadsthatplaceahighdemandoncylindercomponents.Dieselenginesarecommonlydesignedasapowersourceformostindustriesandtoperformproperlythecylindercomponentsandoperatingconditionsmustbecorrect.Ifnottheresafairchanceyoucouldhavefirsthandexperienceofapistonseizure.Letsstartbylookingatthefourbasicdesignsofpistonsusedindieselengines.Thealuminumpistonhasbeenaroundfordecades.Withthisdesignasteelinsertiscastintothepistontosupportthepistonringsandthebondbetweenthesteelinsertandthealuminumpistonbodyiscriticalinthisdesign.Morerecentaluminumpistondesignshaveanoilgallerycastintothecrown.Engineoilissprayedintothegallerytohelpcoolthepistoncrown.Thearticulateddesignusesasteelpistoncrownandanaluminumskirtwithapistonpinholdingthetwopiecestogether.Nextistheonepiecesteelpistonthathasgainedinpopularityoverthepastdecade.Andlastlyasteelpistonproducedbyfrictionweldingthecrownandskirttogether.Differencesinmaterialanddesigncancausethesedesignstoreactdifferentlyduringapistonseizurecondition.Aluminumpistonsaremoresusceptibletothermalexpansionandrequireadditionalclearanceinthecylinder.Steelpistondesignsdonotexpandasmuchandaredesignedtohaveminimalpistontocylinderclearances.Inanycaseeitherwithanaluminumorasteelpistonseizurecanresultinacatastrophicenginefailure.Excessivetemperatureheatisthenumberonereasonforpistonseizure.Howeveridentifyingandcorrectingthesourceoftheheatiscriticaltosuccessfullyrepairingtheengine.Ifthecauseisnotcorrectedtheresastrongprobabilitythattheenginewillfailagain.Alltoooftencriticalinformationisthrownoutinarushtogettheenginebackupandrunningsodevelopingaprocesstosystematicallyinspectorganizerecordandpreserveallcomponentsassociatedwiththefailureandthensettingasidethetimeforathoroughexaminationarevitalstepstofailureanalysis.ThemostcommonreasonsformisdiagnosinganenginefailureNotclearlyunderstandingthecomplaintorproblemPreconceivedopinionsEvidencebeingdiscardedordestroyedNotgatheringandorganizingthefactsNotrecordingandobservingthefactsNottakingtimetologicallygothroughtheevidenceExaminingtheevidenceonaseizedpistonmayindicatewhethertheseizureoriginatedatthecrownorattheskirtofthepiston.Inthephotobelowyoucanseewherethecrownisbeginningtoscuff.Thedamageisprimarilyaroundthetopofthepistonandprogressesdownward.Thiscouldbetheresultofoverfuelingatimingproblemanairrestrictionorinadequatecrowncooling.Theburnpatternonthetopofthepistoncanalsogiveyouanindicationofvariousproblemsaffectingthecombustion.Thephotoonthetopoftheoppositepageshowstheinjectionspraypatternhighinthepistonbowl.Commoncausesforthisoccurrencemightbeadvancedinjectiontimingcausingdetonationorluggingcouldalsocontribute.Thisconditioncanresultinfuelwashandscuffedrings.Thephotobelowitshows engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP41advancedstagesofcrownerosion.Asthecrownoverheatsitsoftensandtheinjectionpressuresactuallyerodetheedgeofthecrown.Asmentionedearlierthealuminumpistondesignsaremoresusceptibletothermalexpansion.Thethirdphotoontheleftisanexampleofskirtoverheatinghoweveritcanbedifficulttodeterminetherootcause.Analuminumpistonisthickestatthecornersofthepinbossesandasthepistongrowsorexpandstheclearancestothelinerarereducedoreliminatedandthepistonbeginstoscuffatwhatiscalledthepointsofthepinboss.Highcoolanttemperatureslackofheattransferandlackofcrowncoolingcanallcontributetothistypeoffailure.CenterpointscuffingontheskirtasshowninthebottomphotoontheleftcanindicatethattheenginehasbeenoperatingathighRPMorhighloadtooquicklyafterstartup.Dependingonhowsevereandoftenrepeatedthistypeofskirtdamagecancontinuetoexpandaroundtheentireskirtandseizethepiston.Mostheavydutypistonsatroomtemperaturearenotroundtheyareellipticalovalandduetothermalexpansiontheychangedimensionallyastheyreachoperatingtemperatures.Allowingtheenginetowarmupgivesthepistontimetoreachthecorrectoperatingprofile.Anexampleofskirtover-heating.Centerpointscuffingontheskirt.Advancedstagesofcrownerosion.Injectionspraypatternhighinthepistonbowl. PISTONSEIZUREINDIESELENGINESBYSTEVESCOTTInspectingthebottomofthepistoncrowncangiveyouinsightintohowthepistoncrownwasbeingcooled.Inmostenginesapistoncoolingjetspraysengineoilontheundersideofthepistoncrown.Thisabsorbsheatfromthepistoncrownandcoolsthepistonskirt.Thegoldcolorinthephotoontheleftindicatestheresbeenagoodoilsupplyandmoderatenottoohighcrowntemperatures.Thephotoontherightindicateshighcrowntemperatures.Cokedburntorcrustyoilontheundersideofthepistonconfirmstherewasoilflowwhilethepistoncrownwasoperatingatveryhightemperatures.Lackofdiscolorationunderthecrowncanindicatethatnocoolingoilwasreachingthecrown.Theseareexamplesoftraditionalaluminumpistoncrownoperatingtemperatures.Latermodelapplicationsusepistonsdesignedforhigheroperatingtemperaturessuchasgallery-cooledpistonstwopiecearticulatedpistonsandonepiecesteelpistonssothemethodforcoolingthecrownscandiffer.42JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalNOWISAGREATTIMETOVISITK-LINEINDUSTRIESONLINEFORGREATDEALSONOURSURPLUSINVENTORY.WEARECLEARINGOURSHELVESOFMANYPOPULARITEMSLIKEVALVESPRINGCOMPRESSORSGRINDINGWHEELSGEARPULLERSANDMOREATGREATPRICES.MANYOFTHESEITEMSAREBEINGDISCONTINUEDSOWHENTHEYREGONETHEYAREGONE.VISITKLINEIND.COMANDCLICKONOURLINKFORALLOFOURSALEITEMSTODAYSURPLUSNVENTORYSALEEBAYS-PALVESGSALVESCGWALVEG-LOREGoldcolorindicatesthattherehasbeenagoodoilsupplyandmoderatenottoohighcrowntemperatures.Thisphotoindicateshighcrowntemperatures. www.jamisonequipment.comSmithbergRacingCylinderHeadsManifoldsFortCalhounNebraskaeareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareueareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmenteareAuthorizedDealersforthefollowinglinesofpartsequipmentamsww.jamisonequipment.com.jamisonequipment.comengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP43 PISTONSEIZUREINDIESELENGINESBYSTEVESCOTT44JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalCheckingmaintenancerecordsandiftheengineisequippedwithanECMelectroniccontrolmodulecheckingitforcriticaleventcodesarealsogoodsourcesofinformation.Sometimescommoncausesofseizurecanbeidentifiedbylookingintotheengineshistory.Iftheenginehasbeenoperatingsuccessfullyforanextendedamountoftimeyoumaybeabletoeliminatesomeofthepossiblecauses.Obviouslyafailurecouldbefromadefectiveparthoweverafitmentproblembetweenthepistonandcylinderwouldmostlikelybeevidentshortlyafterassembly.Likewisesomethingassimpleasrollingacylinderlinero-ringduringinstallationcandistortthecylinderlinerreducingclearancesandresultinginahotspotthatcanleadtopistonseizure.Notalldieselengineshavereplaceablecylinderliners.Insomeenginesthecylinderboreisrepairedusingamachinesleeveorbyboringthecylinderoversized.Cylinderdistortioninthesetypesofenginescanbealittlemorechallengingtoidentifysinceproperlymachiningormeasuringthecylinderboresmayrequireattachingastressplatetosimulatethesameforceorstressaswouldthecylinderhead.Oncethestressplateistightenedinplacethecylinderboresintheblockarebroughtintothedimensionalformorshapetheywillbeoperatinginaftertheengineisassembled.Ifablockthatdistortsinitsfreestateishonedroundwithoutastressplatethecylinderswillnotstayroundwhentheengineisreassembled.Thesephotosshowpolishingonthehighspotsofacylinder.WhilethepistonringscanconformtosomeamountofThesephotosshowpolishingonthehighspotsofacylinder.Whilethepistonringscanconformtosomeamountofdistortioninthecylinderwalltheycannotconformtolargeramountsofvariationsasshownhere.Cylinderboredistortioncanresultinoilconsumptioncompressionlossandifgreatenoughpistonseizure. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP45 46JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalPISTONSEIZUREINDIESELENGINESBYSTEVESCOTTdistortioninthecylinderwalltheycannotconformtolargeramountsofvariationsasshownhere.Cylinderboredistortioncanresultinoilconsumptioncompressionlossandifgreatenoughpistonseizure.Anothercomponentthathascontributedtomorethanitsshareofpistonseizuresisthepistoncoolingjetortubefoundinsomedieselengines.Thereareseveraldifferentdesignsofthesetubessomehaveasinglespraytubeothershavetwintubessomearemadefrommetalandothersareplastic.Thesetubessprayengineoiluptothebottomofthepistonstocoolthepistoncrowns.Dependingontheapplicationsomeareadjustablewhileothersarenot.Buttheonethingtheyhaveincommonisiftheygetdamagedpluggedormisalignedthentheycancausepistonseizure.Ifthecoolertubeisbrokenyoumayfindasmallpolishedorimpactareaonthetubeorpistonskirtwherethetubewascontactingthepiston.Ifnotremovedthesetubescanalsobedamagedorbrokenwhenthepistonandconnectingrodassembliesarebeinginstalled.Inadditiontothepistonbeingcooledbythelubeoil13ofthepistonsheatistransferredthroughthepistonringtothecylinderlinerandremovedbytheenginecoolant.Theenginescoolingsystemandtheconditionofthecoolantisvitaltothisprocess.Weakcoolantcanleadtoscaledepositsbuildingupontheoutsideofthelinersandpassagesoftheblockcreatingathermalbarrier.A116thickbuildupofscalecanreducetheenginescoolingsystemsefficiencyby40ormoreaccordingto engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP47variousstudies.Iftheheatcannotproperlydissipatethroughtheringsthenthepistoncanoverheat.Insummarycylindercomponentsaredesignedtowithstandthedemandsoftheoperationalparametersoftheengine.Likeanyotherpartorcomponentifthoseconditionsordemandsgobeyondthelimitsthentheresariskoffailure.Identifyingtherootcauseandcorrectingtheproblemisthekeytosuccessfullyrepairingtheengine.ISteveScottjoinedtheservicedepartmentatIPDin1982workingwithpartsserviceandsalesforavarietyofequipmentdieselandnaturalgasengines.Since2004hehasbeenthedirectorofproductdevelopmentandtechnicalsupportforIPD.Formoreinformationemailsscottipdparts.com.Cylinderlinererosionisshowninthephotoabove. AERAattendedthe23rdAnnualAETCAdvancedEngineeringTechnologyConferenceheldjustpriortothePRIShowinOrlandoFlorida.Thisconferenceisathreedayeventwithelevenspeakersandaroundtablediscussiontocloseouttheevent.Theconferencebringstogetherenginebuildersfromdifferentsegmentsoftheenginebuildingindustry.IfyouareintheperformanceindustryandhaveneverattendedoneoftheseconferencesIwouldhighlyrecommendit.Thepeopleyoucannetworkwithandtalktoisworththepriceofadmissionalone.WhereelsecouldyousitdownwithaformercarchiefinNASCARandhaveaconversationoverlunchOrtalkface-to-facewiththeleadengineerfromoneofthetopcamshaftmanufacturersinthecountryYouhavetheabilitytodothisatAETC.Thisisagreatopportunitytointeractwithpeoplewhoarenotalwaysaccessible.Inthreedaysyouwillbeamazedathowmuchinformationisprovidedandhowmuchyoucanlearn.Oneofthebenefitsofthisconferenceistheknowledgebaseyoucandrawfrom.Youwillhearcommentsorstatementsfrompeoplethatwillgetyouthinkingabouthowyoucantakethatinformationanduseitinyoureverydaybusiness.Youwilllearnsomethingfromthisconferenceandthatisthewholeideawalkawaywithsomethingyoucantakebackanduseattheshop.Heresthelistofpresentersandtheirtopicofdiscussionforthe2012conferenceMikeOsterhausMellingToolCompanyHowtoDesignandOptimizePerformanceOilPumpsandSystemsTimAndersonRacepakUsingTrack-BasedDataAcquisitiontoIncreasePerformanceBeyondtheDynoScottDiehlDrivenRacingOilUtilizingAdvancedBaseOilTechnologyToEnablePerformanceOilingStrategiesDr.RobertPruckaPHDCU-ICARSimulationBasedManifoldDesigntoImproveEnginePerformanceJustinCalliesCU-ICARCo-PresenterSimulationBasedManifoldDesigntoImproveEnginePerformanceChrisBrownARPFastenersExplainingProperFastenerStrategytoMaximizePowerandDurabilityBradGreenMahleUnderstandingPistonsinaPerformanceEngineandHowtoOptimizeforPowerBillyGodboldCOMPCamsHowtoIncreasePerformanceBeyondLimitswithCutting-EdgeValvetrainTechnologyBobSturkFederalMogulEngineBearingScienceAppliedtoMaximizingPerformanceandDurabilityLakeSpeedJrJoeGibbsRacingEnginesFindingExtraHiddenHorsepowertoBuildChampionshipWinningRaceEnginesRonSledgeKingEngineBearingTheScienceofMakingPowerThroughOptimizingBearingLubricationClearancesTolerancesThe2013AETCConferencewilltakeplaceDecember9-11inIndianapolisIndiana.Forinformationregardingthe2013conferencecheckonlineatwww.aetconline.com.Youcancheckonlineforregistrationfornextyearsevent.Thisisamustattendeventfortheperformanceenginebuilder.IAERATechnicalSpecialistSteveFoxhasover25yearsexperienceintheenginebuildingindustrywith10ofthoseyearsspentworkinginthemachineshop.SteveisanASE-certifiedMasterMachinistaswellasalongtimememberofthedragracingcircuit.48JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAERAattendsAETCConferenceBYSTEVEFOXRoundtablediscussionatthe23rdAnnualAETCConferenceinOrlandoFlorida. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP49RonSledgefromKingEngineBearingScottDiehlfromDrivenRacingOilLakeSpeedJrfromDrivenRacingOilDonnyCumminsofRacepakMikeOsterhausfromMellingBillyGodboldfromCompCamsAETCConferenceluncheonAETCConferenceluncheon 50JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalOrdinarilyanenginebuildofthistypewouldgoinaspecialtyengineissuebuttimingdoesntalwaysgiveyouperfectopportunity.Besidesthisengineisperformanceorientedanddoneinatypicalengineshop.Nocleanroomnospecialenvironmentalcontrolsnoquartzhalogenlightingandalittleshopclutterbecauseafterallthisengineiscomingoutofabusyshopandmanydifferentcomponentsfrommanydifferentenginesarecontinuallymovingthroughtheshop.Thisispreciselyhowwewantitforthisbuild.TherehasbeenaresurgenceofinterestintheChevy409engineasoflate.Thisisevidencedbythenumberofoff-the-shelfperformancepartsavailablefromguyslikeBobWallawhohastakenituponhimselftosinglehandedlymakecastironandaluminumreplacementblocksavailablewherefewexistedbefore.Bobmakesaluminum409cylinderheadsandintakestoo.BobwasgraciousenoughtoprovideuswithblockprintspecificationsasoriginalGM409engineblueprintsarejustnotavailable.Othersmanufacture409replacementpartstoobutthesevendorshavebeenwelldocumentedinmanypast348409enginebuildarticlessowewillnotrepeatthemhere.ForourpurposeswewouldliketoseehowmuchreliableperformanceisavailableusingasmanystockGMpartsaspossible.GrantedlistsofpossiblestockGMpartsthatfitorcanbemodifiedtofita409blockarelimitedbutsomedoexistandcanhelpsignificantlyreducecostofastrokerbuild.Additionallyandincontrasttootherenginebuildprojectswehopetopointoutallthepitfallsandpotentialdeadendsthatevenawellexperiencedshopcanexperience.Unlessyourshopproductionbuildsthesevintageenginesyoumostlikelywillrunintoproblemsofonesortoranother.BlockSincethisengineisultimatelyboundfora1962twodoorImpalapostcartobedrivennearly100ofitstimeonthestreetwewerenotsoconcernedwithfindinganythingrare.Besidesthecarisgoingtobemoreofahotrodthanrestorationsoouronlythoughtwastobeginwithgoodrebuildableparts.Webeganwithtwowornout409truckblocksFigure1.Theseblockshadthetypicallargecylinderreliefsusedtoreducecompression.Ifyouareluckyenoughtofindapassengercarblockthesereliefsaremuchsmallerornon-existentandofferhighercompressionratios.TheblockweselectedbestoneoftwoavailablewaspittedbadlyinmostofthemainboresandendsofSPEEDREADBYJOHNGOODMAN409ENGINEBUILD1234 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP51cylinderheaddecksFigure2.Onceyouselectablockdoonethingbeforeinvestinginsonicmeasurementspressuretestingoranyothermachineoperation.Measuretheentireblocktodetermineextentofwear.Thisisimportantbecauseontheblockweselectedonlyavisualinspectionwasperformedonlifterbores.Wedidntcatchthe.002-.003ovalwearineachlifterboreuntilverylateintheblockprepprocess.Figure3.FixingthisborewearproblemwasajourneyinitselfanddiscussedindepthlaterinthearticleFigure4.Youwanttoqualifycylinderborewearandanypittingthatwillnecessitateboringtoanoversize.Deckconditionthreadconditiondeckandpanrailwarpandanyvisiblecracksshouldbedeterminedbeforespendingmoneyblueprintingitifyoucanfindblueprints.Iftheblockpassestheseinitialinspectionsandmeasurementsyouarereadytobegin.Besideboringcylinders.060overstandardourblockneededlifterborerenewalandonlytwooptionswereavailable.IfyouhavenotyetpurchasedcamandliftersitmaybeassimpleasreamingexistingboresouttoaFordlifterdiameter.Thisgivesyouabout.030totalstockremovalorwellwithinborewearthatputyoudownthispathinthefirstplace.ButsinceourprojectblockwassofardownthereclamationprocessandChevysolidlifterswerealreadypurchasedandmodifiedwewantedtousethemratherthanbuyanewsetofFordlifters.Nowwefoundouttherearenolifterborefixturesavailabletodothisrepairona409atleastthatwecouldfindsodesperationbegantosetin.AutoMachineinSt.CharlesIllinoishassomeverycleverowners.JimandJohnDeBatesfoundthattheirRottlerblockboringmachinehasa45degreeblockholdingfixtureandtheirmillingmachinesheadcanberotatedintwodirections.AsthelifterbankanglespecsuppliedbyBobWallaisjustshyof45degreestheblockandfixtureweremountedonthemillingtableandcentered.Themillingheadwasrotatedonedegreeandnowmatchedthe44degreelifterbankangle.WallaalsoprovidedlifterborecenterdimensionsandthatwasallweneededtoreamalllifterborestoacceptBHJbronzebushings.Whatwasaseeminglyimpossibletaskturnedouttobeadoablefixforanyshopwitha45degreeboringfixtureandmillingmachine.NowitneedstobesaidthatoriginallycostofreplacingthealreadypurchasedandmodifiedChevysolidlifterswithFordwasdeemedtooexpensive.Ifyoufindyourselfinthissamepositionknowthatcosttosetuptheengineforlifterreamingisthesameforbothprocesses.DifferenceincostisonlybetweennewliftersandBHJbronzebushings.RightfromthebeginningastockGMforged454steelcrankwasselectedmostlybecauseIhadonestoredinmygarageforyearsanditseemedaperfectopportunitytouseit.UsedsteelandcastGM454cranksarenotdifficulttofindandlikelyyouwillhavetoregrindwhateverstockcrankyougetinordertoperfectequalstrokeandindex.A454crankisagreatstrokeritemasitfitsthe409blockwithjustafewmodifications.Atthetimewewereconsideringthiscrankforthe409timingcoverswerelimitedtostock348409andthatmeantthesnoutonthe454crankhadtobeturneddownshortenedandanewkeywayslotcutaccordingto409spec.Performingthesemodificationswouldallowuseofastock348409timingcoverandseal.Todayyoucanbuya409timingcoverwitha454cranksealandeliminatecrankmodificationsinthatarea.Thesecondissuewasmainbearingborediameter.Many409strokerprojectssimplyturn454crankmainsdownto409diametersbutIneverreallylikedtheidea.AstheprojectblockhadagreatdealofdeepwaterpittinginsomeofthemainsaddlesFigure5itwasfeltthatalignboringmainboresto454diameterwasthebestchoice.Thisleavesfactorycrankjournalhardnessinplaceandgivesusamuchbetterchoiceofmainbearings.Italsogaveusanopportunitytousethreenodularironfourboltcentermaincapsfromajunk454blockFigures678.Oncealignboringwascompletewewereabletodropthecrankintoseewhatinterferencesexisted.Rightawaywesaw5678 409ENGINEBUILDBYJOHNGOODMAN52JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalthatthecrankoilslingerdiameterhadtobereducedinorderforittofittherearmaincap.Aprettystraightforwardfixonalatheandquicklydone.Withcrankinblockitwasfoundthatthetwoinboardcounterweightshadtobetrimmed.TherewasnowayarounditandIcouldseemoreheavymetalinmyfutureweoptedtomakethisengineinternallybalanced.Wedidnthaverodboltinterferenceissueslikemanyotherstroker409buildsbecauseweusedasetofSCAT6.135longrodsspecificallydesignedandmadeforthisstrokerconversion.SCATrodsuseshorterboltsthatgiveclearanceandeliminateneedforgrindingontheblock.CrankAsmentionedthecrankusedforthisprojectisastockGM454forgedsteelunitfromaroundthemid1990s.Youhavetouseanearliercrankmostlybecauseoftherearsealconfiguration.Early454cranksuseatwo-piecerearseal.Iusedaforgedcrankbutothershavesuccessfullyusednodularcastironshaftsevenwhenmainsaregroundto409specandnonitridingforhardnessisperformed.Ifastock454shaftisused.250extrastrokeoverstock409allrodjournalsshouldbecheckedforequalstrokelengthandcorrectindex.Ifeitherisoutbymorethantwoorthreethousandthstheshaftshouldbegroundundersizetoachievemaximumandequalstrokeonindex.Fortunatelytheforgedsteelshaftweusedwasrightonthemoneyforstrokeandindexahugesurprisebutwedidfindonemainjournaltobe.001big.Ifthisenginehadretainedstock409mainhousingdiameterstherequiredshaftgrindingwouldhavefixedtheproblem.Butsinceweopenedmainboresupto454diameterwewouldeitherneedtogrindcrankmainjournals.010underorseek-.001mainbearingshells.OnecalltoBillMcKnightatMAHLECleviteandherecommendedtheundersizemainshellsweneededtoputproperclearanceinthatonejournal.Lastlyandaftersomelengthyconversationsonbalancingitwasdecidedtointernallybalancetheengine.Becausethisisaperformanceenginepartsareoftenchanged.Ifwehadstayedwithexternalbalanceanychangetotherotatingassemblyflywheelorclutchwouldnecessitateacompleteteardownoftheengineforrebalancing.ThatjustisntpracticalsowehadtobitethebulletandorderheavymetalTungsten.Tungstenisinstalledincrankshaftcounterweightstooffsetreciprocatingweightrodspistonspinslocksetc..Nowhereiswhereyoucanreduceoravoidusinglargeamountsofheavymetaltoachieveinternalbalance.Evenifitcostsalittlemoretryandreducereciprocatingcomponentweightasmuchaspossible.Pistonsandpinscanbesubstantiallylightenedespeciallyfora409slugalongwithconnectingrods.SomebuildersclaimhavingusedlittletonoTungstenwheninternallybalancingastroker409.Ohanddontforgettocleanandchaseallthreadsinthecrank.Donttakeanychancesfindingdamagedthreadsaftertheengineistogether.Bettertofindandfixthreadproblemsifpossiblebeforeyouspendmoneyonthecrankshaft.WhywaitforthecompetitiontocatchupGettheBestNewProductsfromGOODSONFirst1-800-533-8010www.goodson.comtwitter.comGoodsonToolsfacebook.comGoodsonToolsAndSuppliesEPL-120GR-6200XHDPMIS-30ERH-2220420530646400-33511-30280523018292-78304-0005402120543447--.8052032537-34408050805612054044408 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP53 54JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional409ENGINEBUILDBYJOHNGOODMANPistonsandPinsAsmentionedearlierhereisanareawhereagreatdealofweightcanberemovedfromreciprocatingparts.ThebuilderhasmanychoicesasquiteafewmanufacturerslikeDiamondCPRossJEandothersallofferpistonsforthe409.IparticularlyliketheCPXbracepistons.Theyareverylightandstrongbutdidntfitmybudget.Butmostlyitwasthetimeitwouldtaketohavethemcustommade.WhatIfoundwasasetofofftheshelf409Rosspistonspinsanddoublespirallocksexpresslyfora4strokecrankand454longrods.TheywereevenonsalesohowcouldIpassthemupWhatIshouldhavedoneishaveRossortheboysatAutoMachineremovemuchofthesolidaluminumbehindthedome.Thatwouldhavereducedtheamountofheavyweightgoingintothecrankandnotcompromisedreliabilityonebit.Buttimewasshortanditdidntgetdone.IfIhadittodooveragainIwouldhavehadthatweighttakenoutofthosepistons.CylinderHeadsandValveTrainAgoodfriendofminehadapairofaluminumEdelbrockPerformerRPMheadsthathewasntusing.Theywerenewcompleteuntouchedandinneedofalittleportmassaging.AnotherdearfriendthelateJoeMondelloofferedtowaketheseheadsuprealizingthatalongwithoutstandingstreetperformancetheyhadtoofferdrivabilityaswell.BeforeJoecouldgettotheseheadshetragicallyandunexpectedlypassedaway.IfeelJoespassingpersonallyandIknowtheindustrydoestoo.WemissyouJoe.ButCalvinHillMondellosnewshopmanagerfinishedtheportingjustthewayJoewouldhavedoneitandhandedbackapairofgorgeousheadsFigures910.WeneededflowdataforacamgrindsoIthoughtitinformativetopostthoseflownumberswiththisarticle.Thesenumberscompareasetofstockcastiron690headsagainstportedandunportedaluminumEdelbrockPerformersFigure11.Asyoucanseequiteaflowimprovementwasmadeoverstockyetcivilenoughforstreetuse.Itwasagivenfromthestartthatqualityrollerrockersweretobeused.Iwontmentionthemanufacturersnamebecausetherearesomanytochoosefromitreallydoesntmatter.Justpickyourfavoriteandgowiththem.Onewordofcautionaboutrollerrockerscleanallrockersthoroughlyandsoaktheminoilbeforefinalassembly.Ihaveheardofgoodrollerrockersfailatthebearingsanditmayhavebeenavoidedbyprelubing.Needlebearingsaregenerallysplashfedandonanewstartuptheremaybequiteadelayuntilfreshoilreachesrockerbearings.Bythetimeoilgetstothosesmallneedlesitmaybetoolate.Westayedwiththestock1.71ratioalthoughanyratioisavailablefora454bigblock.Againreliabilityanddrivabilitywereparamounttothisproject.Pushrodsare.080wallseamlesschromemolysteelguideplatecompatibleandcanbeselectedin.005longincrementstoachievedesiredrockergeometry.Youmayhavetoaskaroundaboutgettingthesepushrodlengthselectionsbuttheydoexist.Havingpushrodscomeindifferentlengthssavestimemakingtheselengthsyourself.Findingqualitytruerollerdoublerowtimingcomponentsfora409wasalittlehardtoaccomplishbutonecalltoCloyessolvedthisproblem.Whileyouareatitaskthemtolookfortimingchainsin.005overandunderlengths.Theyarecolorcodedandcanbedistinguishedbyhowmanylinksareincolor.Onelinkindicates.005longertwolinks.010andsoon.Youmayhavetocallaroundandaskcounterguystotakesometimefindingthemforyoubutthesepartsdoexist.Ataglanceyoucantellwhatlengthtimingchainisonanenginewhenthetimingcoverisremoved.FastenersOurindustryhasmanychoicesfornutsboltsandstudssoIwillsimplysayusewhatyouarecomfortablewith.WeselectedARPbecauseofourfailure-freeexperiencewiththeirfineproductsandARPhascylinderheadboltsandfourboltmainstudkitsontheshelffor409engines.CamshaftandLiftersThiswasanareaofragingdebate.Ononesideweretherollerliftercampeopleandontheotherconventionalsolidliftercamfolks.Givencamfailureproblemswehaveseenlatelywithnon-rollercamsitwasastrongargumenttogoroller.Alsocastironliftersthesedaysarenolongerhardenedtothecorebutdescribedashardenable.IdontknowifthischangeinnomenclatureisareasonforcamfailurebutintuitivelyIdoubtit.Theonlyother91011 SPECIALIZINGINREPLACEMENTPARTSFORBENDIXCARRIERCATERPILLARCUMMINSDETROITDIESELHINOISUZUMIDLANDNAVISTARTHERMO-KINGTRANE...yourFriendlyalternativeDieselenginepartsESCOINDUSTRIESINC.TOLLFREE1-800-372-6872FAX951-782-2136SALESESCOUSA.COMWWW.ESCOUSA.COMALLOTHERCOMPANYBRANDPRODUCTANDSERVICENAMESAREUSEDHEREINFORIDENTIFICATIONPURPOSESONLYANDMAYBETHETRADEMARKSSERVICEMARKSORTRADENAMESOFTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.THEREISNOAFFILIATIONORSPONSORSHIPBETWEENTHESECOMPANIESANDESCOUNLESSEXPRESSLYSTATED.CARRIERBENDIXREPLASPECIALIZINGINTERPILLARCARRIERBENDIXARTSFORCEMENTREPLASPECIALIZINGINTHERMOMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINS-KINGMIDLANDISUZUHINODETROITDIESELCUMMINSTERPILLARTRANE-KINGTHERMOiend...ourTRANE-KINGyalternativeDieselenginepartsyalternative...yourFDieselenginepartsyalternativeTHESECOMPBETWEENSPONSORSHIPTHEREISNOTHEIRRESPECTIVEOWNERS.OFVICEMARKSORTRADEMARKSSERTHEBEBRANDPROANYOTHERCOMPALLANDESCOUNLESSANIESTHESECOMPINRAFFILITHEREISNOTRADENAMESVICEMARKSORANDYTIONPURPOSESONLVICENAMESANDSERBRANDPRODUCT 56JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional409ENGINEBUILDBYJOHNGOODMANoptionifIwastostaywithtraditionalsolidlifterswastouseatoolsteellifter.Costofahighqualityrollerlifterandasimilarqualitytoolsteelliftersetwasdeepinto1000.JustnotinthebudgetIamafraidsobacktoaconventionalsolidliftercamarrangement.OnceitwasdecidedtotakeanoldschoolapproachwehadVernSchumannqualifyeachlifterindividuallyfordimensionandfeatures.Theellipticalfaceofeachlifterwasmeasuredandwouldyouknowitoneofthemwaswayoutofspec.Youwouldneverhavecaughtthisvisuallyasalllifterfaceslookedthesamebutthatsingledefectiveliftercouldhaveeasilycausedacamfailurewithoutanyoneknowingwhy.Istronglyrecommendashoptakealittleextratimetoqualifyallhydraulicandsolidlifterfacesbeforeinstallingtheminanengine.Itiseasytodoandtakesjustsecondstoqualify.Simplychuckalifterinamachinethatcanholdthemandrunadialindicatoracrosstheface.Youshouldseethesamemovementofthedialfromlowedgeofliftertohighcenteroflifterandbacktotheotheredge.Youcanalsoplacethedialindicatoratanypointonthelifterfaceandrotatethelifter.Thereshouldbenomovementofthedial.Ifthereisthentheellipticalfacehasbeengroundoffcenterandliftersexhibitingsuchamachiningdefectshouldnotbeinstalled.OneotherlittletrickVerndidforuswastogrindasmallflutealongthesideofthelifterbody.Thistakespressurizedoildirectlytotheliftercamlobeinterfacetoassistsimplesplashmethodforlubrication.Todayitispossibletobuylifterswithaholealreadydrilleddirectlyintothefacethataccomplishesthesamethingandwellworththeextracostinmyopinion.WespentalotoftimetalkingaboutlifterssowhataboutthecamWhenitcomestocustomgroundcamsIdontlookanyfartherthanDemaElginofSuperLobes.DemahasgroundcamsforjustabouteveryracingvenueandsomanyhighlevelenginebuildersthatIthinkevenDemahasforgottenhowmany.Demarightlyasksforatonofenginespecsandflownumbersalongwithafewquestionsabouthowtheengineistobeused.ThereisnoguessworkwithDema.Hegetsyouasclosetocorrectasonecangetonthefirsttry.SoDemagroundacamthatisoptimizedfortheengine.ThereisabsolutelynothingmoretosayhereotherthanDemafeltweshouldhavenoreliabilityproblemsusingaconventionalcamlifterarrangement.Neitherdowe.OnelastthingoncamsWearegoingtostrictlyfollowrecommendationsbyLakeSpeedJr.JoeGibbsRacingoilandusecorrectbreakinoilfollowedbythecorrectblendforthetypeofdutythisenginewillsee.Aftermarketoilshavecomealongwayandplayacriticalroleintheperformanceandreliabilityofenginesbothracingandstreet.ThisischeapinsuranceasfarasIcantell.OilPumpWhytaketimeexplainingtheoilpumpBecauseitisntquitethesamepumpweoftenchoose.OurchoicesforawetsumppumpwereeitherabigorsmallblockChevy.VernSchumanna Yourreputationisthemostimportantassetyourbusinesswilleverown.Dontputitatriskbyusingwhiteboxquestion-ablequalityproductsinyourengines.Suretopqualitycomponentscostalittlemorebutyourcustomerstrustyoutogivethemtheverybest.ItsawellknownfactthatCOMPCamsproductshavebeenproventoprovidemaximumper-formancedurabilityandqualityforover35years.AndCOMPCamswillalwaysbetheretostandbehindourproductslongafterthosewhiteboxcompanieshavevanished.PAYALITTLEMOREGETMUCHMORERestEasyKnowingYourEnginesAreBuiltWithOnlyTheVeryBestQualityComponents8727wENGINEBREAK-INOILZDDP-enhancedEngineBreak-InOilfromCOMPCamsprovidespeaceofmindinknowingthatyourexpensiveengineisproperlyprotectedduringthecriticalbreak-inperiod.Availablein10W-30and15W-50formulas.HYDRAULICROLLERLIFTERSWhetheryouneedaperformancere-placementforstockhydraulicrollerlift-non-rollerblocksCOMPCamsHy-draulicRollerLifterswithlinkbarsareunmatchedformaximumvalvetraincontrol.DesignedtoacceptaggressivefrictionandincreaselongevitywhenEngineeredToFinishFirst.CAMHELP1.800.999.0853WWW.COMPCAMS.COMVALVESPRINGSValvespringsarenottheplacetocutcorners.ChoosinganythinglessthanCOMPCamscanleadtohorsepowerlossimpropervalvecontroldamagingvalvebounceandshortenedspringlifeevenenginefailure.COMPCamsValveSpringsaretheoverwhelmingchoiceoftopenginebuilders.CUSTOMCAMDESIGNSERVICECOMPCamsoffersthelargestcatalogofpur-poselydesignedcamshaftsintheindustrybutsometimesacustomgrindcamshaftisrequiredtogetthemostfromyourenginecombinationdrivingstyleandvehiclesetup.WiththousandsofontheshelfCOMPCamsisthesourceforcus-tomcamgrindingdesignassistanceandmatch-ingcomponents.AndunlikeothercompaniesunlessyourcustomdesignrequiresanupgradedcoreduetothespecsCOMPCamsdoesntat-tachextraservicefeesforcustomgrinds. TiredofgivingupprotstoonlinecompetitorsOrderafreeENGINEPROtimingsetcatalogfromourwebsite.www.goenginepro.comENGINEPROBRANDENGINEPRODUCTSdotoonlOtimingsetsarENGINEPRgivingecomeailablveaOtimingsetsarpprotsteeENGINEPRderafrrO.tserpargetbettedivorpremotsucptenretnillab-wolyithENGINEPROWyitiswithallENGINEPROparasthewthaToughengineprthrOeeENGINEPRofitserprougetbetturcus.tspardemosllatsnirosecirpetvthaoudonywithallENGINEPReyessionalslikofoughengineprtaloatimingsetceeENGINEPRderafrrOENGINPRBomourwgfrtaloOeeENGINEPRANDENGIPRNDU58JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional409ENGINEBUILDBYJOHNGOODMANlongtimefriendandcleverengineerdevelopedawetsumppumpthatimprovestheexternaloilbypasscircuit.UnlikenormalcuporspoolplugbypassdevicesthatareslowtoreactSchumannfeaturesanoversizedseatedballvalveforinstantreactiontime.Anyonewhohaseversufferedastuckbypassvalvecanappreciategoingtoaseatedballarrangement.Butwhatinterestedmemostaboutthispumpisthenearinstantpositiveoilflowrightoffstartup.Nomorelagtimeforthepumptoprimeandcatchupwithrequiredoil.Insomewaysthispumpactslikeadrysumppumpbydeliveringfreshoilquickly.ThereareotherstatedbenefitsbutIwillletVerntellyouaboutthose.CarburetorsinductionWehadagenuineGM409425HP2X4intakemanifoldmostlytryingtoretainasmuchofthestocklookofanoriginal409aspossiblebutthosebigaluminumheadskindofblewthatideaoutthewindow.SurprisinglytherearenotmanyintakemanifoldalternativesthatworkwiththeseEdelbrockheadsbesidesEdelbrockandmostofthosetaketheAFBorEdlebrockcarburetorsonly.Theideaofgoingtoafabricatedmanifoldwasoutofthequestion.Costwasonebigfactorbutafabricatedmanifoldgavetheenginetoomuchofaracecarlook.Sothesearchwasontofindareasonablesolution.TroyPattersonofTMPCarbswroteanarticlefortheJanuary-March2011issueofEngineProfessionalonHolleycarbsusingTMPsWeberPowerPlates.TroyhadsomeveryinterestingideasonhowtofuelenginessohewasourfirstchoicetobuildandtunethetwoHolley4150carbsforthe409.IwouldencourageyoutogobackandreadthatarticlebutforourpurposesTroywantedtomakesureweweresufficientlyfueledatwideopenthrottleWOT.HefindsthatalltoooftencarburetorsarechosenforlowtomidRPMrangeefficiencyandWOTtendstoleanout.GoingtoslightlybiggercarbshelpsensureenoughfuelfortheentireRPMrangewithoutdrivabilityissues.12 engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP59RightoffthebatTroyfacedacarbspacingproblemwiththetwo4150stoolittleonalmostallmanifoldssoanadapterplatehadtobemadeFigure12.AlsosincetheHolleyswerereoriented90degreesturnedsidewayslinkagebecameanevenbiggerissue.WithabitofingenuityTroyconfiguredanelegantlinkagearrangementthatlookscleanandadjustableFigure13.Onenicesideaffecttothisapproachisthattheadapterplatecarbsandlinkagecanbeunboltedfromtheintakeandmountedonanotherintakeifdesired.Thisturnedouttobeanelegantsolutiontoadifficultcarbspacingandlinkageproblem.Troysaidthesecarbswillyieldsnappythrottleresponseataround2000RPMandbogfreeoffidle.Thisisexactlywhatwewerelookingfor.IgnitionNoguessworkhere.WewentwithatriedandtrueMSDHEIdistributorand6ALdigitalignitionboxandcoil.DuetothesizeofthosemonsterHolleysasmalldiameterdistributorcapwasamust.TheBuildJohnandJimDeBatesfromAutoMachineinSt.CharlesIllinoissaidnottomentiontheminthisarticlebutIjustcouldnthonorthatrequest.AutoMachinebuildssomeoftherarestenginestobefoundoldandrarerestorationengines.Oftenpartshavetobemadebecauseoriginalsarenolongeravailable.ThisshoppayscloseattentiontodetailandbecauseofthedeepexperienceJimandJohnenjoyeveryenginerepresentsthebestthatcanbehad.Soitwasnosurprisethatthisshopwaschosenforthebuild.BesidesIthinkJimreallywantedtodothisengine.Itwasadifferentpartconfigurationfrommoststroker409buildsandutilizedmuchofwhattheshophastoofferbywayofequipmentandmachining.Ithinkyouwillagreetheendresultwasaworkofart.Duetotimeconstraintswedidnotgettodynotheengineasplanned.Butsincethisprojectwasnotintendedtosqueezeeverylasthorsepoweritreallydidntmatterotherthanforfinaltuning.OurbestsecondchoicewasusingaruninstandtocheckforleakssettimingandmakeanyfinaladjustmentsbeforefittingitinthecarFigure1415.ConclusionWehopeyouenjoyedthebuildasmuchaswedidbuildingit.Thereweresomesurprisesalongthewaybuttherealwaysseemtobewithavintagebuildofthistype.Hopefullyyourealizedthatevenwiththebestplanningthingsdonotalwaysgointhedirectionyouwanted.Findingwornoutlifterboresaftersomuchworkwasdonetotheblockwasagonizing.Findingtherewerefewifanyalternativefixesforthisproblemmadethingsevenworse.Butacreativeshopalwaysfindsawayandwhenengagingaprojectlikethisshopandcustomerexpectationoftheseproblemsshouldalwaysbeconsideredbeforetheprojectbegins.IJohnGoodmanservedaspresidentofAERAfrom2005-2012.PriortothathewasdirectoroftheAdvancedTechnologyCenterATCforMicromatic-Textron.TheATCfocusedonmanufacturinghoningsolutionsandstudiesforOEMenginemanufacturers.TestingoftraditionalanduniquehoningabrasivesystemscoolantsfixturestoolsandsoftwarewereprimaryresponsibilitiesoftheATClab.ContactJohnatjgoodman1947yahoo.com.131415 60JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalIamalwayscurioushowothersinthesamefieldofworkconductbusinessandameagertotouranothershopwheninvitedtodoso.Whattypesofenginesdotheyrebuildrepairwhattypesandbrandofequipmenttheyusetheshoplayoutprocedurestheyfollowandhowtheyacquirebusinessalwaysinterestme.SowhileinMazatlanattheMexicanCabinIhadanopportunitytovisitanautomotivemachineshopRectificacionesyRefaccionesMiguelLizarraga.MiguelLizarragahasbeeninbusinessforover30years.Rafaelhissonmanagestheshopandhasbeenapartofthebusinesssincehewas15yearsold.AlthoughRafaelisanElectricalEngineerbyeducationandtradehebeingtheonlysonwith3sistersiscarryingoninthefamilytraditionworkinginthemachineshop.TheyarewellknowninMazatlanandthesurroundingareaforservicingautodealershipsfarmingcommunitygeneralrepairshopsandthedo-it-yourselfer.Itwasobviouslytometheyarequitediversifiedintheirabilitiestoservicetheircustomerbaseofferingcompletemachiningservices.Justtonameafewcrankshaftrepairfuelinjectorrebuildingblockandlineboring.TheydoitallInadditiontomachineworktheyprovidethecustomerwithinformationhelpingtofacilitatetherepairandinstallationoftheirwork.Asanexamplelashsettingstorquevaluesandtimingalignments.Rafaeltoldmethiswasabigcustomerdrawoverhiscompetitors.Theyalsooffervehiclerepairandinstallationoftheirproductenablingthemtocontrolqualityandavoidcomebacks.AftertouringtheirshopIrealizeditwasnotallthatdifferentfrommineoranyothershopinmyareaMinneapolisutilizingsomeofthesameequipmentalongwithaverysimilarmixofwork.AfteragoodrapsessionofbrokenSpanishandEnglishIcametorealizedwhattheyreallyneededINFORMATIONItsINFORMATIONthatmakestheworld-go-aroundnomatterwhereyoumaybe.ThenthelightbulbwentonandasamemberandgoodstewardofAERAIexplainedthemanybenefitsthatAERAhastooffersuchasPRO-SISSAtechmanualsandaccesstothetechlineINSPANISHnoless.BecauseofthelanguagebarriermanyshopsinthispartoftheworlddonotunderstandthebenefitsofbecominganAERAmember.OneofAERAsmanyassetsisYolandawhoisfluentinSpanish.SheisabletoassistcurrentSpanishspeakingmembersandhelpstofacilitatenewmemberships.WithherassistanceMiguelandRafaelbecamenewmembersofAERA.WelcomeAboardMiguelandRafaelLizarragaBienvenidosMiguelyRafaelLizarragaNomatterwhereintheworldyoumaybeitisalwaysfuntoforgenewrelationshipswithpeerswhosharethesamepassionforwhatwedo.Wecanalwayslearnsomethingfromeachothertakingsomethingbacktoourownshops.Onetakeawayformewastheirworkinghours8a.m.to1p.m.and3p.mto6p.m.AfterallweareinMexicoandsiestasareobservedImthinkingaboutchangingmyshopshoursINecesitamsinformacinsobreAERALlameaYolandaal815-526-7347oal888-326-2372.Yolandaaera.org.SteveSchoebenistheownerandoperatorofHeadWerksInc.anautomotivemachineshopservingMinneapolisandsurroundingareassince1991.HeadWerksspecializesintherepairofalltypesofcylinderheadsrangingfromindustrialapplicationsandlightdieseltomotorcyclesantiquesracingandEuropeanautos.Formoreinformationpleasecall952884-6306oremailinfoheadwerks.com.NewAERAmemberspicturedabovefromlefttorightForemanRafaelLizarragaSteveSchoebenHeadwerksandOwnerMiguelLizarragaRectificacionesyRefaccionesMiguelLizarragaandtheirfacilityinMazatlanMexico.NewMemberNeedsInformationinSpanishAERAhasitBYSTEVESCHOEBEN 62JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional5MINUTESWITHANAERAMEMBERBYSTEPHENKIMWhatdoNASCARSprintCupchampionsJimmieJohnsonJeffGordonTonyStewartandMattKensethhaveincommonTheyallrelyontheSAMgraduatestochargetothefrontofthepackeveryraceweekend.WhileeveryraceteamsengineshopisresponsibleforgivingtheirdriversthehorsepowertheyneedtowinracesmanyofthetalentedcraftsmanbuildingthosewinningenginesgottheirtrainingattheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistswww.samracing.com.BasedinHoustonTexasSAMsimpactonprofessionalracingisquitepossiblythemostprolificofanyvocationalprogrameverconceived.ConsequentlySAMisntjustagreatplacetogoforaspiringenginebuildersbutitsalsoatremendousresourceforestablishedenginebuilderslookingforfreshtalent.Boldstatementslikethataremeaninglesswithoutevidencebuttheproofisverycompelling.Someofthehigh-profileraceteamsthatrelyonSAMgraduateseverydayincludeDonSchumacherRacingHendrickMotorsportsJohnForceRacingRoush-YatesRacingEnginesPenskeRacingCosworthEngineeringandCagnazziRacing.ThereasonisverysimpleSAMsentirecurriculumisbasedonteachingtheartofbuildingraceengines.Itgoesfarbeyondregurgitatinginformationpresentedinengineassemblymanuals.Insteadtheprogramstrikesabalancebetweenenginebuildingtheoryandpracticalhands-ontraining.SAMshighlyspecializedprogramcoverseverythingfromengineblockmachiningandshort-blockassemblytocylinderheadportingandcamshaftdynamicstodynotuningandtracktesting.Wereinthebusinessofturningoutrace-winningenginebuildersnotjustcertificateholdersSAMDirectorofEducationJudsonMassingillexplains.Ourgraduateswalkoutoftheclassroomandstraightintotopraceteams.Itmeanstheworldtouswhenourgraduateslandagreatjob.EveryoneatSAMtakesgreatprideinourproventrackrecord.FromEngineShoptoEngineSchoolWinningchampionshipsatthehighestlevelsofracingrequirestheabilitytorecognizetalentbothbehindthewheelandattheengineshop.WhattheDougYatesesandJohnForcesoftheracingworldseeinSAMgraduatesistheirauthenticrace-honedexperience.SAMisinthebusinessofproducingreal-dealenginebuildersandEducationintheFastLaneTheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistsprovidesanendlessstreamoftalentforthemosthigh-profileengineshopsinthecountry.ReputationsarentbuiltovernightandtheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistshasbeeneducatingtheworldspremiereraceenginebuilderssince1985.WhetheritsinNASCARSprintCupNHRAProStockorIndyCarSAMgraduatesarepushingthelimitsofenginedesigneveryraceweekend. ABOVEANDBEYONDHONINGDesignedforperformanceandbuiltforproductiontheSV-20istrulyinaclassofitsown.Formoreinformationvisitsunnen.comorcontactyourSunnenrepresentativeat1-800-325-3670.Cylinderhoningmachinesgenerallyfallintotwocategorieslowerpricedmachineswithfeaturestomatchorproductionmachinesthatcostasmallfortune.DevelopedinpartnershipwithindustryleaderJasperEnginesandTransmissionstheSV-20incorporatesthehigh-endfeaturesthatsatisfybothproductionbuildersandperformanceshopsbutatacostthatwontbreakthebank.HereiswhatyougetwiththeSV-20Truelinearstrokingsystemkeepsthehoningtoolconcentricfortheentireborelengthtoproduceconsistentdiameterfromtoptobot-tomcylinderaftercylinderRobust5.5HpspindlemotorispowerfulenoughtodriveSunnensheavy-dutytwo-stagediamondhoneheadsforshortercycletimesandsuperaccuracyRotaryservotoolfeedsystemallowsautomatic2-stagehoning--aroughcycleforfaststockremovalandanishcycleforoptimumboregeometry--withoutstoppingtochangeabrasivesbetweencyclesAdvancedPLCcontrolwithcolortouchscreenallowseasycontrolofallhoningparameterssuchascrosshatchangleautodwellandon-the-ychangingofspindleandstrokespeedsFullboreproledisplayprojectsareal-timeimageoftheborecrosssectionallowingtheusertoquicklyseeproblemareasandnetunetheresultsOptionalrolloverxtureaccommodateslargeV-blockswithdeckplatesattachedevenextrememountainmotorsandmanydieselsInaclassbyitself......SunnensnewSV-202012SunnenSt.LouisMOUSAA12-1engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP63 64JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional5MINUTESWITHANAERAMEMBERBYSTEPHENKIMthatauthenticitytracesbacktotheschoolsfounderJudsonMassingill.Likemanykidsgrowingupinthe60sJudsoncuthishotroddingteethstreetracing.Withhis69CamaroZ28servingashisaccompliceJudsonhustledenoughmoneyoutofthecompetitiontopayforhiswaythroughschool.AracertothecoreJudsonsgoalsinlifeweretogoracingandtogetauniversityeducationtobecomeamorecompetitiveracer.Aseventstranspireditjustsohappenedthatbothofthesegoalswouldeventuallyleaduptothebirthofoneoftheindustrysmostrespectedvocationalschools.LikemanyracersJudsonalwayssearchedforwaystogofaster.Howeverunlikethecompetitionthatmerelycopiedwhattheysawaroundthemherealizedthatthekeytogoingfasterwasfirstunderstandingthefundamentalsofenginedynamicsthenapplyingfreshoutside-the-boxconceptsandideastopushthelimitsofhorsepowerproductionandreliability.TheplanworkedwellasJudsonsearlyenginecombinationscleanedhouseonthelocalstreetracingscene.Wordquicklyspreadaboutthiskidthatbuiltkillerenginesoutofhisgarageandfellowracersstartedbringinghimwork.AcollegestudentbydayandanenginebuilderbynightJudsonbuilteverythingfromhotstreetmotorstoseriousdragandcircletrackcombinations.HistalentseventuallycaughttheeyeofalocalTexasoiltycoonwhohiredJudsontoruntheengineshopforhisWinstonCupandARCAraceteamsin1977.Theprivateereffortprovedquitesuccessfulwinningthe1980ARCA200attheDaytonaInternationalSpeedway.LaterthatyearJudsonandhiswifeLindapurchasedtheshopandopenedthedoorstoNorthwestEngineandSupply.WithLindarunningthebooksandlogisticsoftheshopJudsonfocusedhiseffortsonbuildingsomeofthebestmotorsinthebusiness.NorthwestEngineandSupplyearnedanoutstandingreputationatboththelocalandnationallevelsbuildingmotorsforstreetcarspowerboatsdragcarscircletrackcarsandroadracemachines.Despitetheshopssuccessfindingqualifiedmachinistsandenginebuilderswasaconstantchallenge.Wespentseveralyearstrainingeachofouremployeesonhowtooperatemachineryandbuildengines.ThenassoonastheybecameproficientatwhattheydidtheyquitandstarteduptheirownshopsJudsonrecalls.AfterourshopforemanquitIgotfrustratedandtoldLindathatwerenothingbutatrainingfacilityformachinists.Weknewallalongthatfindingqualifiedmachinistswasoneofthebiggestchallengesfacingourindustrysowedecidedtostartabusinessdoingwhatwehadalreadybeendoingforfree.ItstartedoutasafewtrainingseminarshereandtherebutaftertwoyearsofjumpingthroughbureaucratichoopswestartedtheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistsin1985.Race-InspiredCurriculumYoucantteachsomeonetothinklikearacerunlesstheyrefullyimmersedinaracingenvironment.ThatswhySAMpacksitsfacilitywithin-houseracecarsthatcompeteinnationaleventsacrossthecountry.Thestableincludesa99CamaroSSanda95Mustangwhichbothrundeep-8-secondpassesinthequarter-mileanda98Camarothanrunshigh-9sinfullstreettrim.NotonlydoSAMstudentsandinstructorsdesignbuildanddynotesttheenginecombinationsfortheseracecarsasclassprojectsbuttheyalsoserveasthepitcrewatthetrack.ConsequentlyitsnotsurprisingthatSAMstudentsexcelinthefieldwhengoingtoworkforbig-nameengineshopsaftergraduation.InessenceSAMsfacilityisafull-serviceengineshopcompletewithblockmachiningequipmentseveralengineassemblyroomsacylinderheadportingdepartmentaflowbenchanenginedynoafive-axisCNCmachineandachassisdynothatjusthappenstohaveclassroomsaswell.SAMbreaksdownitscurriculumintothreeprogramsBlockMachiningCylinderHeadMachiningandCNCMachining.Eachprogramtakesninemonthstocompleteandisfarmorecomprehensivethanwhattheirnamessuggest.TheBlockMachiningprogramincludescoursesthatcoverbasicmachinistmathinternalcombustionenginetheoryenginedisassemblyandinspectionhowtooperatemachiningequipmentengineassemblyandblueprintingandenginedynotesting.Studentshavetheopportunitytobuildanddynotestenginesoftheirown.Whileshort-blockdesigniscriticaltothesuccessofanyraceengineJudsonrealizesthesubstantialrolethatcylinderheaddesignplaysintheoverallhorsepowerequation.HeimpressesthispointonhisstudentsfromdayoneandSAMsCylinderHeadMachiningprogramcontinuallyproducessomeofthebestheadportersinthecountry.InadditiontoSinceSAMstartedoutasafull-serviceengineshopthatwaslaterconvertedintoavocationalschoolstudentsreceivetrainingonmachiningequipmentthatiswidelyusedthroughouttheindustry.BythetimetheyfinishtheprogramSAMgraduatesareexpertsinoperatingboringboreshoningmachinesdeckresurfacersandcrankbalancers.TheAccreditingCommissionofCareerSchoolsandCollegesACCSCawardedSAMwiththeprestigiousSchoolofExcellenceawardforthe2011-2012schoolyear.TheawardrecognizesschoolsthatmaintainahighlevelofachievementamongtheirstudentsandSAMwasoneofonly13schoolsnationwidetoreceivetheaward. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP65teachingairflowtheoryandcylinderhead-relatedmathintheclassroomtheprogramcoverscylinderheaddisassemblymachiningblueprintingandassemblyprocedures.Furthermorestudentslearntheartofheadportingfromhighlyexperiencedinstructorsandtesttheresultsoftheirworkontheflowbenchanddyno.AlthoughSAMsBlockMachiningandCylinderHeadMachiningprogramsgivestudentsmorethanenoughtrainingtosteprightintoaprofessionalengineshoptheschoolhasrecentlyaddedaCNCMachiningprogramtoitscourseworkaswell.AtestamenttoSAMscommitmenttoevolvewiththecutting-edgetrendsintheracingindustrytheschoolsnewlyacquiredHaasfive-axisCNCmachineoffersstudentsyetanothertooltohelpmaximizethehorsepowerpotentialoftheraceenginestheywillonedaybuildinthefield.CNCmachinesaregoingtobeeverywhereverysoonbecausetheyrebecomingsomuchmoreaffordable.TeachingourgraduateshowtoprogramandoperateCNCmachinesisgoingtogivethemaleguponthecompetitionwhichiswhywefelttheneedtoaddCNCcoursestoourcurriculumJudsonexplains.EvenbasicmachineworklikemachininglifterandcamboresarenowbeingdoneonCNCmachines.Manuallydoingoperationslikethatonamillorboringbartakesfivetimesaslong.Ourgoalistogiveourgraduatestheskillstheyneedtosucceedinarapidlychangingindustrythatisbecomingincreasinglydependentontechnology.TheCNCMachiningprogramoffersrigorouscoursesthatutilizeMastercamCADCAMsoftwareandFAROcoordinatemeasurementmachines.Additionallytheprogramprovideslessonsondigitizingtechniquesandfixturefabricationandsetup.OncecompletingtheCNCMachiningprogramgraduatesareproficientindigitizingcylinderheadportscreatingCNCmachiningprogramsandmachiningblocksheadsandspecialtycomponentsonafive-axismachine.StudentsalsolearnhowtouseCNCmachiningtokeepintakeportexhaustportandcombustionchamberdesignconsistentandrepeatablefromcylindertocylinder.WhenscrutinizedindividuallyorasawholeSAMsthree-prongedcurriculumisimpressivebothinitscomprehensivenessandinitsrelevancetotheneedsoftheindustry.Raceengineshopshoweverarenttheonlyonesthatagree..In2011theAccreditingCommissionofCareerSchoolsandCollegesapprovedSAMsapplicationforanassociatesdegreeprogram.NowstudentsgraduatingfromSAMmayalsoearnanAssociateofAppliedSciencedegreeinAutomotiveEngineBlockCylinderHeadMachining.IFormoreinformationabouttheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistspleasecall713683-3817orvisitthewebsitewww.samracing.com.AfterGraduationCompletinganyeducationalprogramisalwayssomethingtotakeprideinbutitsoftentemperedbythechallengesoffindingajob.FortunatelySAMsunparalleledreputationintheautomotiveandracingindustrygivesitsgraduatesaccesstopowerfulnetwork-ingopportunities.InfactwhenthetopteamsinNASCARSprintCupNHRAProStockADRLNMCANMRAandIndyCarhaveopeningsforskilledenginebuilderstheyoftencontactSAMtotapintoitsvastpoolofgraduates.Big-nameshopsasidecountlessregionalengineshopsspe-cializinginstreetstripenginesforgrassrootsrac-erssuchasLingenfelterPerformanceEngineeringMastMotorsportsKatechandBESRacingEnginesturntoSAMtohelpfilltheirjobopeningsaswell.Engineshopsarenttheonlybusinessesinneedofskilledmachinists.Manyoftheauto-motiveaftermarketstopmanufacturersemploySAMgraduatesaswell.SomeexamplesincludeDartMachineryBrodixAirflowResearchGRPConnectingRodsIndyCylinderHeadWilsonManifoldsWisecoTrickflowProChargerTotalEngineAirflowandWorldProducts.Furthermoresomegraduatesaspiretoblazetheirowntrailandmanyopenuptheirownsuccessfulengineshops.ForbothprospectivestudentsandemployersaliketheSchoolofAutomotiveMachinistsuniquerace-inspiredcurricu-lumcanhelpyougettothefinishlinefirst.Formoreinformationvisitwww.samracing.com.WiththevarietyofprojectsthatrollthroughthedoorsatSAMstudentshavetheopportunitytoworkonoldrelicstheywouldtypicallyhavenoexposureto.Studentsdesignedandbuiltthis461cubicinchbig-blockOldsmobilemotorwhichproduced514hpand540lb-ftonthedyno. 66JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalSincetheinceptionof2-strokeoutboardmotorspoundforpoundortosaymoreappropriatelycubicinchforcubicinchthesemotorsputoutmorehorsepowerandtorquethananybigblockV-8.ThecombinationofhighR.P.M.waterleverageandfootpoundsoftorquecreateanincredibleamountofoutputwhichisntforthefaintofheart.Alongwiththistremendouspowercomestremendousresponsibility.Yeseventuallythesepowerful2-strokersdevelopenginewearwhenandiftheyrenotproperlymaintainedandenginefailureisinevitable.Outboardenginemanufacturershavelongurgedtheirengineeringdepartmentstodevelopacylinderandpistoncombinationthatputsouthorsepowerwithindestructibleperformance.Thesehavebeenloftygoalsandthemanufacturershavecomeveryclose.Butunfortunatelyfortheenduserandthankfullyforyoutheindestructibleenginehasnotbeenproduced.Manufacturershavetriedavarietyofcylinderstyles.Theystartedwith2-strokecylinders.Thenwiththecleanairmandatesbroughttoyoubyundereducatedpoliticiansmorecurrentlyisthedeveloped4-strokemotorwhichisbecomingmoreprominent.Anotherdesignchallengewaswhetheroutboardenginesshouldbemanufacturedwithabore-ablesleevedcylinderoranaluminumcylinderwitheitherchromeornickel-siliconcarbidecoatingalsoknownasNikasil.Theadvantagesanddisadvantagesarestilldebatedbyengineersenginebuildersandracers.O.E.M.cylinderswithcastironhavebeatenenginesmadewithcoatedaluminumcylindersnotonlyindynotestsbutonthewater.Thesamecanbesaidforengineswithcoatedaluminumcylinderswhenchallengedagainstthesleevedcylinders.Engineerscontinuetoexplorethisissue.Consumersmayfeelthatthishasnothingtodowiththeirweekendwaterexcursions.AslongastheboatrunshardandcontinuestobereliablewhatdoesitmatterConsumersrarelyworryaboutwhatsintheengineonlywhatpreciouscargoitscarrying.Itdoesntusuallymatterwhentheboatisnew.ButwithtodayseconomicchallengesfiscalcliffthreatsandpoliticalpowerplaysmanyboatownersarebringingouttheoldorbuyingusedboatsinsteadofnewwhichinherentlyincreasestheoddsthattheinevitableenginefailurewillhappenwellbeforetheUSeconomynosedivesoffthefiscalcliff.2-strokemotorsarethemostefficienthorsepowerproducinggasburningenginesmadetodatebuttherealityisthatenginefailureoccurswhenthemotorispushedtothelimitwhilepoorlymaintainednotunlikethepoliticalpunditrylocatedinWashingtonDC.Whennewmotorsarereleasedtheyrereviewedandreceiveatremendousamountofwelldeservedpraise.Theboatshandlingandergonomicsnotwithstandingthemotorsoutputiswhatgenerallyreceivesthemostattention.Boatownersarenodifferentintheirperformancementalityandexpectationsasthestreethot-rodderscounterpart.Theyreinthemarketforreliabilitycombinedwithhorsepower.2-strokeenginestendtogetwornoutbutnotasquicklyasthenewerhigherperformance4-strokes.On2-strokesstressesonworncylinderboreswillbepushedonlysofarandfailurebecomesareality.With4-strokesthevalveswillwearasquicklyasthecylinderboreifnotsooner.ManyoutboardstodayarechromedorNikasilcoatedaluminum.Thissurfacematerialisveryhardbydesign.Thefactoriesproclaimlessringfrictiontocylinderwallandbetterheatdissipationwithcoatedcylinders.Asthemotorsweardownorhaveleanconditionsthecoatingbeginstowear.Normallythecoatingis.004to.008inthickness.Ifatanytimethecoatingwearsorflakesawayaluminumbehindthecoatingbeginstoshowitself.Ifthepistonisexposedtorawaluminumthepistonwillimmediatelymeltintothealuminumuntilseizureoccurs.SavingOutboardEnginesBeforeandAfterBYDAVEMETCHKOFFYamaha4-strokeblocksleevesinstalled. 68JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalSAVINGOUTBOARDENGINESBYDAVEMETCHKOFFNikasilchromelinedcylinderscannotbereadilyrepairedasthecoatingsarenotbore-able.Thereforeanewmotoristheownersfirstthought.Thepriceforreplacingaworncylindercostsanaverageretailpriceofabout1500.00anexpensiveneedlessfix.Inthecaseofcylinderswithsleevesstandardfromthefactorysleevedcylindersdissipateheatwithexcellentefficiencyandmostimportantlypistonringssealtighterinsleevedcylinders.Thisringsealisvitalforthemotortosustaingreatertorqueforwiderpowercurveduration.ThistorquewillmakethemotorfeelmuchstrongereventhoughtheremaybelessR.P.M.output.L.A.SLEEVEhasbeenmanufacturingcylindersleevessince1945.Inthattimetheyhavebecomeoneofthelargestrecreationalcylinderrebuildingcenters.Thereisprobablynosituationintermsofenginefailurethatwevenotseen.Wevegatheredinformationregardingenginefailureforyearsandinfactwerestilllearning.Andweenjoysharingthisinformationwithanybodywillingtolisten.Heattransferisnotanissue.TheNASCARteamsstillruncastironproducedblocks.Castironcylindersleevesareconductivematerialbyitsnature.Centrifugallyspuncastironhasamoredensemicrostructureandgrainflowthaneventhefactorymaterial.Keytoheattransferinasleevedcylinderiscylinderborepreparation.Westressinstallerstohonealuminumorironcylinderwallsalmosttoaplateau.Thefinesurfacewillcreatecontactonvirtuallyallpointsonthesleevesurface.HeatwillracethroughthesleeveandthroughthealuminumjacketNew4-strokeoutblockboredtosize. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP69moreefficiently.Onlystipulationittakesnearlytwoandahalfminuteslongertoachievemaximumthermalexpansionrate.Thereforeifyouencourageyourcustomerstotakeanadditionalfewminutestoheattheirmotorupitwillbeunlikelyaproblemwilleveroccur.Ringsealhasalwaysbeenoneoftheenginebuildersmanymajorconcerns.WhyRingsealmeanscompression.Compressionmeanseverythingwhenconvincingadynothatthemotorisstrong.Thecastironsleeveismorereceptivetooilretention.Ironsleeveswillholdafinerfilmofoil.Thereforeslipperyslicklubricityofthecylinderboreallowstheringtorideontheoilnotthecylinderbore.Theplatingisveryhardbutcanbemoreabrasivethanironwhenworn.Thereforeshouldthemotorgetblow-byortheoilloseviscositytheringwillweardownquicklyrunningontheplating.Whentheringsweardownthemotorwilllosecompression.Itwillrunbutitwillrunlethargic.Ringsealisthekeytocompression.Compressionisthekeytotorque.Andasyoureawaretorqueequalshorsepower.Withtheadventofaftermarketplatingthedebateoverre-sleeveorplatingisheretostay.Theproponentofplatingwillproclaimthefalsehopethatplatingislighteraverage4-strokesleeveweight30oz.platingishardersleevewillneverflakeorpeelandtheco-efficientofthermalexpansionisbetterexpansionrateiron.000006per1000degreeswhichisminimalconsideringaseizurewilloccuratabout480degreesattheintakesideofcylinder.Whenourcylinderrepairdepartmentreceivesablockwithoriginalplatingtheblockisboredoutverycarefullyandthechrome-molycastironsleeveisinstalled.Onceinstalledtheyremeticulouslymatchported.There-sleeveprocesswillinitiallysaveabouthalfthepriceofanewcylinderandinthelongrunsavemoremoney.Iftheengineagainfailsthesleevedcylindercansimplybeboredtoacceptanewoversizepiston.UsuallythreeoversizesofReplacementsleevesforMercuryoutboardmotors. 70JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalSAVINGOUTBOARDENGINESBYDAVEMETCHKOFFpistonsareavailable.Rememberboringforanoversizepistoncannotbeperformedonacoatedcylinder.BoatownerswithO.E.M.castironsleevedcylindershavemoreoptionswhentheirengineswear.FranklytherebuildingprocesscanberelatedtorepairingprocessofaluminumV-8sdieselortractorenginesequippedwithremovablecastironsleeves.Repairingeachholeusuallyconsistsofasimpleborejobanewpistonkitandgasketsetandyourcustomerisbackonthewater.Ifthecylinderisjustslightlyscoredrunningahonethroughtheborecanalsoputthecylinderintogoodrunningcondition.Eventuallyafterseveralboresthroughthelargestpistonoversizenearlyalloutboardmotorscanbere-sleevedwithreplacementsleeves.Ifyoualreadyserviceboatmotorsforyourlocalconsumersweencourageyoutoofferyourcustomerspreventativemaintenancechecklisttokeepthesefailuresfromhappeninginthefirstplace.Yourcustomerswillneverforgetyouassistingtheminthepreventionoffailureswhentheirmotoreventuallyfails.Theywillcomebacktoyouifthetrustisbuiltinadvance.YourcustomersshouldknowthefourdeadlysinswhichcauseengineArmageddonmeltdown1.Lackofproperandtimelymaintenance.Thosemaintenanceschedulesaremadeforapurpose.Getlazypaytheprice.2.Coldseizurecausedbynotwarmingupamotorproperly.Outboardsareinanaturallycoolenvironmenttobeginwith.CantwaittogetonthewaterJustaminutelongerforwarm-uphelpsyourmotorreachproperrunningtemperature.Otherwisestickapiston.3.Leanseizurecausedbyinsufficientoilpre-mixtureoldgasandorairleaks.Dontforgetgasolineandoilcangetstalewhensittingforextendperiodsoftime.NoteiflocatedinCaliforniarecommend89Octane.Why89Octanecontainstheleastamountofdetergents.The87and91Octanecanbeharmfultobothtwoandfourstrokeplatedmotors.Checkandtightenheadcaseandenginebolts.Besuretofollowcorrecttorquerecommendations.4.Fuelblow-bycausedbyexcessivepistonclearance.HearapistonrattleorslapthatwasnttherelasttimeyourodeCheckpistonandringclearancebeforetheheatblowingbytheringscausesyourcylindertogrenade.Followregularmaintenanceandthedecisiontore-sleevewillnotlikelyapply.Butforthosetowhomtheseizurebelltollsthedecisionshouldbeeasy.IDaveMetchkofffromL.A.SLEEVECo.Inc.inSantaFeSpringsCA.Formoreinformationcalltoll-free800-822-6005oremailinfolasleeve.com.Websitewww.lasleeve.com.SM1000ForOnly21250TheBestSurfacerOnThePlanetPrecisionsurfacingthatyoucanrelyontolastmanygenerations.Bercohas90plusyearsofmanufacturingqualitymachinesthatlastalifetimeJointhethousandsofshopsthathaveexperiencedthequalityofBercobutnowatanaffordableprice. 72JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTECHSIDEBYLAKESPEEDJR.WhileyoumaythinkthewholeZincissuehasbeenbeatenlikeadeadhorsetherealityisveryfewpeopleactuallyunderstandwhathaschangedinmotoroilsoverthelastdecadeandtherealproblemliesinthefactthatthesesamepeoplearetheoneswhostandtosufferfromthesechanges.Typicallytheaveragehotrodderorracerknowstheleastaboutthemotoroilgoingintothatveryexpensiveengine.WhilemanyprofessionalenginebuildersknowthatmotoroilshavechangedmanyofthemwouldnotknowthedifferencebetweenZDTPandZDDP.WhatsthatyouaskIsntallZincthesameLetsgetthefactsstraightaboutZinc.WhenwetalkaboutZincinmotoroilswhatwearereallytalkingaboutisafamilyofadditivescalledZincDiakylDithioPhosphatesbetterknowasZDDP.ManydifferenttypesofZDDPadditivesexistPrimarySecondaryandAry.ThesedifferenttypesofZinchavedifferentactivationthresholds.YouseeZincisnotalubricantuntiltheZDDPreactsunderheatandloadtocreateaphosphateglassfilmthatprotectsthemetalsurface.Thatiscriticaltoprotection.Zincneedsheatandloadforittoactivateandthenlubricatethesurface.SometypesofZincactivatefasterunderlessheatandlessloadthanothertypesofZinc.ThesefastburnZincadditivesprovidebetterprotectionduringenginebreak-inbecausetheyreactfasterandestablishthatprotectivePhosphateglasscoatingquicklyduringthecriticalbreak-inphase.AlltypesofZDDPfunctioninthesamemanner.Zincisapolarmoleculesoitisattractedtosteelsurfaces.UnderheatandloadtheZincreactswiththesteelsurfaceandcreatesaphosphateglassfilmthatprotectsthesteelsurfacebyformingasacrificialfilmthatcoversthepeaksandfillsinthevalleysofthesteelsurface.HowmuchheatandhowmuchloadisrequiredtoactivatetheZincdependsonthetypeofZincinyouroil.SecondaryZDPisthemostactivetypeofZincbutitisalsoblamedforreducingcatalyticconverterlife.NewerlessactiveZDPsarebeingusedintheAPISNandGMdexos1oilspecificationinordertomeetincreaseddemandsoncatalyticconverterlife.ThismeansthetypeofZincusedinyourfavoritebrandofoilmayhavechangedifyouarestillbuyingoilforyourhotrodatthebigboxretailstore.ThisnewlessactiveZincwasintroducedin2010forthe2011modelyearcarsandtrucks.AreyoureadyforsomegoodnewsThekeytohowmuchandwhattypeofZincyourengineneedsdependsonyourenginesvalvetrain.IfyouhaveastockvalvetrainandnootherperformancemodificationsthenanAPIlicensedoilisallyouneed.EveryAPIlicensedoilwillprotectstockenginesundernormalstreetdrivingcycles.Whenyoustartmakingperformancemodificationsorbeginracingeverythingchanges.HigherliftcamswithlongerdurationsandgreaterspringpressuresneedafasterresponsefromtheZinc.OildevelopmentinraceenginesshowthatfasteractingZDTPdoesabetterjobprotectinghighlyloadedvalvetrains.BasicallytheZincpackageneedstobeoptimizedfortheapplicationandthisiswheretheconfusionensues.ManypeoplehavehadgoodsuccesswithpremiumAPIlicensedproductsinstockengineapplicationsaswelltheyshould.HoweverthiscancreateafalseperceptionthatAPIlicensedoilsshouldworkineveryapplicationbutthisissimplynotthecase.Whenyougobeyondnormalvalveliftoperatingtemperaturesandcylinderpressurestheoilformulaneedstoadapttothesenewrequirements.BecausethemodificationsfalloutsidetheOEMguidelinesusedbytheAPItodetermineoilperformancespecificationsanAPIperformanceleveldoesnotapply.Thisleavestheconsumerinthedark.IfthatknowledgeleavesyoufeelinglessthanconfidentthenyoumaynotwanttolearnaboutdetergentsanddispersantadditivesinmotoroilthatactuallycompeteagainsttheZincinyourengine.WhatThatisright.Zincisnotaloneinyourmotoroil.SeveralotheradditiveslikedetergentsdispersantsViscosityIndexImproversandothersallcompeteagainsttheZincinsideyourenginesometimeswithnegativeconsequences.BackinAugustof2005lessthanayearafterAPISMwasintroducedtheSocietyofTribologistsandLubricationEngineerspublishedastorystatingthatCalciumbaseddetergentsanddispersantscompetedagainsttheZDDPforsurfacespaceandthatcausedsomewearissuesinpassengercarengines.Aroundthissametimemanyenginebuildersbegantoexperiencearashofflattappetcamfailuresduringbreak-in.ThelevelofZDDPhadalsobeenreducedintheAPISMoilspecandalongwiththeincreaseduseofcalciumdetergentsanddispersantsthecriticalbalancehadshifted.Theresultswerenearlycatastrophicforindependentenginebuildersandcamshaftmanufacturers.Therateofflattappetcamfailuresescalatedatanalarmingrate.ThedecreaseinZDDPfrom1000ppmdownto800ppmwascalledoutasthecausefortherashofcamfailures.ThisfailedtotakeintoaccountthechangeinZDDPtodetergentbalance.SomanyenginebuildersswitchedtodieseloilsthatcontainedhigherlevelsofZDDPandthatworkedsufficientlyuntilthedieseloilsunderwentareductioninZDDPdownto1200ppminOctoberof2006.Bytheendof2007enginebuilderswereagainonhuntforahigherZincsolution.Thistimemanyswitchedtoproperlyformulatedbreak-inoilshighinZDDPandlowindetergent.SomestillheldontothedieselTheTruthAboutEngineOil CALL1-800-527-7604www.regismanufacturing.comREGISMFG.1500CorinthStDallasTX75215800-527-7604214-421-5171Fax800-535-8414214-565-1704RequestacopyofournewlyupdatedcatalogfilledwithhundredsofenginebuildingtoolsandsuppliesNEWREGISCATALOGNOWAVAILABLEengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP73 74JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTECHSIDEBYLAKESPEEDJR.oilsandaddedanofftheshelfZDDPsupplement.TheZDDPsupplementwasastepintherightdirectionbutitstillfailstoaddresstheabundanceofdetergentduringbreak-in.PluswhoknowswhattypeofZDDPyouareaddingIsitfastburnorslowburnZDDP.Havingtherightbalanceofadditivesisthekeytoapplicationspecificprotectionandperformance.HerearethefactsastheyrelatetoofftheshelfmotoroilsPriorto1993theZDDPcontentofmotoroilwasnotlimited.By1996theZDDPcontentwaslimitedto1000ppmbutnocamfailuresduetothatlevelofZDDPwerereported.By2004theZDDPlevelwasdownto800ppminAPISMlicensedoils.ThiswasmandatoryforAPIlicensedoilsthatwereSAE10W-30orless.Dieseloilsaretypically10W-40orhighersotheseviscositygradescancontainupto1200ppmZDDPinaccordancetotheAPICJ-4Dieselengineoilstandard.Howeveralloftheseoilshaveincreasedlevelsofdetergentsanddispersantssincethelate1990s.Theincreaseddetergentsanddispersantsallowforlongerdrainintervalsandhelptokeepenginescleanerwhentheenginesareforcedtouseexhaustgasrecirculationtolimitemissions.Againallofthesechangesmakesenseinthecontextofmodernpassengercarsandfleetdieselengines.Theproblemliesinusingtheseproductsinapplicationstheyweredesignedorintendedforracingtrackdaysandhotrodding.Aproperraceoilshouldbedesignedtoprotectunderextremelyintenseconditionsandthenbechangedonaregularbasis.Goodracingoilsallowtheusertochangetheoilfilteraftereachweekendeventandaddfreshoilandafilteraslongastheoilstilllookstobeingoodcondition.Assoonastheoilshowssignsofdarkeningchangetheoil.Aproperhotrodoilcangoallyearlongupto3000milesbeforeneedingtobechanged.Alsoahotrodoilisdesignedtoprotectinthegarageaswellasonthetrack.Manyhotrodsarenotdailydriverssotheyseeextendedperiodsofstorage.Agoodhotrodoilprovidesstorageprotectionaswellaswearprotection.Againbacktothewordbalance.Thereisalotofhype.Alotofproductsbutonlyonerealtruththeproperbalanceiswhatmakesanoilrightforanapplication.AperfectexampleofthatisanAPISNmotoroil.Whilethisspecmotoroilislimitedto800ppmofacatalyticconverterfriendlyZDDPanAPISNoilcanbreakinaflattappetcamshaft.Theflattappetcaminquestionhaslessthan.400valveliftandnomorethan215psivalvespringpressure.SoanAPISNoilwillprotectaflattappetcambutyouwontseesuccesstryingtobreakinabigblockChevycamwithover.500valveliftandover300psivalvespringpressurewithanAPISNoil.Youseeitisthedifferentdemandsofthevalvetrainloadsthatdictatewhatbalanceisrequiredtoprotect.Thebottomlineisthatbiggerliftlongerdurationcamswithmorespringpressuresneedaproperbreak-inoiltoestablishthatcriticalanti-wearfilm.Afterbreak-inuseahotrodstyleoilforstreetstripusetomaintainthatprotectiveZincfilm.Forraceapplicationsuseaproperracingoiltodeliverracespecificperformance.AstockV-8maylookverysimilartoahotrodV8oraracingV8butinrealityeachoftheseapplicationsneedsadifferentbalancetoprovidetheproperprotectionforyourinvestment.Thegoodnewsisthatspecialtyoilsarenowavailablethatprovidetheapplicationspecificprotectionperformanceenginesneedandnowthatyouknowthisyoucanchoosethecorrectoilforyourengine.TheevenbetternewsisthatyoudontreallyneedtounderstandthecomplexitiesofZDDPanddetergents.Allyoureallyneedtoknowisthephonenumbertoyouroilsupplier.Givethemacallanddescribeyourapplicationandletthemgiveyouarecommendation.Ifyoucantreachthetechdepartmenttryadifferentoilsupplier.Withtodaystechnologyandplethoraofproductsitshouldnottakemorethanadaytoobtainaproperrecommendationbasedonyourspecificapplication.ILakeSpeedJr.fromDrivenRacingOilisthesonofLakeSpeedSr.whoracedinNASCARfrom1980to1998.Formoreinformationcallat704239-4401ore-maillspeeddrivenracingoil.com.Findmoretechnicaldataatwww.drivenracingoil.com. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP75Letsfaceitthedaysofjustchoosingyourfavoritebrand20W-50andputtingitinyourmusclecarracecarandlawntractorareover.Whileeachengineisa4stroketheenginesthemselvesandthemotoroilsaremorespecialized.Sothatmeansyouhavetodecidewhichoilisrightforyourmusclecarwhichoilyouwilluseinyourracecarandwhatoilyouwilluseinyourlawntractor.Thekeytoselectingtherightoilforanyapplicationismatchinguphowtheengineisusedwithoilchemistryforthattypeofuse.Nowbacktoyourlawntractor.IfyouarejustcuttinggrassthefactoryrecommendedoilisjustfinebutifyouaredragracingthelawnmowerpleaseremovethebladeAndwhileyouareatitdraintheoilandputinsomeracingoil.Youseehowtheenginerunsdetermineswhattypeofoiltouse.Acarthatmakesashortdrivetowork5daysaweekneedsmoreTBNthanaracecarthatruns50lapseachweekend.WhatisTBNyouaskTBNstandsforTotalBaseNumberanditmeasureshowmuchacidneutralizingpowerisintheoil.Youmaynotrealizeitbutcorrosivewearisoneofthemajorformsofwearinyourengine.Infactoneofthemainreasonsforincreasedenginelifetodayhasbeenthereductionincorrosivewear.Thatsrightmanyolderenginesdidnotwearouttheycorroded.Shorttripdrivingistheworstforproducingenginekillingacids.Waterisaby-productofcombustionsosomewatervaporalwaysmakesitswayintothecrankcaseofyourengine.Iftheenginedoesnotrunlongenoughtogetwarmenoughtoevaporatethewatervaporoutoftheenginethewatervaporbuildsup.Whentheenginecoolsdownthewatervaporcondensatesandnowyouhavewaterinyourengine.Thewatermixeswiththesulfurintheoilandthepartiallyburntfueltocreateaverycorrosivechemicalcocktail.Tofightthisoilengineershavedevelopeddetergentanddispersantadditivestofightcorrosion.ThepoweroftheadditivesrelatestotheTBNvalueoftheoil.AverystrongdetergentanddispersantpackagewillhaveahighTBNvalueandthatsignifiesanoilthatisgoodforfrequentshorttripdriving.OksowhynotuseahighTBNoilinmyracecarSimplyputthehardertheenginerunsthelessTBNyourengineneeds.Thatmayseemcounter-intuitivebutitactuallymakessensewhenyouknowthatDetergentsandDispersantcompeteagainsttheZincanti-wearadditivesandEPextremepressureadditivesyourraceengineneeds.Nobodybuildingaraceenginelowerscompressionratioinstallslighterspringsandasmallercamtomakeaproductionengineintoaracemotor.Nopeyoudotheoppositeandwhenyoudoyouincreaseallthecontactpressuresintheengine.Theincreasedpressuresandloadsintheengineneedextraanti-wearprotectionsotheoilengineersaddmoreanti-wearadditiveslikezincZDDPZDPorZDTPandEPextremepressureadditiveslikeMolybdenumandSulfur.Theseanti-wearandEPadditivesformsacrificialfilmsthatprotectyourraceenginefromadhesivewearduetothehigherloadsinaraceengine.Anti-wearadditivesandEPadditiveslikeZDPandMolybdenumDisulfideactlikearmortoshieldyourenginepartsfromadhesivewear.Thedetergentsanddispersantsthatfightcorrosiveweararetryingtostripthatarmoroffyourengineparts.Alloftheseadditivesareneededtoprotectyourengine.Thekeyisselectingtherightbalanceforyourengine.Whileraceoilsprovidemoreanti-wearandEPadditivestofightadhesivewearthelowerlevelofDetergentandDispersantrequiremorefrequentoilchangestocontrolcorrosivewear.SinceadailydriverismorepronetocorrosiveweartherightoilforyourdailydriverneedsahigherlevelofDetergentsandDispersantsandtheengineinyourdailydriverisbuiltwithsmallercamshaftsandlightervalvespringsthatsafelyrunonlowerlevelsofanti-wearadditives.WhenyouhaveanoldermusclecarthatdoesshorttripdrivingandseesextendedperiodsofsittinginagarageyouneedahigherTBNoiltoprotectagainstcorrosivedamage.Howevermanyoldermusclecarsalsohaveoldschoolpushrodvalvetrainsandgoodsoundingcamshafts.NowwhatdoyoudoDontworrytheoilengineershavefoundtherightbalanceofincreasedanti-wearadditivesandTBNforyourhotrodenoughZDPforyourcamshaftandenoughTBNtoprotectyourengineduringwinterstorage.SowhataboutthatdragracinglawntractorUsearacingoilandkeepagoodeyeontheoil.Dragracingisacombinationoftheworstofbothdailydrivingandracing-shorttripslowtemperatureandreallyhighloads.Thebestrecipeforlowadhesivewearandlowcorrosivewearinadragracingengineistouseahighqualityracingoilandchangeitoften.Againkeepacloseeyeontheoil.Aslongastheoillooksgoodandsmellsnormaltheoilisgood.Iftheoilturnsdarkbeginstosmelllikefuelorturnsmilkychangetheoil.Theseareallsignsoffueldilutionandchemicalattackontheoilsothebestdefenseforyourengineistosendinfreshtroopswiththecorrectweaponstoprotectyourengineforthewayyouuseyourengine.Iknowthisprocesstakesalittlemorethoughtandworksinceenginesespeciallyraceenginescostalotofmoneybutspendingalittleextratimeandmoneyonyouroilprogramwillmorethanpayoffinextendedenginelife.IWhenshouldyouchoosearacingoiloverahighperformanceoil 76JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalONTHESAMEPAGEBYMIKECARUSOTheChevySmallBlockBibleByThomasJ.MadiganForewordbyVicEdelbrockJr.InformationThisbookshowsushowtochoosebuyandbuildtheUltimateSmallBlockfromGEN-1totodaysLSversions.ItcoverseverySBCsince1955buildingonabudgetchoosingthecorrectpartsforanycombinationbasicmachineworkandincludesLSseries.ItcoverseverythingthatyoucanthinkanditisjustawesomeSection1TheRevolutionarySmallBlocktherevolutionbeginsaroundtheblockandtheNewErapgs.12-72Section2NutsandBoltsbuildingforapurposesettingabudgetbasicmachineworkpgs.73-149Section3DiggingInhardwarecasestudymyfirstbuildpgs.150-195Section4TheUltimateSmallBlockadreamcometrue-buildyourownsupersmallblocktheLSanengineeringperspectivepartsyoucanonlydreamaboutandGMbuilds100millionthsmallblockChevyenginepgs.196-2195BenchRacing6LessoninFuel7Resourcesandanindexpgs.220-239.SuggestionIthasagreatlayoutwithplentyofveryclearimportantpicturesmanyoftheminthemachineshop.ThereisplentyofinputfromtheBoysHerbFishelEdPinkPaulPhaffMikeSessaRobertJungandmanyothers.AsthebooktitlesaysTheChevroletSmallBlockBibleisthedefinitiveSBCresource.Remembermanyyearsagopeoplethatweredoingtheengineworkdidnothavetimetotakepictures.Nowitseasierjustgrabyourphoneandsnapapicture.ThisbookisverygoodandIrecommendyougetacopy.Printedin2012byMotorbooksWorkshopMBI194562ISBNID13978-0-7603-4219-0HowToBuildMaxPerformanceChevyLT-1LT4EnginesByMyronCottrellandEricMcClellanInformationTheGMChevyLT1andLT4V8enginesareaspecialbreed.WhenworkingontheseenginestherearemanyproceduresaswellastipsthatMyronhaslearnedovertheyears.Heispassingthisinformationalonginbookformfromyearsofhands-onexperience.Chapter1Basicdesignyearandmodeldifferencesdesirabilityupgradesmodificationsandoilpanoilpumppickupandwindagetray2Rotatingassemblycrankshaftsconnectingrodspistonsflywheelshubanddamper3Headsvalvesheadflowdataperformancecapabilitiesfactoryheadsandaftermarketheads4ValveTraintimingchainandcoverscamshaftslifterspushrodsrockerarmsvalvelocksretainersspringseatsvalvesandvalvesprings5AirandFuelManagement6IgnitionsandElectronicControls7EngineAssembly8DynoResultsfromthirteendifferentenginesandalltypesofracingincludingperformancestreetusage.ThereisanAppendixcylinderflowdatapageandaSourceGuidepage.SuggestionYoucanbenefitgreatlyfromhavingthisbookatyourfingertips.ThedayIreceiveditattheofficeIusedittoansweroneofourmembersquestions.Dontletthisbookslipby.MyronhasbeenworkingonthisbookforyearsanditwasworththeyearsofwaitingGreatJobMyron.Printedin2012bySADesignSA206ISBNID978-1-934709-50-4HowToBuildMaxPerformancePontiacV8EnginesByRockyRotellaInformationChapter1History2Blocks3Crankshafts4ConnectingRods5PistonsandRings6CylinderHeads7ValveTrains8IntakeManifolds9ExhaustManifolds10Ignition11OilingSystem12Tuning13PerformanceCombinationsplusaSourceGuide.SuggestionRockyreallydidagreatjobofcoveringeverythingandIpersonallylikedthecylinderheadinformation.ThereisagreatselectionofheadsavailableformakingbigpowerforyouoryourPontiacenginecustomers.Thisbookbringsyouuptospeedwiththelatestinformationsoyouoryourcustomerwillknowwhatisavailabletoday.Armedwiththisinformationyoucannowmakeanintelligentdecisionaboutwhatyouneedtodotomakeaspecificamountofhorsepower.Thisallowsyoutofigureouttheamountofmoneyneededtobuildtheenginesoyoucannowsellthejob.GotoyourlocalbookstoreandusetheISBNnumbertoorderit.Printedin2012bySADesignSA233ISBNID978-1-934709-94-8AERATechSpecialistMikeCarusohasover50yearsofenginerebuildingandhigh-performanceexperience.AnASE-certifiedMasterMachinistMikecametoAERAfromFEL-PROshigh-performanceRDandtechlinewhereheworkedfor11years.MikewouldliketohearfromAERAmembersintheshopsWhattypeofbookinformationwouldhelpyoudoyourjobbetterandorfasterContacthimviaemailmikeaera.orgorcall815-526-7609. DRIVENRACINGOIL.COM866611-1820Oilisthelifebloodofanyengine.Whenitcomestohighlycomplexper-formanceenginesitscriticaltochoosetheoilthatmeetsyourenginesspecif-engineoilsrestassuredthatlubricanttechnologyisconstantlyevolvingatthehighestlevelsofmotorsportsandDrivenRacingOilisamajorplayerinthosedevelopments.Onesuchbreak-throughthatDrivenhasrecentlyincor-poratedintoallitssyntheticoptionsismPAOanext-generationsyntheticbaselubricant.Whileyoumayneverhaveheardthisnamebeforewhatthisstuffdoeswillimpressanyonewhoun-derstandsthedifferencebetweenpis-tonsandpetunias.ByusinganmPAObaseforcreatingitsperformancelubri-cantsDrivenisabletocreatealight-weightmotoroilthatretainsahighHTHSHighTemperatureHighShearviscositytogiveyouthebestlubricantpossible-anoilthatslesssensitivetoheatdoesntbreakdownunderextremefrictionandjustplainworksbetter.WinningchampionshipsatthehighestlevelsofmotorsportsistheprimarygoalofDrivenRacingOilsowhileotherbrandsmayclaimtobeperfor-manceoilsonlyDrivenbacksitupbyactuallyracingthesamestuffyoucanbuyofftheshelf.OnlyDrivenRacingOilputstheverysameoilitsellstoyouineveryJoeGibbsracingengine.Fromfullsyntheticraceoilstoenginebreak-inoilsDrivenRacingOiloffersawiderangeofrace-winningproductsthatdeliverperformanceprotectionandvalue.CountlesshoursoftestingandmillionsofdollarsinRDhavebeendevotedtoDrivenRacingOilproducts-andtheresultsspeakforthemselves.untilnowhasbeenPAOwhichisquiteabitbetterthananyconventionalasitfeaturesanindexnumberof140.mPAOhasaviscosityindexof200solidevidenceofitsenhancedlubri-cationpropertiesDynotestsshowthatenginesconsis-tentlygainone-and-a-halfhorsepow-erwiththenewoilformulationscon-tainingmPAO.AsyoucanseethisisahugeadvanceinoiltechnologyandDrivenincludeditinallofitssynthet-icoilsautomatically.Manymotoroilmanufacturersifgiventheopportu-nitywouldhavecreatedabrand-newproductusingmPAOandgivenitanultra-premiumpricetomatchitsper-formance.ButDrivenwhichcurrent-lyistheonlycompanywithaccesstothisnext-generationtechnologyhaschosentouseiteverywhereitcanatnoadditionalcosttoitscustomers.9106jInnovationsInLubricantTechnology-ZeroCompromisesConsiderthatlubricationscientistsusetocomparethequalityofdifferentbaseoils.TheindexisbasedonPenn-sylvaniaCrudewhichisthehighestqualityconventionaloilyoucandrillfor.PACrudehasaviscosityindexof100.Theverybestsyntheticbaseoil 78JAN-MAR2013engineprofessional engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP79 80JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAERAOnlineTrainingCertificationAsofJanuary22013131peoplehaveenrolledintheAERAonlinetrainingcourseforcertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.CongratulationstothosewhohavecompletedbothcertificatesDavidRolandMacombCommunityCollegeMacombMIJimConnorAutomotiveTrainingCenterWarminsterPAToddRiggsSRCofLexingtonLexingtonKYJoeWahrerAllenCorrectionalInstituteWapakonetaOHTomMcCullyAutomotiveTrainingCenterExtonPAJoeHolthofAISEnginesGrandRapidsMITomShoffnerDNJEngineComponentsChatsworthCAEricBouchardAISEnginesGrandRapidsMIDamianMitchelAISEnginesGrandRapidsMIArmandoGuerreroSr.CarquestofSurpriseSurpriseAZJohnJohnsonNiagaraCollegeWellandONCanadaKevinHachkowskiNiagaraCollegeWellandONCanadaPaulWileyNiagaraCollegeWellandONCanadaChrisAmyElkPointABCanadaGarrettMoldoffNortheastAutomotivePartsNassauNYRobKerrWorkmanAutoRepairBrightonONCanadaRandyWhaleyWorkmanAutoRepairBrightonONCanadaMikeBeattieNiagaraCollegeWellandONCanadaChristopherEnsPrecisionEnginesWhitehorseYukonCanadaMatthewTedderMTPDrivetrainManyLAJeffStPeterSPREnterprisesLLCPortWashingtonWIArthurOlivoAllanHancockCollegeSantaMariaCAKevinAlfordMTPDrivetrainManyLAFranciscoTrevinoAllanHancockCollegeSantaMariaCABradleyMallenAutomotiveTrainingCenterWarminsterPAElishiaTedderMTPDrivetrainManyLAJaimeSherburneAllanHancockCollegeSantaMariaCAMikeKloeberPerkinsPacificRidgefieldWAMatthewPeeblesMattsMotorsportsMelbourneFLGregWheelerNiagaraCollegeWellandONCanadaDavidHipplerMTPDrivetrainManyLAKurtScoffieldMWMachineThreeForksMTJamesFallenEngineLabTampaFLKirkRoelfsemaCrowderCollegeNeoshoMODaveNaugleEngineLabTampaFLKennethAlkireCresapAutomotiveCumberlandMDRafaelValleDeltonaFLChadShueyOnoPACurtisSargentMTPDrivetrainManyLAJeffreyMyersMAPAutomotivePhiladelphiaPAAaronBrooksSpringfieldMODavidBrighamBHAutoSupplyMiddleboroMAJeffreyBoxMTPDrivetrainManyLAChrisLoreMTPDrivetrainManyLASamHeisenSantaMonicaCAAdamHuffCarquestofCanadaLtdLondonONCanadaFredThompsonGSAutoPartsLittletonCOPaulSpakowskiSkylineCollegePacificaCAJosephGotelliGotelliSpeedShopS.SanFranciscoCAAERAONLINETRAININGAERAEngineBuildingandMachiningCertificateProgramAERAnowoffersacomprehensiveonlinetrainingprogramnotjustatestleadingtodiploma-qualitycertificatesinCylinderHeadsandEngineMachinist.Technicianswhosuccessfullyearneithercertificatewillholdproofthattheyhaveanelevatedunderstandingofmachiningfundamentalsmeasuringtoolsshopsafetyfastenersenginetheoryenginediagnosisenginedisassemblycomponentcleaninginspectioncrackdetectionandrepaircomponentreconditioningandcylinderheadandblockresurfacing.Eachprogramisanonlineself-pacedcoursewithuptooneyeartocomplete.GaryLewisbookAutomotiveMachiningEngineRepairwillbeincludedwiththe150registrationfee.Everythingatechnicianwillneediscontainedintheprogramwithvideoclipsandsupplementalreadingsatkeylocationswithintheprogram.Thebookwillbeusedasasyllabuswhennotonline.TofindoutmoreaboutAERAOnlineTrainingcallAERAat815-526-7600ext.202andaskforKarenore-mailkarenaera.org.Karencananswerallyourquestionsandwhenreadyregisteryoutobegintheprogram.ToregisterimmediatelypleasefillouttheformontheoppositepageandreturntoAERA. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP81AERAONLINETRAININGAERAEngineBuildingandMachiningCertificateProgramREGISTRATIONFORMNAMECOMPANYNAMEAERAIDNUMBERCOMPANYADDRESSCITYSTATEZIPPHONEE-MAIlAddRESSREQUIREDSIGNEDBYREGISTRATIONFEE150perpersonINCLUDESGaryLewisbookAMOUNTENCLOSEDICHECKPLEASEMAKEPAYABLETOAERA.CREDITCARDIVISAIMASTERCARDIDISCOVERIAMERICANEXPRESSCARDNUMBEREXPIRATIONCSCCARDHOLDERNAMECARDHOLDERSIGNATUREIfpayingbycreditcardpleasefaxcompletedregistrationformtoAERAtoll-freefax888-329-2372OrmailyourcompletedformwithpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.CallAERAtoll-freeifyouhaveanyquestions888-326-2372ordirectat815-526-7600. Letusstraightenyourlogisticsout.IfyouneedalogisticspartnerwhocansteeryourshippingbusinessintherightdirectionyouneedFreightquote.com.Weofferavastarrayofproductsandservicesspecificallydesignedtogiveyouanoptimalshippingexperience.Dontgetlostinamazeoflogistics.VisitFreightquote.comorcallusat800.323.5441today.82JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalOnthesurfacemostmoldedrubberslookthesame.ButtheirchemicalpropertiesareinvisiblesowhodoyoutrustYoucantrustFel-Protoalwaysutilizethemostadvancedmolded-rubbermaterialsappliedwithcomputer-controlledprecisioninstate-of-the-artFederal-Mogulmanufacturingfacilities.AnotherexampleofFel-Prosealingsciencestayingaheadtoprovidethebestsealingsolution.UNIQUEFEL-PROONLYCHEMISTRYSEALINGSCIENCE200hourdynamometertestFEL-PROOTHERGASKETOthergasketpartbeganleakingcoolantat140hours. 2012Federal-MogulCorporation.Allrightsreserved.SEALINGSCIENCELEAKREPAIRSYSTEM-SPECIFICREPAIRONLYFEL-PROisbackedbytheworld-classglobalresourcesofFederal-Mogulandcombinesproprietarydesignengineeringandmanufacturingcapabilitiestocreategasketsproventowithstandthestressesandextremesthatcauseothergasketstofail.FordecadestechnicianshaveplacedtheirtrustinFel-Proanditsteamofdedicatedengineerswhocontinuallypushforwardtodevelopnewsealingscience.Fel-ProPermaDryPlusintakemanifoldgasketsfeatureproprietarymoldedrubbertechnology.Seeoursuperiorsealingscienceforyourselfatwww.felpro-only.comENGINEREPAIRengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP83 TB2603AdditionalHeadGasketOptionfor2007-12MiniCooper1.6LN14EnginesTheAERATechnicalDepartmentoffersthefollowinginformationregardinganadditionalthicknessheadgasketfor2007-2012MiniCooper1.6LN14engines.Thisinformationshouldbeconsideredanytimethecylinderheadisremovedfromabovesubjectengines.Beforeremovingthecylinderheadloosenandre-torqueeachheadbolttoensurethreadstrengthandintegrity.Therehavebeenmanyinstancesofstrippedheadboltholethreadsinthesealuminumcylinderblocks.Determiningacompleterepairduringteardowniswelladvisedratherthanfindingoutduringassemblyprocedures.Beforeanysurfacingoperationsareperformedacoolantpressuretestisadvisedtodetectcoolantleaksfrompossiblecracksorporosityconditions.Usethefollowingdataaftersealingoffallcoolantholes.1Compressedairsupplyatregulatorvalvemustnotexceed43.5psi3bar.2Heatcylinderheadto140F60C.3Submergeheadinwaterbathandobserveforbubbleformation.MeasurethecylinderheadflatnesswithastraightedgeMaximumdeviationfromlevellongitudinalis.00394.100mmMaximumdeviationfromleveltransversalis.0020.050mmIfthecylinderheadisre-machinedathickercoating.012.300mmisalsoavailableforservicepersonnel.HeadGasketThicknessPartNumber.0354.900mmSTD.11127595138.04721.20mm.012.300mmOS11127586908ImportantRubbercoatingoncylinderheadgasketmustnotbedamagedunderanycircumstancesbeforeorduringinstallation.Thisenginerequiresallnewheadboltstoinstallthecylinderhead.Followthesuggestedtorquevalueslistedbelowandtorqueboltsinanoutwardpatternstartingfromthecenterwiththe10mmboltsfirst.BoltDescriptionTorqueValue10mmx145mmTorquevalue22FTLBS30Nm90908mmx95mmTorquevalue15FTLBS15Nm90908mmx35mmTorquevalue22FTLBS30NmTB2604HighEngineOilPressureOn64666076JohnDeereDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingobservedhighengineoilpressureafterbuildinga6466or6076JohnDeeredieselengine.Thisbulletinconcernsenginesthatexperiencedserviceworktotheengineoilcooler.Theseenginesuseanengineoilcoolerandthecoverplatecontainsaspoolvalvesimilartothoseusedinanautomatictransmissionvalvebody.Thespoolvalveisusedtocontroloilfluidpathswhichalterwithdifferentpressures.Checkingthespoolvalvefitandorientationispartoftheenginebuildprocessbeforethecoverplateisattachedtothepumpbodywithanin-betweengasket.Thedirectionalmountinggaskethastwolocatingboltholesandtwooilpathholesforthisverticalmountedoilcooler.Itishoweverpossibletophysicallymountthegasketineitherdirectionwithonlyonebeingcorrect.Theincorrectpositioningofthegasketwillblockofftheoilreturnoilholecreatingexcessivelyhighengineoilpressure.InthisinstancethemountinggasketCinFigure1wasfoundincorrectlyinstalledthusblockingoffoilreturnport.Installationofanewgasketinthecorrectorientationresolvedthehigherengineoilpressure.Ifthisengineassemblywouldhavebeendyno-testedbeforereleasingtothecustomerthehighpressureconditionwouldhavebeenobservedandthisproblemcouldhavebeenresolvedinashortperiodoftime.84JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionaltech engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP85FindenginespecsfastandeasyPRO-SISSAENGINESPECIFICATIONSOFTWAREGIVESYOUACCESSTONEARLY7000ENGINESPECIFICATIONSWITHJUSTACLICKOFYOURMOUSEPLUSYOUCANADDYOUROWNCUSTOMENGINEINFORMATIONTOTHEPRO-SISSADATABASE.SOBYTHETIMEITTAKESYOUTOFINDTHEMANUALWITHPRO-SISSAYOUVEALREADYFOUNDYOURSPECSANDAREBACKTOWORK...THATSAMONEY-MAKINGDIFFERENCEWWW.AERA.ORGPRO-SISTOLL-FREE888-326-2372815-526-7600500COVENTRYLANESTE180CRYSTALLAKEIL60014 86JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionaltechTB2605RevisedHeadBoltandOilOrificefor2005Honda3.5LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersinformationonarevisedcylinderheadboltandoilorificeusagefor2005Honda3.5Lengines.Thisinformationshouldbeconsideredanytimethecylinderheadhasbeenremoved.HeadBoltDesignChangedforV6EnginesThisarticleappliesonlyto2005HondaV6-equippedmodelsbuiltinNorthAmerica.InJulyof2005theOhioengineplantandAlabamaassemblyfactorychangedthetypeofcylinderheadboltsusedtoassembleV6engines.Theoriginalheadboltsusedwere6-pointelasticityrangebolts.Thoseboltsuseathreesteptorquemethod.Thenewrevisedheadboltsare12-pointplasticityrangeboltswhichrequireatorqueanglemethodoftightening.SeeFigure1.Figure1DifferentHeadBoltDesignAsaruleyoushouldnevermixthesetwodifferentbolttypes.Mixingtheboltsorswitchingbetweentheirbolttighteningmethodscouldcauseboltfailureorcylinderheaddistortion.Alwaysorderthesametypeofheadboltsthatoriginallycamewiththeengine.Ifforinstancetheenginecamefromthefactorywith6-pointboltsdontorder12-pointboltsevenifyourereplacingallthebolts.Thepartscataloglistsbothtypesofboltsfor05vehicles.Youcantaketheguessworkoutoforderingifyouvegotthevehiclesenginenumberbeforeordering.Beforereusing12-pointboltsqualifytheboltbymeasuringtheboltdiameterintwoplacesasshowninFigure2.Ifeitherdiameterislessthan11.3mm0.44in.youmustreplacethatbolt.Ifyoureusing6-pointboltsyoucankeepusingthesameonesagainandagainunlessofcoursetheyredamaged.Figure2MeasureBoltThreadInstallationIfyoureusing12-pointheadboltsfollowthetorqueanglemethodinthesestepsfollowingthetorquesequenceshowninFigure3.Figure3HeadBoltTorqueSequence1Applyfreshengineoiltothethreadsandundereachbolthead.2Useabeam-typetorquewrenchtotorquetheboltsinsequenceshownbelowto22FTLBS29Nm.Ifyoureusingapresettorquewrenchmakesureyoutorquethemslowlytopreventovertightening.Ifaboltmakesanoisewhileyouretorqueingitloosenthatboltandtorqueitagainfromthefirststep.3Whenyouredonetorqueingalltheboltstightenthemfurtherintwosteps90degreesperstepinsequence.Ifyoureusingnewboltstightenthoseboltsanextra90degrees.Ifyoutightenaboltbeyondthespecifiedangleremovethatboltandre-measureitsdiameter.Replacetheboltifneeded.Dontloosenitbacktothespecifiedangle.Figure4TorqueAngleMethodIfyoureusing6-pointheadboltsfollowthethreesteptorqueprocedureobservingthetorquesequenceshowninFigure31Applyfreshengineoiltothethreadsandundereachbolthead.2Insequencetorquetheeightboltsto29FTLBS39NmRepeat29FTLBS39Nm3Insequencetorquetheeightboltsto51FTLBS69NmRepeat51FTLBS69Nm4Insequencetorquetheeightboltsto72FTLBS98NmRepeat72FTLBS98Nm AERATechnicalBulletinsalsoavailableonlinewww.aera.orgAERAmailsEngineProfessionalmagazinequarterly.ThetechnicalbulletinsinEnglishandSpanishcanbefoundonlineatwww.aera.org.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorifyouneedtechnicalsupportsendane-mailtoinfoaera.orgorcalltoll-free888326-2372.DifferentoilcontrolorificelocationsDependingontheenginemodelbeingworkedonthelocationofthecylinderblockoilcontrolorificeisdifferent.Thelocationsvarybetweenthesetwotypesandifyouinstalltheseorificesinthewrongspotyoucouldcauselongtermdamagetotheengine.RefertoFigure5todeterminethecorrectlocation.Figure5OilControlOrificeLocationsDESIGNEDFORUSEINTHEMOSTDEMANDINGENVIRONMENTS18003671533www.pushrods.netFORYOURAPPLICATIONPERFORMANCECARSTRUCKSMOTORCYCLESTRACTORSRESTORATIONCUSTOMPROJECTSTHERIGHTPUSHROD62958LaytonAveSte.4BendOR97701AreyouanengineguyWeareContactusbecausewehavetheanswersforengines.Formoreinformationgoonlinetowww.aera.orgorcalltoll-free888-326-2372.JointodayGotopage94foramembershipapplication.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP87 88JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTB2606H-RingAlignmentCheckingToolforMackASETE-TechDieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardinganewH-RingalignmentcheckingtoolforMackASETandE-Techdieselengines.Thistoolisrequiredanytimeliftersorcamshaftworkisbeingperformed.AnH-ringalignmentcheckingtooltoolJ46083hasbeendevelopedforE-TechandASETengines.ThetoolallowsthetechniciantocheckH-ringalignmentfromthecrankcasesideoftheengineratherthanhavingtoremovethecylinderheadstocheckalignmentfromthetopofthecylinderblock.ThistoolwhichisavailablefromtheO.E.ToolandEquipmentGroupofSPXCorporationKent-MooremustbeusedtoverifyH-ringalignmentafteracamshaftfailureoranytimethecamshaftandvalveliftershavebeenremovedfromtheengineforanyrepairoroverhaul.Figure1H-RingAlignmentToolJ46083UntildevelopmentoftheH-ringalignmenttooltheonlypropermethodofdeterminingH-ringalignmentwasbyremovingthecylinderheadandusingtheH-ringinstallationtool.WiththeH-ringalignmentcheckingtoolhoweverH-ringalignmentcaneasilybecheckedfromthebottomoftheengineafterthecamshaftandliftershavebeenremoved.TheH-ringisaguideringlocatedinthevalvelifterborethatpreventsaxialrotationofthevalvelifter.AlignmentoftheH-ringrelativetothecamshaftiscriticaltoensurethatthelifterrollerisproperlyalignedonthecamlobe.Figure2H-RingsinLifterBoresAnyvalvetrainfailurethatresultsinexcessivevalvelashorthatsubjectsthelifterbodytorotationalforcesuchasabrokenrockerarmbrokenrockershaftbrokenrockershaftmountingboltsandcamlifterfailurecanresultindislodgingtheH-ringorrotatingitoutofalignment.IfthedislodgedormisalignedH-ringisnotcorrectedfailureofthecamlobeandlifterwillresult.AcheckforupwarddislodgmentoftheH-ringcaneasilybemadefromthetopoftheenginewithouthavingtoremovethecylinderheadsbyusingalengthofweldingrodapproximately15incheslongandastraightedgepositionedonthecylinderheadtoprail.ItismandatorythattheH-ringalignmenttoolbeusedtocheckH-ringalignmentanytimethecamshaftandvalveliftershavebeenremovedfromtheengineforanyreason.IfitisdeterminedthatanH-ringisnotproperlyalignedthecylinderheadsmustberemovedandH-ringinstallationtoolJ41683mustbeusedtoproperlyinstallthenewH-rings.UndernocircumstancesshouldtheH-ringalignmentcheckingtooloranyothermethodofinstallationbeusedtoinstalltheH-ringsfromthebottomoftheengine.TheH-ringalignmentcheckingtoolconsistsoftwosimulatedvalveliftersmountedonashortpieceofflatstock.ThetwosimulatedlifterswhichcorrespondtothematinglifterboresforeachcylinderintheblockaresecuredtotheflatstockwithAllen-headboltsandpinnedinplacesothatalignmentrelativetotheH-ringsinthelifterboresisalwaysmaintained.Ahandleforinsertingthetoolintothelifterboresismountedtotheflatstockbetweenthetwolifters.OnthehandleisaninsertiondepthgroovethatalignswiththeoilpanmountingsurfaceofthecylinderblocktosignifythattheH-ringsareinproperalignment.Figure3H-RingAlignmentCheckingToolComponentsBurrsnicksoranyothertypesofdamagewillhinderinsertionoftheH-ringalignmentcheckingtoolintotheH-rings.Thetoolmustbehandledandstoredcarefullysothatitismaintainedingoodcondition.ItiscriticalthatthesimulatedliftersremaininproperalignmentrelativetotheH-rings.TousetheH-ringalignmentcheckingtoolsimplyinsertitintothelifterboresfromthebottomsideofblock.tech Figure4InsertingAlignmentCheckingToolintoLifterBoresIfbothH-ringsareinproperalignmentthetoolwillinsertfullyintothelifterboresandtheinsertiondepthgrooveonthehandlewillalignwiththeoilpanmountingsurfaceofthecylinderblock.NoteTheH-ringalignmentcheckingtoolcannotbeusedtodetermineifanH-ringhasbeendislodgedandpushedupintothelifterbore.H-ringheightmuststillbecheckedandverifiedbyusingtheproceduresoutlinedinservicebulletinSB-213-033.Figure5InsertionDepthGrooveAligningwithOilPanMountingSurfaceIfeitherofthetwoH-ringsisnotinalignmentthetoolwillnotfullyinsertintothelifterboresandtheinsertiondepthgroovewillnotalignwiththeoilpanmountingsurface.IfithasbeendeterminedthatanH-ringisnotinalignmentthecylinderheadmustberemovedandthepairofH-ringsforthatcylindermustbecheckedwiththeH-ringinstallationtooltoolJ41683todeterminewhichH-ringismisaligned.WhenreplacingtheH-ringrefertoservicebulletinSB-213-033forinformationondeterminingproperH-ringfitandtheapplicableengineservicemanualforproperH-ringinstallationprocedures.UniqueboregageforfastpreciseholemeasurementNeedsnoelectricityorcompressedairSunnensPGBoreGagestakeanintuitiveapproachtoholegagingwithamechanicaldesignandspeedometer-typescaleforquickvisualconfirmationofIDinsidediameterbyabusymachineoperator.Thegagecombineslab-preciseaccuracy0.0000250.0006mmwithashop-hardeneddesignthatscompactportableandmountableonmachiningstations.PGgagescanbeusedtoexaminetheentireborefordiametertaperbarrelbellmouthout-of-roundandlobing.VariousmodelsareavailableforgagingIDsfrom0.090to4.310.MetricmodelscoverIDsfrom2.0-109.47mm.Formoreinformationvisitsunnen.comorcontactyourSunnenrepresentativeat1-800-325-3670.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP89 90JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalTB2607CoolantinTheOilOn2008-2011Kia2.0LEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingenginecoolantintheengineoilsupplyfor2008-2011Kia2.0LG4GCengines.Thisconditionisfirstnoticedaslowcoolantlevelswithnosignsofleakage.Continuedcoolantleakagemaydamageenginebearingsresultinginmajorenginedamage.Thesourceofthisleakisacrackedcylinderheadasobservedinthephotoabove.Thisparticularheadhadthreesuchsmallcrackslocatedadjacenttothescrew-incoreplugholes.Pressuretestingtheheadrevealedsmallleaksatallthreelocations.Repairofthesecracksisunlikelyastheentireareaisnotreadilyaccessible.techTB2608EngineComponentCautionFor1999-2012CaterpillarC15DieselEnginesTheAERATechnicalCommitteeoffersthefollowinginformationregardingmajorenginecomponentsfor1999-2012CaterpillarC15dieselengines.Theenginerequirementsforspecificapplicationsrequiredvariouscomponentenhancementsforthecrankshaftandconnectingrods.Pistonsringsandpinsalsochanged.SomecomponentsarealsosharedwiththeC16andC18engines.Replacementofthesecomponentsmustmatchthefailedpartstophysicallyfitintotheengine.Therearethreedifferentconnectingrodspossibleasshowninthefollowingtable.Beforeorderingenginepartsbesurewhichcombinationofcomponentsyoureworkingon. IPDHeavyDutyEngineRepairParts800299-4248310602-5399salesipdparts.comwww.ipdparts.comengineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP91MORETHAN75YEARSSTRONGOriginalqualityreplacementenginepartsforclassicBritishvehicleswww.gosnays.co.ukemailsalesgosnays.co.ukTel4401708748320PEGGYGREENCall507-457-0755or866-457-8975peggybigrivergmail.comRepresentinganumberofqualitylinestobringyouthebestvalueforallyourshopsupplyneeds.HOMEOFREGISNORTH35517SkyviewDriveWinonaMN55987HOMEOFREGISNORTHCallMARKETPLACE 92JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalMARKETPLACEAttentionAERAMembersAdvertiseyourbusinesscardwithEngineProfessionalmagazineandcapitalizeonthefastestgrowinghardcoreenginepublicationintheaftermarketMarketplaceBusinessCardAdOrderFormNameCompanyAERAIDAddressCityStateZIPPhoneFaxE-mailRate____________xofinsertions______Total__________________NOTEPleasemailpaymenttoKarenatAERAseeaddressbelow.E-mailelectronicartworkJPGorPDFtomariamcreative.usIVisaIMasterCardIDiscoverIAmericanExpressIfyoudonothaveanelectronicfilemailbusinesscardalongwithpayment.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIExpirationDateMMYY________________3-digitCSC________PrintCardholderNameCardholderSignatureFaxtoll-free1-888-329-2372OrmailwithyourpaymenttoEngineProfessionalMagazineAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.QuestionsPleasecontactKarenatAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600karenaera.org.HalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comorJimRickoff507-457-8975jimrickoffgmail.comE-mailartworktomariamcreative.usBusinessCardAd3.5x21xRate2004xRate170Alladsrunfullcoloratnoextracharge.ToadvertiseinthissectionyoumustbeanAERAmember.Fordetailsonhowtojoinvisitwww.aera.org.Fourtimesayearover15000copiesofEngineProfessionalaresenttoanauditedlistofengineprofessionals.MARKETPLACEisforAERAmembersonly.ItwillbefeaturedineveryissueofEngineProfessionalmagazine. engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP93AERAisanetworkofprofessionalenginebuildersrebuildersandinstallerswiththeexpertiseandconnectionstoprovideyouwiththerightanswerswhenyouneedthem.IfyoureintheenginebuildingbusinesstheresnotoolmoreimportantthananAERAmembership.NewCreditCardProcessingthroughTSYSLowmember-onlyprocessingratesthroughTSYSatop-tenprocessorelectroniccheckservicesfreeonlinereportingallmajorcreditcardanddebitcardsgiftandloyaltyprograms.ContactKitBarretatTSYSMerchantSolutionsat800-516-6242ext.4077.NewDiscountProgramwithHPDiscountsoncomputerhardwareandsuppliesnocostsorminimumordersfreegroundshipping.NewOnlineCertificationProgramTheonlyonlinecertificationprogramavailableforenginebuilders.NewandImprovedProductsfromAERAAERAcarriesavarietyofhigh-qualityshopsuppliesuniqueitemswhichhavebeenselectedandproducedbasedoninputfrommembersnewandimprovedtemperaturerecorderlabelstagsbagsandmoreAnAERAmembershipalsogivesyouToll-freetechnicalsupportSpecializedenginespecificationsoftwareFourenginespecificationmanualsandannualmembershipdirectoryEngineProfessionalmagazineRegionalTechSkillsConferencesAvoiceinWashingtonD.C.SpecialdiscountsfromanumberofpartnercompaniestohelpAERAmembersreducecostsoninsuranceshippingutilitieswasteremovalandavarietyofotherservices.JointodayCompletethemembershipapplicationonthenextpageandreturntoAERA.FormoreinformationcallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372orvisitwww.aera.org.NEWBENEFITSFORAERAMEMBERSAERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.org 94JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalAPPLICATIONFORU.S.ACTIVEMEMBERSHIPELIGIBLITYREQUIREMENTSApplicantshouldbeaproprietorshippartnershiporcorporationthathasadequateautomotiveshopequipmentandperformseitherenginemachiningenginemodificationengineassemblyorengineinstallationandwhoseprincipalbusinessservestheautomotivetrucktractormarinedieselandotherclassesofretailindustrialandcommercialaccountsandnotprimarilysellusedpartswhichtermdoesnotincluderemanufacturedpartsintheirmainplaceofbusiness.1.Pleaseremitasheetofcompanyletterheadcompanybusinesscardorcompanyinvoicewithapplication.2.Ifyourbusinessmeetstheabovecriteriapleasecompletetheformbelow.Pleaseprintlegiblyortype.COMPANYINFORMATIONCompanyNameDatebusinessstartedContactPersononenameonlyBusinessAddressCityStateZipPhoneFaxEmailWebsiteHowmanypersonnelinyourshopincludepart-timepersonnelPleasechecktheappropriatecategoriesforlistingintheAERAMembershipDirectoryIACCustompassengercarandlighttruckenginerebuildingIADDieselheavy-dutyandindustrialenginerebuildingIAFForeignmotorcycleandsmallenginerebuildingIAHHigh-performanceenginerebuildingIALDrivelinerebuildingIAMMarineenginerebuildingIAPProductionenginerebuilding100permonthIAYCylinderheadrebuildingspecialistIAIEngineinstallationIOtherPAYMENTMUSTACCOMPANYAPPLICATIONIENTIREAMOUNTENCLOSEDMONTHLYPAYMENTPLANSAVAILABLEContactAERAfordetails.CREDITCARDIVISAIMasterCardIAmericanExpressIDiscoverICHECKPleasemakecheckpayabletoAERACardholderNamepleaseprintCardNumberExpirationSecurityCodeCardholderSignatureIattestthatmyfirmmeetstheaboverequirementsandgiveAERApermissiontoverifytheinformation.SignatureTitleRECOMMENDEDFORMEMBERSHIPBYSendapplicationandpaymenttoAERA500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014.Orfaxyourcompletedapplicationwithpaymentto888-329-2372toll-freeor815-526-7601.Youmayalsoapplyonlineatwww.aera.org.IfyouarealreadyanAERAmemberpleasegivethisapplicationtoafriend.CallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372ordirect815-526-7600withanyquestions.AERAMEMBERSHIPDUESSelecttheappropriatepersonnelcategoryforyourshop.NumberofshoppersonnelI1-3........................................35929.92monthI4-8........................................44036.67monthI9-24......................................56847.33monthI25ormore............................67155.92month ADVERTISERINDEXAccessIndustries...........................................................5ACL..............................................................................21AERA..............................................1580-818593-94ATI................................................................................53Cloyes............................................................................9CompCams.................................................................57CTPCostexTractorParts...................insidebackcoverCWTIndustries...............................................................1DNJEngineComponents...................outsidebackcoverDrivenRacingOil..........................................................77Durabond.....................................................................85Elgin.............................................................................27EndurancePowerProducts.........................................61EnginePartsGroupInc.EPGI....................................58Enginequest.................................................................67ESCOIndustries...........................................................55FederalMogulFel-Pro..........................................82-83FluidamprVibratech.....................................................25FowlerSalesService.................................................68FreightQuote.com........................................................82Goodson......................................................................52Hastings................................................insidefrontcoverIPD...............................................................................89Jamison.......................................................................43JoeBakerEquipmentSales.........................................70K-Line..........................................................................42L.A.Sleeve....................................................................82MAHLEClevite...............................................................7MartinWellsIPD.........................................................47Maxiforce.....................................................................71Melling..........................................................................31Packard........................................................................15PEP........................................................................4656QualCast......................................................................44QualityPowerProducts................................................29Regis............................................................................73Rottler..........................................................................96S.B.International............................................................3SafetyAutoParts.........................................................45SmithBrothers.............................................................87Sunnen..................................................................6389Superflow.....................................................................69Topline....................................................................78-79Tracto-PartsCenter......................................................13UltrasonicsLLC...........................................................17UnitedEngineandMachineUEM...............................35ADVERTISINGOPPORTUNITIESGetyouradvertisingmessagedirectlyintotheshopswhoarebuild-ingrebuildingandinstallingenginesprofessionallybyadvertisinginEngineProfessionalmagazine.Engineprofessionalsworldwidewillreceivethisfull-colorpublicationfourtimesperyear.Eachissuewillbefilledwithhighlytechnicalandapplication-drivenarticlesfromourstaffofwritersaswellasfeaturecontributionsfromindustryprofessionals.Formoreinformationdownloadamediakitfromourwebsiteatwww.aera.orgeporcontactouradsalesstaff.AdSalesHalFowler404-427-0171halfowlersales.comJimRickoff507-457-8975jimrickoffgmail.comForadpaymentcirculationmembershipinformationCallAERAtoll-free888-326-2372or815-526-7600.engineprofessionalWWW.AERA.ORGEP95MonthlyPaymentOptionsAERAnowoffersmonthlyinstallmentpaymentoptionsforyourannualAERAmembershipandPRO-SISsupportfees.CreditcardDirectwithdrawlfrombankaccountTherewillbenoadditionalfeesifyouelecttopaymonthly.ExampleAsmall1-3manshoppaysanannualrateof359or29.92permonthfor12monthscreditcardordirectwithdrawlfrombankaccount.FormoreinformationcallKarenat888-326-2372ore-mailkarenaera.org.AERAEngineBuildersAssociation500CoventryLaneSuite180CrystalLakeIL60014U.S.A.toll-free888-326-2372815-526-7600fax888-329-2372815-526-7601www.aera.orgemailinfoaera.org 96JAN-MAR2013engineprofessionalANAERAINTERNATIONALQUARTERLYPUBLICATIONF109MultiPurposeCNCMachiningCenterforMediumtoVeryLargeBlocksVR7ValveRefacingMachineVR9CenterlessValveRefacingMachineF69ATCCNCMachiningCenterwithAutomaticToolChangerS8CylinderHeadandBlockSurfacingMachineHP6AProgrammablePowerStrokeAutomaticDiamondHoningMachineSG9ACNCCylinderHeadSeatGuideMachineutilizingUNIPILOTToolingSG80AHeavyDutyCNCCylinderHeadValveSeatGuideMachineSG8CylinderHeadValveSeatGuideMachineutilizingFIXEDPilotToolingSG7CylinderHeadValveSeatGuideMachineutilizingFIXEDPilotToolingF99YMultiPurposeCNCMachiningCenterforMediumtoLargeBlocksF69AProgrammableAutomaticMachiningCenterforSmallSizeBlocksF8AProgrammableCylinderBoringandResleevingMachineSG9MCylinderHeadSeatGuideMachineutilizingUNIPILOTToolingP695-AxisCNCCylinderHeadDigitizingandPortingMachineF99YCRMultiPurposeCNCMachiningCenterforMediumtoVeryLargeConnectingRodsF69AMultiPurposeCNCMachiningCenterforSmalltoMediumConnectingRodsF79YMultiPurposeCNCMachiningCenterforSmalltoMediumBlockHeads8029South200thStreetKentWA98032USA125387270501-800-452-0534www.rottlermfg.comwww.youtube.comrottlermfgwww.facebook.comrottlermfgemailcontactrottlermfg.comTHECUTTINGEDGESince1923RottlerManufacturinghasdevelopedprecisionperformanceracingandenginerebuildingmachinerywithunmatcheddedicationdiversityandinnovativeproductdevelopment.Rottlersadvanceddesignsandequipmentcontinuetomeetthemostdemandingengineeringneedsofenginebuildersaroundtheworld.Rottleroffersacompleterangeofmachinesforeverytypeofenginebuilderfromaperformanceracingshoptoadieseljobbershoporademandingproductionremanufacturingfacility.Rottlerhasamachineforyourspecicapplication.Rottlerequipmentismanufacturedtotheexactingstandardsdemandedbythemostaccuratemachiningcompaniesintheworld.